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1.
Osteoporos Int ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062688

RESUMO

Using data from the Hertfordshire cohort study, this study examined the effect of breastfeeding and bottle feeding on adult lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The type of infant milk feeding was significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD in males. INTRODUCTION: Using data from the Hertfordshire cohort study (HCS), this study aims to examine the effect of infant milk feeding on bone health in later life by comparing the effect of breastfeeding and bottle feeding on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC and BMD. METHODS: Information about infant milk feeding, birth weight (kg) and weight at 1 (kg) was collected by health visitors between 1931 and 1939 in Hertfordshire. BMC and BMD measurements were taken by DXA scan between 1998 and 2004. Linear regression models adjusted for conditional weight at 1, age at DXA scan, sex, adult BMI, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, physical activity, dietary calcium, and prudent diet score. RESULTS: Infant milk feeding was significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (b = - 0.028; 95% CI, - 0.055; - 0.000; p value, 0.047) in males. On average, males who consumed breastmilk alternatives in infancy had lower lumbar spine BMD measurements than those who were fed only breastmilk. These associations remained significant in fully adjusted models. There were no significant associations between infant milk feeding and bone health for females. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between infant milk feeding and lumbar spine BMD in males indicate that breastmilk may be protective for the bone health of male babies. The evidence presented here underscores the potential lifelong benefits of breastfeeding and may highlight the differences between osteoporotic risk factors for males and females.

2.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 106(2): 115-123, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655874

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between lower limb osteoarthritis (OA) and muscle strength and power (assessed by jumping mechanography) in UK community-dwelling older adults. We recruited 249 older adults (144 males, 105 females). OA was assessed clinically at the knee according to ACR criteria and radiographically, at the knee and hip, using Kellgren and Lawrence grading. Two-footed jumping tests were performed using a Leonardo Mechanography Ground Reaction Force Platform to assess maximum muscle force, power and Esslinger Fitness Index. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between OA and jumping outcomes. Results are presented as ß (95% confidence interval). The mean age of participants was 75.2 years (SD 2.6). Males had a significantly higher maximum relative power during lift off (mean 25.7 W/kg vs. 19.9 W/kg) and maximum total force during lift off (mean 21.0 N/kg vs. 19.1 N/kg) than females. In adjusted models, we found significant associations in males between clinical knee OA and maximum relative power [- 6.00 (CI - 9.10, - 2.94)] and Esslinger Fitness Index [- 19.3 (- 29.0, - 9.7)]. In females, radiographic knee OA was associated with total maximum power [- 2.0 (- 3.9, - 0.1)] and Esslinger Fitness Index [- 8.2 (- 15.9, - 0.4)]. No significant associations were observed for maximum total force. We observed significant negative associations between maximum relative power and Esslinger Fitness Index and clinical knee OA in males and radiographic knee OA in females. We have used novel methodology to demonstrate relationships between muscle function and OA in older adults.

3.
BJOG ; 127(1): 28-35, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesh surgery for stress urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse can result in complications such as mesh exposure, mesh extrusion, voiding dysfunction, dyspareunia, and pain. There is limited knowledge or guidance on the effective management for mesh-related complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the best management of mesh complications; a systematic review was conducted as part of the national clinical guideline 'Urinary incontinence (update) and pelvic organ prolapse in women: management'. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search strategies were developed for each indication for referral. SELECTION CRITERIA: Relevant interventions included complete or partial mesh removal, mesh division, and non-surgical treatments such as vaginal estrogen. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and outcome data were extracted, and as a result of the heterogeneous nature of the data a narrative synthesis was conducted. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included; five provided comparative data and four studies stated the indication for referral. Reported outcomes (including pain, dyspareunia, satisfaction, quality of life, incontinence, mesh exposure, and recurrence) and the reported incidences of these varied widely. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and does not permit firm recommendations to be made on the most effective management for mesh-related complications. Robust data are needed so that mesh complications can be managed effectively in the future. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Systematic review demonstrates that the outcomes following mesh revision surgery are highly variable.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Dispareunia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Qual Life Res ; 28(11): 2957-2967, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Central cancer registries collect data and provide population-level statistics that can be tracked over time; yet registries may not capture the full range of clinically relevant outcomes. Patient-generated health data (PGHD) include health/treatment history, biometrics, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Collection of PGHD would broaden registry outcomes to better inform research, policy, and care. However, this is dependent on the willingness of patients to share such data. This study examines cancer survivors' perspectives about sharing PGHD with central cancer registries. METHODS: Three U.S. central registries sampled colorectal, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and metastatic breast cancer survivors 1-4 years after diagnosis, recruiting them via mail to participate in one of seven focus groups (n = 52). Group discussions were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Most survivor-participants were unaware of the existence of registries. After having registries explained, all participants expressed their willingness to share PGHD with them if treated confidentially. Participants were willing to provide information on a variety of topics (e.g., medical history, medications, symptoms, financial difficulties, quality of life, biometrics, nutrition, exercise, and mental health), with a focus on long-term effects of cancer and its treatment. Participants' preferred mode for providing data varied. Participants were also interested in receiving information from registries. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that registry-based collection of PGHD is acceptable to most cancer survivors and could facilitate registry-based efforts to collect PGHD/PROs. Central cancer registry-based collection of PGHD/PROs, especially on long-term effects, could enhance registry support of cancer control efforts including research and population health management.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sistema de Registros/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Br J Dermatol ; 180(4): 715-729, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat superficial nonmelanoma skin cancer and dysplasia, and is generally well tolerated. However, as with all treatments, adverse effects may occur and awareness may facilitate approaches to prevention and management. OBJECTIVES: To review the available evidence relating to the adverse effects of topical PDT, to help inform recommendations in updated clinical guidelines produced by the British Association of Dermatologists and British Photodermatology Group, and the efficacy of preventative and therapeutic approaches. METHODS: This review summarizes the published evidence related to the adverse effects of topical PDT and attempts to interpret this evidence in the context of patient risk and management. RESULTS: Pain and discomfort during PDT are acute adverse effects, which can be minimized through the use of modified and low-irradiance PDT regimens and do not therefore usually limit successful treatment delivery. Other adverse effects include the risk of contact allergy to photosensitizer prodrugs, although this is rare but should be kept in mind, particularly for patients who have received multiple PDT treatments to larger areas. There are no other significant documented longer-term risks and, to date, no evidence of cumulative toxicity or photocarcinogenic risk. CONCLUSIONS: Topical PDT is usually well tolerated, reinforcing the utility of this important therapeutic option in dermatology practice. The main acute adverse effect of pain can typically be minimized through preventative approaches of modified PDT regimens. Other adverse effects are uncommon and generally do not limit treatment delivery.

7.
Subst Abuse Rehabil ; 9: 115-136, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538599

RESUMO

Substance-use disorders are a public health crisis globally and carry with them significant morbidity and mortality. Stigma toward people who abuse these substances, as well as the internalization of that stigma by substance users, is widespread. In this review, we synthesized the available evidence for the role of perceived social stigma and self-stigma in people's willingness to seek treatment. While stigma may be frequently cited as a barrier to treatment in some samples, the degree of its impact on decision-making regarding treatment varied widely. More research needs to be done to standardize the definition and measurement of self- and perceived social stigma to fully determine the magnitude of their effect on treatment-seeking decisions.

8.
Osteoporos Int ; 29(10): 2275-2281, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003305

RESUMO

We compared bone outcomes in children with breech and cephalic presentation at delivery. Neonatal whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and area were lower in children with breech presentation. At 4 years, no differences in whole-body or spine measures were found, but hip BMC and area were lower after breech presentation. INTRODUCTION: Breech presentation is associated with altered joint shape and hip dysplasias, but effects on bone mineral content (BMC), area (BA) and density (BMD) are unknown. METHODS: In the prospective Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring cohort, whole-body bone outcomes were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1430 offspring, as neonates (mean age 6 days, n = 965, 39 with a breech presentation at birth) and/or at age 4.1 years (n = 999, 39 breech). Hip and spine bone outcomes were also measured at age 4 years. RESULTS: Neonates with breech presentation had 4.2 g lower whole-body BMC (95% CI -7.4 to - 0.9 g, P = 0.012) and 5.9 cm2 lower BA (- 10.8 to - 1.0 cm2, P = 0.019), but BMD was similar between groups (mean difference - 0.007, - 0.016 to 0.002 g/cm2, P = 0.146) adjusting for sex, maternal smoking, gestational diabetes, mode of delivery, social class, parity, ethnicity, age at scan, birthweight, gestational age and crown-heel length. There were no associations between breech presentation and whole-body outcomes at age 4 years, but, in similarly adjusted models, regional DXA (not available in infants) showed that breech presentation was associated with lower hip BMC (- 0.51, - 0.98 to - 0.04 g, P = 0.034) and BA (- 0.67, - 1.28 to - 0.07 cm2, P = 0.03) but not with BMD (- 0.009, - 0.029 to 0.012 g, P = 0.408), or spine outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that breech presentation is associated with lower neonatal whole-body BMC and BA, which may relate to altered prenatal loading in babies occupying a breech position; these differences did not persist into later childhood. Modest differences in 4-year hip BMC and BA require further investigation.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Apresentação Pélvica , Osteoporose/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(5): 476-482, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931460

RESUMO

There are few longitudinal data on change in bone structure and muscle mass, strength and function in later life. We report these, and consider bone-muscle interrelationships in older men and women. We studied 188 men and 166 women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, who underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the radius and tibia in 2004-2005 and then again in 2011-2012. Grip strength and gait speed were also assessed at both timepoints. Percentage change per year was calculated for grip strength, gait speed, muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA), fat cross-sectional area (fCSA) and diaphyseal bone parameters [total area (Tt.Ar), cortical area (Ct.Ar), cortical density (cBMD) and trabecular density (tBMD)]. The mean (SD) age of men and women at baseline was 68.9 (2.5) and 69.2 (2.6) years, respectively. Rates of muscle area and strength loss did not differ by sex. Tt.Ar increased with age and faster in men [mean (SD) 1.78 (1.64) %/year] than women [mean (SD) 1.03 (1.69) %/year] in the radius (p < 0.001). In both the radius (p = 0.006) and tibia (p < 0.001), Ct.Ar reduced more rapidly in women than men. Change in Ct.Ar was associated with change in muscle area in the corresponding limb (radius; men: regression coefficient 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.52, p < 0.001; tibia; men: regression coefficient 0.14, 95% CI 0.00-0.27, p = 0.043, women: regression coefficient 0.16, 95% CI 0.01-0.30, p = 0.032). We have demonstrated that muscle strength and function decrease faster than muscle mass and have provided further evidence that changes in bone structure with age differ by sex.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
10.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(5): 494-500, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931462

RESUMO

There are few data describing associations between dietary patterns and bone microarchitecture. This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and HRpQCT and pQCT measures in older adults. Data were available for 184 men and 166 women. Dietary data were collected at baseline (1998-2003) using an administered food frequency questionnaire. A 'prudent' diet score (PDS) was identified using principal component analysis and used as an indicator of dietary quality. HRpQCT and pQCT images were acquired at follow-up in 2012, from the non-dominant distal radius and tibia using Scanco XtremeCT and Stratec XCT2000 instrument scanners, respectively. The mean (SD) PDS was - 0.24 (1.23) for men and 0.62 (1.14) for women. In women, a significant positive relationship was found between baseline dietary pattern and total and trabecular area at both the radius and the tibia, measured by HRpQCT. Similar trends were observed with pQCT parameters. Positive associations were observed for tibia total area (38% slice). At the radius, significant positive associations were found for total area (4% slice) and polar strength strain index (33% slice). All relationships remained robust to adjustment. For men, although patterns were similar, there were no significant associations for HRpQCT outcomes. Significant associations were observed for baseline PDS and polar strength strain and total area (66% slice) at the radius, measured by pQCT. Our data suggest that diets high in fruit, vegetables, oily fish and whole grain cereals in early old age are associated with greater bone size but not volumetric bone density or microarchitecture in later life in women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Dieta , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 179(6): 1277-1296, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment option for low-risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC). OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy, cosmesis and tolerability of PDT for BCC with alternative treatments. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception until 1 September 2017. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PDT for nodular (n) and superficial (s) BCC reporting at least one of the following outcomes: clearance at 3 months and sustained at 1 or 5 years; recurrence at ≥ 1 year; cosmesis; adverse events; tolerability. RESULTS: From 2331 search results, 15 RCTs (2327 patients; 3509 BCCs) were included. PDT efficacy (5-year sustained clearance) was high but inferior to excisional surgery [nBCC pooled risk ratio (RR) 0·76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·63-0·91], and without re-treatment of partially responding lesions, was modestly inferior to imiquimod (sBCC: RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70-0·95) and similar to fluorouracil (sBCC: RR 0·88; 95% CI 0·75-1·04). Five-year sustained clearance was inferior with conventional vs. fractionated PDT (sBCC: RR 0·76; 95% CI 0·68-0·84). PDT cosmesis was superior to surgery (sBCC: RR 1·68, 95% CI 1·32-2·14; nBCC: RR 1·82, 95% CI 1·19-2·80) and cryosurgery (BCC: RR 3·73, 95% CI 1·96-7·07), and without re-treatment of partially responding lesions was similar to imiquimod (sBCC: RR 1·01, 95% CI 0·85-1·19) and fluorouracil (sBCC: RR 1·04, 95% CI 0·88-1·24). Peak pain was higher but of shorter duration with PDT than topical treatments. Serious adverse reactions were rarer with PDT than imiquimod (sBCC: RR 0·05, 95% CI 0·00-0·84) and fluorouracil (sBCC: RR 0·11, 95% CI 0·01-2·04). Combination PDT regimens demonstrated reduced recurrence and improved cosmesis; however, results from these small studies were often nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: PDT is an effective treatment for low-risk BCC, with excellent cosmesis and safety. Imiquimod has higher efficacy than single-cycle PDT but more adverse effects. Highest efficacy is with excisional surgery. Fractionated and combination PDT options warrant further study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Basocelular/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Administração Tópica , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Estética , Humanos , Imiquimode/administração & dosagem , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Segurança do Paciente , Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 44, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691721

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical function and bone health in older adults. MCI was associated with poor physical performance but not bone mineral density or bone microarchitecture. PURPOSE: Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical performance, and bone health, in a community-dwelling cohort of older adults. METHODS: Cognitive function of 222 men and 221 women (mean age 75.5 and 75.8 years in men and women, respectively) was assessed by the Strawbridge questionnaire and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and high-resolution peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans to assess their bone density, strength and microarchitecture. Their physical function was assessed and a physical performance (PP) score was recorded. RESULTS: In the study, 11.8% of women and 8.1% of men were cognitively impaired on the MMSE (score < 24). On the Strawbridge questionnaire, 24% of women were deemed cognitively impaired compared to 22.3% of men. Cognitive impairment on the Strawbridge questionnaire was associated with poorer physical performance score in men but not in women in the unadjusted analysis. MMSE < 24 was strongly associated with the risk of low physical performance in men (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.67, 99.8, p = 0.01). Higher MMSE score was associated with better physical performance in both sexes. Poorer cognitive function, whether assessed by the Strawbridge questionnaire, or by MMSE score, was not associated with bone density, shape or microarchitecture, in either sex. CONCLUSION: MCI in older adults was associated with poor physical performance, but not bone density, shape or microarchitecture.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Exercício/psicologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 102(1): 14-22, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913616

RESUMO

The epidemiology and pathogenesis of fractures in postmenopausal women has previously been investigated in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). To date, however, relationships between bone imaging outcomes and fracture have not been studied in this cohort. We examined relationships between high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) parameters and fracture in the UK arm of GLOW, performing a cluster analysis to assess if our findings were similar to observations reported from older participants of the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), and extended the analysis to include tibial measurements. We recorded fracture events and performed HRpQCT of the distal radius and tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip in 321 women, mean age 70.6 (SD 5.4) years, identifying four clusters at each site. We saw differing relationships at the radius and tibia. Two radial clusters (3 and 4) had a significantly lower hip areal bone mineral density (p < 0.001) compared to Cluster 1; only individuals in Cluster 4 had a significantly higher risk of fracture (p = 0.005). At the tibia, clusters 1, 3 and 4 had lower hip areal bone mineral density (p < 0.001) compared to Cluster 2; individuals in Cluster 3 had a significantly higher risk of fracture (p = 0.009). In GLOW our findings at the radius were very similar to those previously reported in the HCS, suggesting that combining variables derived from HRpQCT may give useful information regarding fracture risk in populations where this modality is available. Further data relating to tibial HRpQCT-phenotype and fractures are provided in this paper, and would benefit from validation in other studies. Differences observed may reflect age differences in the two cohorts.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fenótipo , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
15.
Biol Reprod ; 97(2): 230-239, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044426

RESUMO

The P2X7 is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel involved in several facets of immune activation and neuronal function through its importance in interleukin (IL)-1ß secretion. We hypothesized that blockade of P2X7 would prevent perinatal brain injury associated with exposure to intrauterine (IU) inflammation. Dams received 45 mg/kg of Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a specific P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonist, on gestation day 17 (E17) prior to administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Furthermore, we utilized embryo transfer experiments to delineate whether the P2X7 was the key mediator of IU inflammation-associated brain injury on maternal or fetal sides. In these experiments, P2X7-/- dams were embryo-transferred wild type embryos and wild type dams were embryo-transferred P2X7-/- embryos. In the mouse model of intrauterine inflammation, pharmacologic blockade of P2X7R reduced preterm birth rate, improved offspring performance on neuromotor tests as well as the dendritic arborization and density of cortical neurons. Embryo transfer experiments demonstrated the importance of maternal P2X7R in IU inflammation-mediated effects on offspring. Both genetic and pharmacologic blockade of IL-1ß signaling, by targeting maternal P2X7R, ameliorated perinatal brain injury following exposure to IU inflammation. Specific targeting of maternal P2X7R may provide a clinically useful tool to prevent both preterm birth and prematurity-associated perinatal brain injury, and further studies are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Corantes de Rosanilina/farmacologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia
16.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 25(9): 1478-1483, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positive associations between radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and areal bone mineral density (BMD) have been demonstrated and appear strongest when bony features of OA are considered. To date, these associations have not been assessed using HRpQCT. DESIGN: A total of 318 participants (170 men and 148 women), aged 72.1-81.4 years from a non-selected cohort, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and tibia along with hip radiography. Differences in bone microarchitecture were assessed between those with and without osteophytes, sclerosis or joint space narrowing (JSN) in either hip. RESULTS: Men with osteophytes alone had significantly higher radial trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD) and radial and tibial trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). Men with both sclerosis and osteophytes had significantly higher cortical volumetric BMD (Ct.vBMD) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) at the distal tibia than those with osteophytes alone (P < 0.05). These relationships were maintained after adjustment for age and Body Mass Index (BMI), and were not replicated in women. Bone microarchitecture did not differ significantly in those with JSN from those without it in men or women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest higher Tb.vBMD and Tb.Th in men with osteophytosis but higher tibial Ct.vBMD and Ct.Th in men with hip joint sclerosis. These results do however require replication in other cohorts.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Quadril/complicações , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia , Osteófito/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteófito/etiologia , Osteófito/fisiopatologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/patologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia , Tíbia/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
17.
Health Educ Res ; 32(1): 96-106, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088755

RESUMO

Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (∼39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series. Thirty-two mothers of girls (aged 11-17) that had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, completed in-depth interviews. Six girls had received one dose of the HPV vaccine, 10 girls had received two doses, and 16 girls had received all three doses. The questions elicited salient: (i) experiential and instrumental attitudes (behavioral beliefs); (ii) supporters and non-supporters (normative beliefs) and (iii) facilitators and barriers (control beliefs). Directed content analysis was employed to select the most salient beliefs. Mothers: (i) expressed salient positive feelings (e.g. good, secure, happy and satisfied); (ii) believed that completing the series resulted in positive effects (e.g. protection, prevention); (iii) believed that the main supporters were themselves, their daughter's father and doctor with some of their friends not supporting series completion and (iv) believed that vaccine affordability, information, transportation, ease of scheduling and keeping vaccination appointments and taking their daughter's immunization card to appointments were facilitators. This study represents the first step in building theory-based framework of vaccine series completion for this population. The beliefs identified provide guidance for health care providers and intervention developers.


Assuntos
Cultura , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Texas
18.
Plant Dis ; 101(2): 354-358, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681923

RESUMO

A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to complete Koch's postulates, document the disease symptoms photographically, and identify the causal agent using multilocus molecular phylogenetics. Results of the pathogenicity experiments demonstrated that the Fusarium sp. could induce vascular wilt and root and crown rot symptoms on H. moscheutos 'Luna Rose'. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic analyses of portions of translation elongation factor 1-α and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest and second-largest subunit indicated that the Hibiscus pathogen represents a novel, undescribed Fusarium sp. nested within the Fusarium buharicum species complex.

19.
Aquac Res ; 48(4): 1525-1537, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123043

RESUMO

When harvested, oysters represent a removal from the ecosystem of nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). A number of factors potentially affect nutrient content, but a quantitative understanding across the geographic range of the eastern oysters is lacking. The present study was designed to quantify the relationships among various metrics of farmed eastern oysters near its northern geographic range focusing on nutrient content. Hatchery-reared oysters were deployed in polyethylene bags at six sites, and were measured on multiple occasions from 2010-2012. A quadratic polynomial fit to the combined datasets for shell height indicated that on average a 'cocktail' size oyster (63 mm shell height) would be reached after 2 yr, and 'regular' size (76 mm) would require 3 yr. There were significant differences in growth rates and oyster nutrient content among the sites; means for %N in soft tissue ranged from 6.9 to 8.6, and 0.07 to 0.18 in shell. Percent N in soft tissue and shell were highest at two sites at the mouths of rivers with elevated dissolved inorganic N concentrations in the water. Grand means (all sites, seasons and years combined) of soft tissue N and C for regular size oysters were 7.3% and 38.5%, respectively; and for shell N and C were 0.13% and 12.0%, respectively. Our study extends the range of data on nutrient content of the eastern oyster to northern New England, and indicates that oyster size, seasonality, and nutrient concentration in ambient water potentially affect %N and %C content of oysters.

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