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1.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

2.
Environ Int ; 132: 104723, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10). METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide association study among twelve cohort- and race/ethnicity-stratified subpopulations from the Women's Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 8397; mean age: 61.5 years; 83% female; 45% African American; 9% Hispanic/Latino American). We averaged geocoded address-specific estimates of daily and monthly mean PM concentrations over 2, 7, 28, and 365 days and 1 and 12 months before exams at which we measured leukocyte DNAm in whole blood. We estimated subpopulation-specific, DNAm-PM associations at approximately 485,000 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in multi-level, linear, mixed-effects models. We combined subpopulation- and site-specific estimates in fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses, then for associations that exceeded methylome-wide significance and were not heterogeneous across subpopulations (P < 1.0 × 10-7; PCochran's Q > 0.10), we characterized associations using publicly accessible genomic databases and attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. RESULTS: Analyses identified significant DNAm-PM associations at three CpG sites. Twenty-eight-day mean PM10 was positively associated with DNAm at cg19004594 (chromosome 20; MATN4; P = 3.33 × 10-8). One-month mean PM10 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with DNAm at cg24102420 (chromosome 10; ARPP21; P = 5.84 × 10-8) and inversely associated with DNAm at cg12124767 (chromosome 7; CFTR; P = 9.86 × 10-8). The PM-sensitive CpG sites mapped to neurological, pulmonary, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease-related genes, but DNAm at those sites was not associated with gene expression in blood cells and did not replicate in KORA. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM concentrations were associated with DNAm at genomic regions potentially related to poor health among racially, ethnically and environmentally diverse populations of U.S. women and men. Further investigation is warranted to uncover mechanisms through which PM-induced epigenomic changes may cause disease.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0207834, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002714

RESUMO

DNA methylation age (DNAm age) has become a widely utilized epigenetic biomarker for the aging process. The Horvath method for determining DNAm age is perhaps the most widely utilized and validated DNA methylation age assessment measure. Horvath DNAm age is calculated based on methylation measurements at 353 loci, present on Illumina's 450k and 27k DNA methylation microarrays. With increasing use of the more recently developed Illumina MethylationEPIC (850k) microarray, it is worth revisiting this aging measure to evaluate estimation differences due to array design. Of the requisite 353 loci, 17 are missing from the 850k microarray. Similarly, an alternate, 71 loci DNA methylation age assessment measure created by Hannum et al. is missing 6 requisite loci. Using 17 datasets with 27k, 450k, and/or 850k methylation data, we compared each sample's epigenetic age estimated from all 353 loci required by the Horvath DNAm age calculator, and using only the 336 loci available on the 850k array. In 450k/27k data, removing loci not on the 850k array resulted in underestimation of Horvath's DNAm age. Underestimation of Horvath DNAm age increased from ages 0 to ~20, remaining stable thereafter (mean deviation = -3.46 y, SD = 1.13 for individuals ≥20 years). Underestimation of Horvath's DNAm age by the reduced 450k/27k data was similar to the underestimation observed in the 850k data indicating it is driven by missing probes. In analogous examination of Hannum's DNAm age, the magnitude and direction of epigenetic age misestimation varied with chronological age. In conclusion, inter-array deviations in DNAm age estimations may be largely driven by missing probes between arrays, despite default probe imputation procedures. Though correlations and associations based on Horvath's DNAm age may be unaffected, researchers should exercise caution when interpreting results based on absolute differences in DNAm age or when mixing samples assayed on different arrays.

5.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 547-561, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968250

RESUMO

Air pollution is recognized as causal factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with multiple CVD risk factors. Substantial research effort has been invested in understanding the linkages between genetic variation and CVD risk, resulting in over 50 CVD-associated genetic loci. More recently, gene-air pollution interaction studies have quantified the contribution of genetic variation to inter-individual heterogeneity in air pollution health risks, and aided in elucidating mechanisms of air pollution exposure health risks. Here, we perform a comprehensive review of gene-air pollution interaction studies for CVD, as well as risk factors and emerging CVD biomarkers. The literature review revealed that most published interaction studies have been candidate gene studies, causing observed interactions to cluster in a few genes related to detoxification (GSTM1 and GSTT1), inflammation (IL-6), iron processing (HFE), and microRNA processing (GEMIN4 and DGCR8). There have been a few genome-wide interaction studies with results indicating that interactions extend beyond commonly considered genetic loci. Gene-air pollution interactions are observed for exposure periods ranging from hours to years and a variety of air pollutants including particulate matter, gaseous pollutants, and pollutant sources such as traffic. Though the existing evidence for the existence of relevant gene-air pollution interactions for CVD outcomes is substantial, it could be strengthened by improved replication and meta-analyses as well as functional validation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Blood ; 133(9): 967-977, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642921

RESUMO

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Fator VII/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Fator VII/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
7.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Fator VIII/análise , Loci Gênicos , Trombose Venosa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/sangue , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etnologia
8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 161, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research into myocardial infarctions (MIs) have focused on preventative efforts. For survivors, the occurrence of an MI represents a major clinical event that can have long-lasting consequences. There has been little to no research into the molecular changes that can occur as a result of an incident MI. Here, we use three cohorts to identify epigenetic changes that are indicative of an incident MI and their association with gene expression and metabolomics. RESULTS: Using paired samples from the KORA cohort, we screened for DNA methylation loci (CpGs) whose change in methylation is potentially indicative of the occurrence of an incident MI between the baseline and follow-up exams. We used paired samples from the NAS cohort to identify 11 CpGs which were predictive in an independent cohort. After removing two CpGs associated with medication usage, we were left with an "epigenetic fingerprint" of MI composed of nine CpGs. We tested this fingerprint in the InCHIANTI cohort where it moderately discriminated incident MI occurrence (AUC = 0.61, P = 6.5 × 10-3). Returning to KORA, we associated the epigenetic fingerprint loci with cis-gene expression and integrated it into a gene expression-metabolomic network, which revealed links between the epigenetic fingerprint CpGs and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant changes in DNA methylation after an incident MI. Nine of these CpGs show consistent changes in multiple cohorts, significantly discriminate MI in independent cohorts, and were independent of medication usage. Integration with gene expression and metabolomics data indicates a link between MI-associated epigenetic changes and BCAA metabolism.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leucócitos/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3738, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218040

RESUMO

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), i.e., the inactivation of one of the female X chromosomes, restores equal expression of X-chromosomal genes between females and males. However, ~10% of genes show variable degrees of escape from XCI between females, although little is known about the causes of variable XCI. Using a discovery data-set of 1867 females and 1398 males and a replication sample of 3351 females, we show that genetic variation at three autosomal loci is associated with female-specific changes in X-chromosome methylation. Through cis-eQTL expression analysis, we map these loci to the genes SMCHD1/METTL4, TRIM6/HBG2, and ZSCAN9. Low-expression alleles of the loci are predominantly associated with mild hypomethylation of CpG islands near genes known to variably escape XCI, implicating the autosomal genes in variable XCI. Together, these results suggest a genetic basis for variable escape from XCI and highlight the potential of a population genomics approach to identify genes involved in XCI.

10.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 5(3): 317-327, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047075

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA methylation-based aging biomarkers are valuable tools for evaluating the aging process from a molecular perspective. These epigenetic aging biomarkers can be evaluated across the lifespan and are tissue specific. This review examines the literature relating environmental exposures to DNA methylation-based aging biomarkers and also the literature evaluating these biomarkers as predictors of health outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies evaluated the association between air pollution and DNA methylation age and consistently observed that higher exposures are associated with elevated DNA methylation age. Psychosocial exposures, e.g., traumas and adolescent adversity, and infections are also associated with epigenetic aging. DNA methylation age has been repeatedly associated with mortality, cancer, and cognitive impairment. DNA methylation age is responsive to the environment and predictive of health outcomes. Studies are still needed to evaluate whether DNA methylation age acts as a mediator or modifier of environmental health effects and to understand the impact of factors such as race, gender, and genetics.

11.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(2): 027004, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure is negatively associated with lung function, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully clear. Differential DNA methylation may explain this association. OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to study the association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation study using robust linear regression models in 1,017 subjects from the LifeLines cohort study to analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5, fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm; PM10, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) and PM2.5absorbance, indicator of elemental carbon content (estimated with land-use-regression models) with DNA methylation in whole blood (Illumina® HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). Replication of the top hits was attempted in two independent samples from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg studies (KORA). RESULTS: Depending on the p-value threshold used, we found significant associations between NO2 exposure and DNA methylation for seven CpG sites (Bonferroni corrected threshold p<1.19×10-7) or for 4,980 CpG sites (False Discovery Rate<0.05). The top associated CpG site was annotated to the PSMB9 gene (i.e., cg04908668). None of the seven Bonferroni significant CpG-sites were significantly replicated in the two KORA-cohorts. No associations were found for PM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term NO2 exposure was genome-wide significantly associated with DNA methylation in the identification cohort but not in the replication cohort. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying NO2-exposure-related respiratory disease. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2045.

13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(1): 275-282, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to mobile source emissions is nearly ubiquitous in developed nations and is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. There is an ongoing need to understand the specificity of traffic exposure associations with vascular outcomes, particularly in individuals with cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional study using 2124 individuals residing in North Carolina, United States, who received a cardiac catheterization at the Duke University Medical Center. Traffic-related exposure was assessed via 2 metrics: (1) the distance between the primary residence and the nearest major roadway; and (2) location of the primary residence in regions defined based on local traffic patterns. We examined 4 cardiovascular disease outcomes: hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, the number of diseased coronary vessels, and recent myocardial infarction. Statistical models were adjusted for race, sex, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, hyperlipidemia, and home value. Results are expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR). A 23% decrease in residential distance to major roadways was associated with higher prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.55) and hypertension (OR=1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.31). Associations with peripheral arterial disease were strongest in men (OR=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.74) while associations with hypertension were strongest in women (OR=1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.49). Neither myocardial infarction nor the number of diseased coronary vessels were associated with traffic exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic-related exposure is associated with peripheral arterial disease and hypertension while no associations are observed for 2 coronary-specific vascular outcomes.

14.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 805, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. RESULTS: Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10-39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of the molecular path from exposure to disease.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fumar/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173880, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355232

RESUMO

Air pollution is a worldwide contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Traffic-related air pollution is a widespread environmental exposure and is associated with multiple cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial infarction. Despite the recognition of the importance of both genetic and environmental exposures to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, studies of how these two contributors operate jointly are rare. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) to examine gene-traffic exposure interactions associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Using race-stratified cohorts of 538 African-Americans (AA) and 1562 European-Americans (EA) from a cardiac catheterization cohort (CATHGEN), we identify gene-by-traffic exposure interactions associated with the number of significantly diseased coronary vessels as a measure of chronic atherosclerosis. We found five suggestive (P<1x10-5) interactions in the AA GWIS, of which two (rs1856746 and rs2791713) replicated in the EA cohort (P < 0.05). Both SNPs are in the PIGR-FCAMR locus and are eQTLs in lymphocytes. The protein products of both PIGR and FCAMR are implicated in inflammatory processes. In the EA GWIS, there were three suggestive interactions; none of these replicated in the AA GWIS. All three were intergenic; the most significant interaction was in a regulatory region associated with SAMSN1, a gene previously associated with atherosclerosis and B cell activation. In conclusion, we have uncovered several novel genes associated with coronary atherosclerosis in individuals chronically exposed to increased ambient concentrations of traffic air pollution. These genes point towards inflammatory pathways that may modify the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores Fc/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/imunologia , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Emissões de Veículos
16.
Heart ; 103(16): 1278-1285, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The comprehensive assaying of low-molecular-weight compounds, for example, metabolomics, provides a unique tool to uncover novel biomarkers and understand pathways underlying myocardial infarction (MI). We used a targeted metabolomics approach to identify biomarkers for MI and evaluate their involvement in the pathogenesis of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using three independent, prospective cohorts (KORA S4, KORA S2 and AGES-REFINE), totalling 2257 participants without a history of MI at baseline, we identified metabolites associated with incident MI (266 cases). We also investigated the association between the metabolites and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) to understand the relation between these metabolites and systemic inflammation. Out of 140 metabolites, 16 were nominally associated (p<0.05) with incident MI in KORA S4. Three metabolites, arginine and two lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC 17:0 and LPC 18:2), were selected as biomarkers via a backward stepwise selection procedure in the KORA S4 and were significant (p<0.0003) in a meta-analysis comprising all three studies including KORA S2 and AGES-REFINE. Furthermore, these three metabolites increased the predictive value of the Framingham risk score, increasing the area under the receiver operating characteristic score in KORA S4 (from 0.70 to 0.78, p=0.001) and AGES-REFINE study (from 0.70 to 0.76, p=0.02), but was not observed in KORA S2. The metabolite biomarkers attenuated the association between hsCRP and MI, indicating a potential link to systemic inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified three metabolite biomarkers, which in combination increase the predictive value of the Framingham risk score. The attenuation of the hsCRP-MI association by these three metabolites indicates a potential link to systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 255, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27955697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111). We found differential methylation at 218 CpG sites to be associated with CRP (P < 1.15 × 10-7) in the discovery panel of European ancestry and replicated (P < 2.29 × 10-4) 58 CpG sites (45 unique loci) among African Americans. To further characterize the molecular and clinical relevance of the findings, we examined the association with gene expression, genetic sequence variants, and clinical outcomes. DNA methylation at nine (16%) CpG sites was associated with whole blood gene expression in cis (P < 8.47 × 10-5), ten (17%) CpG sites were associated with a nearby genetic variant (P < 2.50 × 10-3), and 51 (88%) were also associated with at least one related cardiometabolic entity (P < 9.58 × 10-5). An additive weighted score of replicated CpG sites accounted for up to 6% inter-individual variation (R2) of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRP, independent of known CRP-related genetic variants. CONCLUSION: We have completed an EWAS of chronic low-grade inflammation and identified many novel genetic loci underlying inflammation that may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Epigênese Genética , Inflamação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(5): 1528-1538, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality. Metabolites are intermediaries in biochemical processes, and associations between air pollution and metabolites can yield unique mechanistic insights. METHODS: We used independent cross-sectional samples with targeted metabolomics (138 metabolites across five metabolite classes) from three cohort studies, each a part of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA). The KORA cohorts are numbered (1 to 4) according to which survey they belong to, and lettered S or F according to whether the survey was a baseline or follow-up survey. KORA F4 (N = 3044) served as our discovery cohort, with KORA S4 (N = 485) serving as the primary replication cohort. KORA F4 and KORA S4 were primarily fasting cohorts. We used the non-fasting KORA F3 (N = 377) cohort to evaluate replicated associations in non-fasting individuals, and we performed a random effects meta-analysis of all three cohorts. Associations between the 0-4-day lags and the 5-day average of particulate matter (PM)2.5, NO2 and ozone were modelled via generalized additive models. All air pollution exposures were scaled to the interquartile range, and effect estimates presented as percent changes relative to the geometric mean of the metabolite concentration (ΔGM). RESULTS: There were 10 discovery cohort associations, of which seven were lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs); NO2 was the most ubiquitous exposure (5/10). The 5-day average NO2-LPC(28:0) association was associated at a Bonferroni corrected P-value threshold (P < 1.2x10-4) in KORA F4 [ΔGM = 11.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.60, 16.3], and replicated (P < 0.05) in KORA S4 (ΔGM = 21.0%; CI = 4.56, 37.5). This association was not observed in the non-fasting KORA F3 cohort (ΔGM = -5.96%; CI = -26.3, 14.3), but remained in the random effects meta-analysis (ΔGM = 10.6%; CI = 0.16, 21). CONCLUSIONS: LPCs are associated with short-term exposure to air pollutants, in particular NO2 Further research is needed to understand the effect of nutritional/fasting status on these associations and the causal mechanisms linking air pollution exposure and metabolite profiles.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Metaboloma , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 8(9): 1844-1865, 2016 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690265

RESUMO

Estimates of biological age based on DNA methylation patterns, often referred to as "epigenetic age", "DNAm age", have been shown to be robust biomarkers of age in humans. We previously demonstrated that independent of chronological age, epigenetic age assessed in blood predicted all-cause mortality in four human cohorts. Here, we expanded our original observation to 13 different cohorts for a total sample size of 13,089 individuals, including three racial/ethnic groups. In addition, we examined whether incorporating information on blood cell composition into the epigenetic age metrics improves their predictive power for mortality. All considered measures of epigenetic age acceleration were predictive of mortality (p≤8.2x10-9), independent of chronological age, even after adjusting for additional risk factors (p<5.4x10-4), and within the racial/ethnic groups that we examined (non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African Americans). Epigenetic age estimates that incorporated information on blood cell composition led to the smallest p-values for time to death (p=7.5x10-43). Overall, this study a) strengthens the evidence that epigenetic age predicts all-cause mortality above and beyond chronological age and traditional risk factors, and b) demonstrates that epigenetic age estimates that incorporate information on blood cell counts lead to highly significant associations with all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
20.
Oncotarget ; 7(46): 74510-74525, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793020

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with age-related diseases. We explored the association between accelerated biological aging and air pollution, a potential mechanism linking air pollution and health. We estimated long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance/black carbon (BC), and NOx via land-use regression models in individuals from the KORA F4 cohort. Accelerated biological aging was assessed using telomere length (TeloAA) and three epigenetic measures: DNA methylation age acceleration (DNAmAA), extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (correlated with immune cell counts, EEAA), and intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (independent of immune cell counts, IEAA). We also investigated sex-specific associations between air pollution and biological aging, given the published association between sex and aging measures. In KORA an interquartile range (0.97 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.33 y increase in EEAA (CI = 0.01, 0.64; P = 0.04). BC and NOx (indicators or traffic exposure) were associated with DNAmAA and IEAA in women, while TeloAA was inversely associated with BC in men. We replicated this inverse BC-TeloAA association in the Normative Aging Study, a male cohort based in the USA. A multiple phenotype analysis in KORA F4 combining all aging measures showed that BC and PM10 were broadly associated with biological aging in men. Thus, we conclude that long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with biological aging measures, potentially in a sex-specific manner. However, many of the associations were relatively weak and further replication of overall and sex-specific associations is warranted.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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