Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 462
Filtrar
1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121034866, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease-a major cause of stroke and dementia-is associated with cerebrovascular dysfunction. We investigated whether short-term isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) and cilostazol, alone or in combination, improved magnetic resonance imaging-measured cerebrovascular function in patients with lacunar ischemic stroke. METHODS: Participants were randomized to ISMN alone, cilostazol alone, both ISMN and cilostazol, or no medication. Participants underwent structural, cerebrovascular reactivity (to 6% carbon dioxide) and phase-contrast pulsatility magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 8 weeks of medication. RESULTS: Of 27 participants (mean age, 68±7.7; 44% female), 22 completed cerebrovascular reactivity and pulsatility imaging with complete datasets. White matter cerebrovascular reactivity increased in the ISMN (ß=0.021%/mm Hg [95% CI, 0.003-0.040]) and cilostazol (ß=0.035%/mm Hg [95% CI, 0.014-0.056]) monotherapy groups and in those taking any versus no medication (ß=0.021%/mm Hg [95% CI, 0.005-0.037]). CONCLUSIONS: While limited by small sample size, we demonstrate that measuring cerebrovascular function with magnetic resonance imaging is feasible in clinical trials and that ISMN and cilostazol may improve cerebrovascular function. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02481323. URL: www.isrctn.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN12580546. URL: www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu; Unique identifier: EudraCT 2015-001953-33.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence of the effects of blood pressure (BP)-lowering interventions after acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A prespecified systematic review of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from inception to 23 June 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials that compared active BP-lowering agents versus placebo or intensive versus guideline BP-lowering targets for adults <7 days after ICH onset. The primary outcome was function (distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale) 90 days after randomisation. Radiological outcomes were absolute (>6 mL) and proportional (>33%) haematoma growth at 24 hours. Meta-analysis used a one-stage approach, adjusted using generalised linear mixed models with prespecified covariables and trial as a random effect. RESULTS: Of 7094 studies identified, 50 trials involving 11 494 patients were eligible and 16 (32.0%) shared patient-level data from 6221 (54.1%) patients (mean age 64.2 [SD 12.9], 2266 [36.4%] females) with a median time from symptom onset to randomisation of 3.8 hours (IQR 2.6-5.3). Active/intensive BP-lowering interventions had no effect on the primary outcome compared with placebo/guideline treatment (adjusted OR for unfavourable shift in modified Rankin scale scores: 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.06; p=0.50), but there was significant heterogeneity by strategy (pinteraction=0.031) and agent (pinteraction<0.0001). Active/intensive BP-lowering interventions clearly reduced absolute (>6 ml, adjusted OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60 to 0.92; p=0.0077) and relative (≥33%, adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.68 to 0.99; p=0.034) haematoma growth. INTERPRETATION: Overall, a broad range of interventions to lower BP within 7 days of ICH onset had no overall benefit on functional recovery, despite reducing bleeding. The treatment effect appeared to vary according to strategy and agent. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141136.

3.
Front Neurol ; 12: 756887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777227

RESUMO

Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of stroke, mild cognitive impairment, dementia and physical impairments. Differences in SVD incidence or severity between males and females are unknown. We assessed sex differences in SVD by assessing the male-to-female ratio (M:F) of recruited participants and incidence of SVD, risk factor presence, distribution, and severity of SVD features. Methods: We assessed four recent systematic reviews on SVD and performed a supplementary search of MEDLINE to identify studies reporting M:F ratio in covert, stroke, or cognitive SVD presentations (registered protocol: CRD42020193995). We meta-analyzed differences in sex ratios across time, countries, SVD severity and presentations, age and risk factors for SVD. Results: Amongst 123 relevant studies (n = 36,910 participants) including 53 community-based, 67 hospital-based and three mixed studies published between 1989 and 2020, more males were recruited in hospital-based than in community-based studies [M:F = 1.16 (0.70) vs. M:F = 0.79 (0.35), respectively; p < 0.001]. More males had moderate to severe SVD [M:F = 1.08 (0.81) vs. M:F = 0.82 (0.47) in healthy to mild SVD; p < 0.001], and stroke presentations where M:F was 1.67 (0.53). M:F did not differ for recent (2015-2020) vs. pre-2015 publications, by geographical region, or age. There were insufficient sex-stratified data to explore M:F and risk factors for SVD. Conclusions: Our results highlight differences in male-to-female ratios in SVD severity and amongst those presenting with stroke that have important clinical and translational implications. Future SVD research should report participant demographics, risk factors and outcomes separately for males and females. Systematic Review Registration: [PROSPERO], identifier [CRD42020193995].

4.
Annu Rev Physiol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699267

RESUMO

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is highly prevalent and a common cause of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and dementia, yet the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Its clinical expression is highly varied, and prognostic implications are frequently overlooked in clinics; thus, treatment is currently confined to vascular risk factor management. Traditionally, SVD is considered the small vessel equivalent of large artery stroke (occlusion, rupture), but data emerging from human neuroimaging and genetic studies refute this, instead showing microvessel endothelial dysfunction impacting on cell-cell interactions and leading to brain damage. These dysfunctions reflect defects that appear to be inherited and secondary to environmental exposures, including vascular risk factors. Interrogation in preclinical models shows consistent and converging molecular and cellular interactions across the endothelial-glial-neural unit that increasingly explain the human macroscopic observations and identify common patterns of pathology despite different triggers. Importantly, these insights may offer new targets for therapeutic intervention focused on restoring endothelial-glial physiology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

5.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604499

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to first discover plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to neurodegeneration (N) and vascular (V) damage in cognitively normal individuals and second to discover proteins mediating sex-related difference in N and V pathology. Methods: Five thousand and thirty-two plasma proteins were measured in 1061 cognitively normal individuals (628 females and 433 males), nearly 90% of whom had magnetic resonance imaging measures of hippocampal volume (as N) and white matter hyperintensities (as V). Results: Differential protein expression analysis and co-expression network analysis revealed different proteins and modules associated with N and V, respectively. Furthermore, causal mediation analysis revealed four proteins mediated sex-related difference in N and one protein mediated such difference in V damage. Discussion: Once validated, the identified proteins could help to select cognitively normal individuals with N and V pathology for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials and provide targets for further mechanistic studies on brain sex differences, leading to sex-specific therapeutic strategies.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 523, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642301

RESUMO

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation has been commonly reported in major depressive disorder (MDD), but with considerable heterogeneity of results; potentially due to the predominant use of acute measures of an inherently variable/phasic system. Chronic longer-term measures of HPA-axis activity have yet to be systematically examined in MDD, particularly in relation to brain phenotypes, and in the context of early-life/contemporaneous stress. Here, we utilise a temporally stable measure of cumulative HPA-axis function (hair glucocorticoids) to investigate associations between cortisol, cortisone and total glucocorticoids with concurrent measures of (i) lifetime-MDD case/control status and current symptom severity, (ii) early/current-life stress and (iii) structural neuroimaging phenotypes, in N = 993 individuals from Generation Scotland (mean age = 59.1 yrs). Increased levels of hair cortisol were significantly associated with reduced global and lobar brain volumes with reductions in the frontal, temporal and cingulate regions (ßrange = -0.057 to -0.104, all PFDR < 0.05). Increased levels of hair cortisone were significantly associated with MDD (lifetime-MDD status, current symptoms, and severity; ßrange = 0.071 to 0.115, all PFDR = < 0.05), with early-life adversity (ß = 0.083, P = 0.017), and with reduced global and regional brain volumes (global: ß = -0.059, P = 0.043; nucleus accumbens: ß = -0.075, PFDR = 0.044). Associations with total glucocorticoids followed a similar pattern to the cortisol findings. In this large community-based sample, elevated glucocorticoids were significantly associated with MDD, with early, but not later-life stress, and with reduced global and regional brain phenotypes. These findings provide important foundations for future mechanistic studies to formally explore causal relationships between early adversity, chronic rather than acute measures of glucocorticoids, and neurobiological associations relevant to the aetiology of MDD.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Depressão , Glucocorticoides , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
7.
Stroke ; 52(10): e635-e645, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517768

RESUMO

Cilostazol is a PDE3 (phosphodiesterase III) inhibitor with a long track record of safety that is Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approved for the treatment of claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease. In addition, cilostazol has been approved for secondary stroke prevention in several Asian countries based on trials that have demonstrated a reduction in stroke recurrence among patients with noncardioembolic stroke. The onset of benefit appears after 60 to 90 days of treatment, which is consistent with cilostazol's pleiotropic effects on platelet aggregation, vascular remodeling, blood flow, and plasma lipids. Cilostazol appears safe and does not increase the risk of major bleeding when given alone or in combination with aspirin or clopidogrel. Adverse effects such as headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, and palpitations, however, contributed to a 6% increase in drug discontinuation among patients randomized to cilostazol in a large secondary stroke prevention trial (CSPS.com [Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study for Antiplatelet Combination]). Due to limitations of prior trials, such as open-label design, premature trial termination, large loss to follow-up, lack of functional or cognitive outcome data, and exclusive enrollment in Asia, the existing trials have not led to a change in clinical practice or guidelines in Western countries. These limitations could be addressed by a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in a broader population. If positive, it would increase the evidence in support of long-term treatment with cilostazol for secondary prevention in the millions of patients worldwide who have experienced a noncardioembolic ischemic stroke.

8.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211045836, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying whether acute stroke patients are at risk of cognitive decline could improve prognostic discussions and management. Structural computed tomography neuroimaging is routine in acute stroke, and may identify those at risk of post-stroke dementia or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). AIM: To systematically review the literature to identify which stroke or pre-stroke features on brain computed tomography scans, performed at the time of stroke, are associated with post-stroke dementia or PSCI. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: We searched electronic databases to December 2020. We included studies reporting acute stroke brain computed tomography, and later diagnosis of a cognitive syndrome. We created summary estimates of size of unadjusted association between computed tomography features and cognition. Of 9536 citations, 28 studies (41 papers) were eligible (N = 7078, mean age 59.8-78.6 years). Cognitive outcomes were post-stroke dementia (10 studies), PSCI (17 studies), and one study analyzed both. Fifteen studies (N = 2952) reported data suitable for meta-analyses. White matter lesions (WML) (six studies, N = 1054, OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.25-4.84), cerebral atrophy (four studies, N = 558, OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.21-6.51), and pre-existing stroke lesions (three studies, N = 352, OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.06-5.32) were associated with post-stroke dementia. WML (four studies, N = 473, OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 2.17-5.52) were associated with PSCI. Other computed tomography features were either not associated with cognitive outcome, or there were insufficient data. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment following stroke is of great concern to patients and carers. Features seen on visual assessment of acute stroke computed tomography brain scans are strongly associated with cognitive outcomes. Clinicians should consider when and how this information should be discussed with stroke survivors.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1179-1186, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477823

RESUMO

Importance: The Restart or Stop Antithrombotics Randomized Trial (RESTART) found that antiplatelet therapy appeared to be safe up to 5 years after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) that had occurred during antithrombotic (antiplatelet or anticoagulant) therapy. Objectives: To monitor adherence, increase duration of follow-up, and improve precision of estimates of the effects of antiplatelet therapy on recurrent ICH and major vascular events. Design, Setting and Participants: From May 22, 2013, through May 31, 2018, this prospective, open, blinded end point, parallel-group randomized clinical trial studied 537 participants at 122 hospitals in the UK. Participants were individuals 18 years or older who had taken antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of occlusive vascular disease when they developed ICH, discontinued antithrombotic therapy, and survived for 24 hours. After initial follow-up ended on November 30, 2018, annual follow-up was extended until November 30, 2020, for a median of 3.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.0-5.0 years) for the trial cohort. Interventions: Computerized randomization that incorporated minimization allocated participants (1:1) to start or avoid antiplatelet therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants were followed up for the primary outcome (recurrent symptomatic ICH) and secondary outcomes (all major vascular events) for up to 7 years. Data from all randomized participants were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for minimization covariates. Results: A total of 537 patients (median age, 76.0 years; IQR, 69.0-82.0 years; 360 [67.0%] male; median time after ICH onset, 76.0 days; IQR, 29.0-146.0 days) were randomly allocated to start (n = 268) or avoid (n = 269 [1 withdrew]) antiplatelet therapy. The primary outcome of recurrent ICH affected 22 of 268 participants (8.2%) allocated to antiplatelet therapy compared with 25 of 268 participants (9.3%) allocated to avoid antiplatelet therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.49-1.55; P = .64). A major vascular event affected 72 participants (26.8%) allocated to antiplatelet therapy compared with 87 participants (32.5%) allocated to avoid antiplatelet therapy (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.58-1.08; P = .14). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ICH who had previously taken antithrombotic therapy, this study found no statistically significant effect of antiplatelet therapy on recurrent ICH or all major vascular events. These findings provide physicians with some reassurance about the use of antiplatelet therapy after ICH if indicated for secondary prevention of major vascular events. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN71907627.

10.
Brain ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581779

RESUMO

Development of cerebral small vessel disease, a major cause of stroke and dementia, may be influenced by early life factors. It is unclear whether these relationships are independent of each other, of adult socioeconomic status or of vascular risk factor exposures. We examined associations between factors from birth (ponderal index, birth weight), childhood (IQ, education, socioeconomic status), adult small vessel disease, and brain volumes, using data from four prospective cohort studies: STratifying Resilience And Depression Longitudinally (STRADL) (n = 1080; mean age = 59 years); The Dutch Famine Birth cohort (n = 118; mean age = 68 years); the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936; n = 617; mean age = 73 years), and the Simpson's cohort (n = 110; mean age = 78 years). We analysed each small vessel disease feature individually and summed to give a total small vessel disease score (range 1-4) in each cohort separately, then in meta-analysis, adjusted for vascular risk factors and adult socioeconomic status. Higher birth weight was associated with fewer lacunes (OR per 100 g, 0.93 95%CI = 0.88-0.99), fewer infarcts (OR = 0.94 95%CI = 0.89-0.99), and fewer perivascular spaces (OR = 0.95 95%CI = 0.91-0.99). Higher childhood IQ was associated with lower white matter hyperintensity burden (OR per IQ point = 0.99 95%CI 0.98-0.998), fewer infarcts (OR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.97-0.998), fewer lacunes (OR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.97-0.999), and lower total small vessel disease burden (OR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.96-0.999). Low education was associated with more microbleeds (OR = 1.90 95%CI = 1.33-2.72) and lower total brain volume (MD=-178.86 cm3, 95%CI=-325.07- -32.66). Low childhood socioeconomic status was associated with fewer lacunes (OR = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.40-0.95). Early life factors are associated with worse small vessel disease in later life, independent of each other, vascular risk factors and adult socioeconomic status. Risk for small vessel disease may originate in early life and provide a mechanistic link between early life factors and risk of stroke and dementia. Policies investing in early child development may contribute to improve lifelong brain health to prevent dementia and stroke in older age.

11.
Eur Stroke J ; 6(2): CXI-CLXII, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414301

RESUMO

'Covert' cerebral small vessel disease (ccSVD) is common on neuroimaging in persons without overt neurological manifestations, and increases the risk of future stroke, cognitive impairment, dependency, and death. These European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations to assist with clinical decisions about management of ccSVD, specifically white matter hyperintensities and lacunes, to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. The guidelines were developed according to ESO standard operating procedures and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We prioritised the clinical outcomes of stroke, cognitive decline or dementia, dependency, death, mobility and mood disorders, and interventions of blood pressure lowering, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering, lifestyle modifications, glucose lowering and conventional treatments for dementia. We systematically reviewed the literature, assessed the evidence, formulated evidence-based recommendations where feasible, and expert consensus statements. We found little direct evidence, mostly of low quality. We recommend patients with ccSVD and hypertension to have their blood pressure well controlled; lower blood pressure targets may reduce ccSVD progression. We do not recommend antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin in ccSVD. We found little evidence on lipid lowering in ccSVD. Smoking cessation is a health priority. We recommend regular exercise which may benefit cognition, and a healthy diet, good sleep habits, avoiding obesity and stress for general health reasons. In ccSVD, we found no evidence for glucose control in the absence of diabetes or for conventional Alzheimer dementia treatments. Randomised controlled trials with clinical endpoints are a priority for ccSVD.

12.
Eur Stroke J ; 6(2): IV, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414305

RESUMO

'Covert' cerebral small vessel disease (ccSVD) is common on neuroimaging in persons without overt neurological manifestations, and increases the risk of future stroke, cognitive impairment, dependency, and death. These European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations to assist with clinical decisions about management of ccSVD, specifically white matter hyperintensities and lacunes, to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. The guidelines were developed according to ESO standard operating procedures and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We prioritised the clinical outcomes of stroke, cognitive decline or dementia, dependency, death, mobility and mood disorders, and interventions of blood pressure lowering, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering, lifestyle modifications, glucose lowering and conventional treatments for dementia. We systematically reviewed the literature, assessed the evidence, formulated evidence-based recommendations where feasible, and expert consensus statements. We found little direct evidence, mostly of low quality. We recommend patients with ccSVD and hypertension to have their blood pressure well controlled; lower blood pressure targets may reduce ccSVD progression. We do not recommend antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin in ccSVD. We found little evidence on lipid lowering in ccSVD. Smoking cessation is a health priority. We recommend regular exercise which may benefit cognition, and a healthy diet, good sleep habits, avoiding obesity and stress for general health reasons. In ccSVD, we found no evidence for glucose control in the absence of diabetes or for conventional Alzheimer dementia treatments. Randomised controlled trials with clinical endpoints are a priority for ccSVD.

13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371238

RESUMO

Birth weight, an indicator of fetal growth, is associated with cognitive outcomes in early life (which are predictive of cognitive ability in later life) and risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease across the life course. Brain health in older age, indexed by MRI features, is associated with cognitive performance, but little is known about how variation in normal birth weight impacts on brain structure in later life. In a community dwelling cohort of participants in their early seventies we tested the hypothesis that birth weight is associated with the following MRI features: total brain (TB), grey matter (GM) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes; whiter matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume; a general factor of fractional anisotropy (gFA) and peak width skeletonised mean diffusivity (PSMD) across the white matter skeleton. We also investigated the associations of birth weight with cortical surface area, volume and thickness. Birth weight was positively associated with TB, GM and NAWM volumes in later life (ß ≥ 0.194), and with regional cortical surface area but not gFA, PSMD, WMH volume, or cortical volume or thickness. These positive relationships appear to be explained by larger intracranial volume, rather than by age-related tissue atrophy, and are independent of body height and weight in adulthood. This suggests that larger birth weight is linked to more brain tissue reserve in older life, rather than age-related brain structural features, such as tissue atrophy or WMH volume.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Substância Branca , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Peso ao Nascer , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16495, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389772

RESUMO

Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) can improve outcomes for patients with severe forms of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but the evidence is mainly derived from non-thrombolyzed patients. We aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of early DHC in thrombolyzed AIS participants of the international Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). Post-hoc analyses of ENCHANTED, an international, partial-factorial, open, blinded outcome-assessed, controlled trial in 4557 thrombolysis-eligible AIS patients randomized to low- versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase (Arm A, n = 2350), intensive versus guideline-recommended blood pressure control (Arm B, n = 1280), or both (Arms A + B, n = 947). Logistic regression models were used to identify baseline variables associated with DHC, with inverse probability of treatment weights employed to eliminate baseline imbalances between those with and without DHC. Logistic regression was also used to determine associations of DHC and clinical outcomes of death/disability, major disability, and death (defined by scores 2-6, 3-5, and 6, respectively, on the modified Rankin scale) at 90 days post-randomization. There were 95 (2.1%) thrombolyzed AIS patients who underwent DHC, who were significantly younger, of non-Asian ethnicity, and more likely to have had prior lipid-lowering treatment and severe neurological impairment from large vessel occlusion than other patients. DHC patients were more likely to receive other management interventions and have poor functional outcomes than non-DHC patients, with no relation to different doses of intravenous alteplase. Compared to other thrombolyzed AIS patients, those who received DHC had a poor prognosis from more severe disease despite intensive in-hospital management.


Assuntos
Craniectomia Descompressiva , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Masculino , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem
17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 106: 130-138, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274698

RESUMO

Raised signal in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) may indicate raised CSF protein or debris and is seen in inferior frontal sulci on routine MRI. To explore its clinical relevance, we assessed the association of inferior frontal sulcal hyperintensities (IFSH) on FLAIR with demographics, risk factors, and small vessel disease markers in three cohorts (healthy volunteers, n=44; mild stroke patients, n=105; older community-dwelling participants from Lothian birth cohort 1936, n=101). We collected detailed clinical data, scanned all subjects on the same 3T MRI scanner and 3-dimensional FLAIR sequence and developed a scale to rate IFSH. In adjusted analyses, the IFSH score increased with age (per 10-year increase; OR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.42-2.02), and perivascular spaces score in centrum semiovale in stroke patients (OR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.13-2.69). Since glymphatic CSF clearance declines with age and drains partially via the cribriform plate to the nasal lymphatics, IFSH on 3T MRI may be a non-invasive biomarker of altered CSF clearance and justifies further research in larger, more diverse samples.

18.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211025436, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We explored the influence of low-dose intravenous alteplase and intensive blood pressure lowering on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke according to status/location of vascular obstruction in participants of the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). METHODS: ENCHANTED was a multicenter, quasi-factorial, randomized trial to determine efficacy and safety of low- versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase and intensive- versus guideline-recommended blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke patients. In those who had baseline computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging angiography, the degree of vascular occlusion was grouped according to being no (NVO), medium (MVO), or large (LVO). Logistic regression models were used to determine 90-day outcomes (modified Rankin scale [mRS] shift [primary], other mRS cut-scores, intracranial hemorrhage, early neurologic deterioration, and recanalization) by vascular obstruction status/site. Heterogeneity in associations for outcomes across subgroups was estimated by adding an interaction term to the models. RESULTS: There were 940 participants: 607 in alteplase arm only, 243 in blood pressure arm only, and 90 assigned to both arms. Compared to the NVO group, functional outcome was worse in LVO (mRS shift, adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.13 [1.56-2.90]) but comparable in MVO (1.34 [0.96-1.88]) groups. There were no differences in associations of alteplase dose or blood pressure lowering and outcomes across NVO/MVO/LVO groups (mRS shift: low versus standard alteplase dose 0.84 [0.54-1.30]/0.48 [0.25-0.91]/0.99 [0.75-2.09], Pinteraction = 0.28; intensive versus standard blood pressure lowering 1.32 [0.74-2.38]/0.78 [0.31-1.94]/1.24 [0.64-2.41], Pinteraction = 0.41), except for a borderline significant difference for intensive blood pressure lowering and increased early neurologic deterioration (0.63 [0.14-2.72]/0.17 [0.02-1.47]/2.69 [0.90-8.04], Pinteraction = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Functional outcome by dose of alteplase or intensity of blood pressure lowering is not modified by vascular obstruction status/site according to analyses from ENCHANTED, although these results are compromised by low statistical power.Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01422616.

19.
Front Physiol ; 12: 644837, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149442

RESUMO

Background: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures blood flow change in response to a vasoactive stimulus. Impairment is associated with several neurological conditions and can be measured using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Field strength affects the BOLD signal, but the effect on CVR is unquantified in patient populations. Methods: We recruited patients with minor ischemic stroke and assessed CVR magnitude and delay time at 3 and 1.5 Tesla using BOLD MRI during a hypercapnic challenge. We assessed subcortical gray (GM) and white matter (WM) differences using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and scatterplots. Additionally, we explored associations with demographic factors, WM hyperintensity burden, and small vessel disease score. Results: Eighteen of twenty patients provided usable data. At 3T vs. 1.5T: mean CVR magnitude showed less variance (WM 3T: 0.062 ± 0.018%/mmHg, range 0.035, 0.093; 1.5T: 0.057 ± 0.024%/mmHg, range 0.016, 0.094) but was not systematically higher (Wilcoxon signal rank tests, WM: r = -0.33, confidence interval (CI): -0.013, 0.003, p = 0.167); delay showed similar variance (WM 3T: 40 ± 12 s, range: 12, 56; 1.5T: 31 ± 13 s, range 6, 50) and was shorter in GM (r = 0.33, CI: -2, 9, p = 0.164) and longer in WM (r = -0.59, CI: -16, -2, p = 0.010). Patients with higher disease severity tended to have lower CVR at 1.5 and 3T. Conclusion: Mean CVR magnitude at 3T was similar to 1.5T but showed less variance. GM/WM delay differences may be affected by low signal-to-noise ratio among other factors. Although 3T may reduce variance in CVR magnitude, CVR is readily assessable at 1.5T and reveals comparable associations and trends with disease severity.

20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(9): 950-955, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of diffusion-weighted imaging-positive (DWI+) lesions is associated with recurrent stroke after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: The REstart or STop Antithrombotics Randomised Trial (RESTART) assessed the effect of restarting versus avoiding antiplatelet therapy after ICH on major vascular events for up to 5 years. We rated DWI sequences of MRI done before randomisation for DWI+ lesion presence, masked to outcome and antiplatelet use. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify associations. RESULTS: Of 537 participants in RESTART, 247 (median (IQR) age 75.7 (69.6-81.1) years; 170 men (68.8%); 120 started vs 127 avoided antiplatelet therapy) had DWI sequences on brain MRI at a median of 57 days (IQR 19-103) after ICH, of whom 73 (30%) had one or more DWI+ lesion. During a median follow-up of 2 years (1-3), 18 participants had recurrent ICH and 21 had ischaemic stroke. DWI+ lesion presence was associated with all stroke, (adjusted HR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and recurrent ICH (4.8 (95% CI 1.8 to 13.2)), but not ischaemic stroke (0.9 (95% CI 0.3 to 2.5)). DWI+ lesion presence (0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.3)) vs absence (0.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 1.5), pinteraction=0.66) did not modify the effect of antiplatelet therapy on a composite outcome of recurrent stroke. CONCLUSIONS: DWI+ lesion presence in ICH survivors is associated with recurrent ICH, but not with ischaemic stroke. We found no evidence of modification of effects of antiplatelet therapy on recurrent stroke after ICH by DWI+ lesion presence. These findings provide a new perspective on the significance of DWI+ lesions, which may be markers of microvascular mechanisms associated with recurrent ICH. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN71907627.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...