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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 448-468, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219244

RESUMO

Sex differences in rates of depression are thought to contribute to sex differences in smoking initiation (SI) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). One hypothesis is that women smoke as a strategy to cope with anxiety and depression, and have difficulty quitting because of concomitant changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function during nicotine withdrawal states. Despite evidence of biological ties, research has not examined whether genetic factors that contribute to depression-smoking comorbidity differ by sex. We utilized two statistical aggregation techniques-polygenic scores (PGSs) and sequence kernel association testing-to assess the degree of pleiotropy between these behaviors and moderation by sex in the Health and Retirement Study (N = 8,086). At the genome-wide level, we observed associations between PGSs for depressive symptoms and SI, and measured SI and depressive symptoms (all p < .01). At the gene level, we found evidence of pleiotropy in FKBP5 for SI (p = .028), and sex-specific pleiotropy in females in NR3C2 (p = .030) and CHRNA5 (p = .025) for SI and CPD, respectively. Results suggest bidirectional associations between depression and smoking may be partially accounted for by shared genetic factors, and genetic variation in genes related to HPA-axis functioning and nicotine dependence may contribute to sex differences in SI and CPD.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene expression may be an important biological mediator in associations between social factors and health. However, previous studies were limited by small sample sizes and use of differing cell types with heterogeneous expression patterns. We use a large population-based cohort with gene expression measured solely in monocytes to investigate associations between seven social factors and expression of genes previously found to be sensitive to social factors. METHODS: We employ three methodological approaches: 1) omnibus test for the entire gene set (Global ANCOVA), 2) assessment of each association individually (linear regression), and 3) machine learning method that performs variable selection with correlated predictors (elastic net). RESULTS: In global analyses, significant associations with the a priori defined socially sensitive gene set were detected for major or lifetime discrimination and chronic burden (p = 0.019 and p = 0.047, respectively). Marginally significant associations were detected for loneliness and adult socioeconomic status (p = 0.066, p = 0.093, respectively). No associations were significant in linear regression analyses after accounting for multiple testing. However, a small percentage of gene expressions (up to 11%) were associated with at least one social factor using elastic net. CONCLUSION: The Global ANCOVA and elastic net findings suggest that a small percentage of genes may be "socially sensitive," (i.e. demonstrate differential expression by social factor), yet single gene approaches such as linear regression may be ill powered to capture this relationship. Future research should further investigate the biological mechanisms through which social factors act to influence gene expression and how systemic changes in gene expression affect overall health.

5.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(3): 279-285, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781968

RESUMO

With the rapid advancement of omics-based research, particularly big data such as genome- and epigenome-wide association studies that include extensive environmental and clinical variables, data analytics have become increasingly complex. Researchers face significant challenges regarding how to analyze multifactorial data and make use of the findings for clinical translation. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific exemplar for use of genetic burden scores as a data analysis method for studies with both genotype and DNA methylation data in which the goal is to evaluate associations with chronic conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study included 739 African American men and women from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study who met diagnostic criteria for MetS and had available genetic and epigenetic data. Genetic burden scores for evaluated genes were not significant after multiple testing corrections, but DNA methylation at 2 CpG sites (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase cg22381196 pFDR = .014; CTNNA3 cg00132141 pFDR = .043) was significantly associated with MetS after controlling for multiple comparisons. Interactions between the marginally significant CpG sites and burden scores, however, were not significant. More work is required in this area to identify intermediate biological pathways influenced by environmental, genetic, and epigenetic variation that may explain the high prevalence of MetS among African Americans. This study does serve, however, as an example of the use of the genetic burden score as an alternative data analysis approach for complex studies involving the analysis of genetic and epigenetic data simultaneously.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262922

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is more prevalent in African Americans as compared to other US groups. Although large, population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 300 common polymorphisms modulating inter-individual BP variation, largely in European ancestry subjects, most of them do not localize to regions previously identified through family-based linkage studies. This discrepancy has remained unexplained despite the statistical power differences between current GWAS and prior linkage studies. To address this issue, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of BP traits in African-American families from the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP) and genotyped on the Illumina Human Exome BeadChip v1.1. We identified a genomic region on chromosome 1q31 with LOD score 3.8 for pulse pressure (PP), a region we previously implicated in DBP studies of European ancestry families. Although no reported GWAS variants map to this region, combined linkage and association analysis of PP identified 81 rare and low frequency exonic variants accounting for the linkage evidence. Replication analysis in eight independent African ancestry cohorts (N = 16,968) supports this specific association with PP (P = 0.0509). Additional association and network analyses identified multiple potential candidate genes in this region expressed in multiple tissues and with a strong biological support for a role in BP. In conclusion, multiple genes and rare variants on 1q31 contribute to PP variation. Beyond producing new insights into PP, we demonstrate how family-based linkage and association studies can implicate specific rare and low frequency variants for complex traits.

7.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

8.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 43, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) and proximal genes (PVRL2, TOMM40, and APOC1) are associated with cognitive function and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have found evidence that DNA methylation may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia, but its association with cognitive function in populations without dementia remains unclear. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation levels of 48 CpG sites in the APOE genomic region in peripheral blood leukocytes collected from 289 African Americans (mean age = 67 years) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship between methylation in the APOE genomic region and multiple cognitive measures including learning, memory, processing speed, concentration, language and global cognitive function. RESULTS: We identified eight CpG sites in three genes (PVRL2, TOMM40, and APOE) that showed an inverse association between methylation level and delayed recall, a measure of memory, after adjusting for age and sex (False Discovery Rate q-value < 0.1). All eight CpGs are located in either CpG islands (CGIs) or CGI shelves, and six of them are in promoter regions. Education and APOE ε4 carrier status significantly modified the effect of methylation in cg08583001 (PVRL2) and cg22024783 (TOMM40), respectively. Together, methylation of the eight CpGs explained an additional 8.7% of the variance in delayed recall, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and APOE ε4 carrier status. Methylation was not significantly associated with any other cognitive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that methylation levels at multiple CpGs in the APOE genomic region are inversely associated with delayed recall during normal cognitive aging, even after accounting for known genetic predictors for cognition. Our findings highlight the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in influencing cognitive performance, and suggest that changes in blood methylation may be an early indicator of individuals at risk for dementia as well as potential targets for intervention in asymptomatic populations.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2098, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844566

RESUMO

General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.

11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(4): 320-332, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601641

RESUMO

Many gene mapping studies of complex traits have identified genes or variants that influence multiple phenotypes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, there has been substantial interest in identifying rare variants in genes that possess cross-phenotype effects. In the presence of such effects, modeling both the phenotypes and rare variants collectively using multivariate models can achieve higher statistical power compared to univariate methods that either model each phenotype separately or perform separate tests for each variant. Several studies collect phenotypic data over time and using such longitudinal data can further increase the power to detect genetic associations. Although rare-variant approaches exist for testing cross-phenotype effects at a single time point, there is no analogous method for performing such analyses using longitudinal outcomes. In order to fill this important gap, we propose an extension of Gene Association with Multiple Traits (GAMuT) test, a method for cross-phenotype analysis of rare variants using a framework based on the distance covariance. The approach allows for both binary and continuous phenotypes and can also adjust for covariates. Our simple adjustment to the GAMuT test allows it to handle longitudinal data and to gain power by exploiting temporal correlation. The approach is computationally efficient and applicable on a genome-wide scale due to the use of a closed-form test whose significance can be evaluated analytically. We use simulated data to demonstrate that our method has favorable power over competing approaches and also apply our approach to exome chip data from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
12.
Menopause ; 25(6): 625-634, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental models suggest estrogen has a renoprotective effect, but human studies show variable results. Our objective was to study the association of hormone therapy (HT) and albuminuria in postmenopausal women and to synthesize the results with outcomes from prior studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from postmenopausal women who participated in the second study visit (2000-2004) of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. The exposure was self-reported HT use and the outcome was albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >25 mg/g creatinine). We also conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association of HT and urine protein in postmenopausal women. Continuous and dichotomous measures of protein excretion were converted to a standardized mean difference (SMD) for each study. RESULTS: In the GENOA cohort (n = 2,217), there were fewer women with albuminuria among HT users than nonusers (9% vs 19%, P < 0.001). HT use was associated with decreased odds of albuminuria (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.95), after adjusting for significant differences in age, race, education, comorbidities, and the age at and cause of menopause. The SMD of the effect of HT on urine proteinuria/albuminuria in the randomized control trials (n = 3) was 0.02 (95% CI, -0.29 to 0.33) and -0.13 (95% CI, -0.31 to 0.05) in the observational studies (n = 9). There was significantly less albuminuria among HT users (SMD -0.15, 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.04) in the 9 studies that only reported albuminuria as an outcome and in the 10 studies with a comparator arm (SMD -0.15, 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: HT is associated with decreased odds of albuminuria, but some of the observed benefits may be related to reported outcomes, the presence of a comparator arm, and the type of study design.

13.
Biol Res Nurs ; 20(2): 161-167, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338330

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma concentrations of lipids (i.e., total cholesterol, high-density cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, and triglycerides) are amenable to therapeutic intervention and remain important factors for assessing risk of cardiovascular diseases. Some of the observed variability in serum lipid concentrations has been associated with genetic and epigenetic variants among cohorts with European ancestry (EA). Serum lipid levels have also been associated with genetic variants in multiethnic populations. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNA methylation (DNAm) differences contribute to lipid variation among African Americans ([AAs], N = 739) in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. RESULTS: Previous meta-analyses identified 161 SNPs that are associated with lipid traits in populations of EA. We evaluated these SNPs and 66 DNAm sites within the genes containing the SNPs in the GENOA cohort using linear mixed-effects modeling. We did not identify any significant associations of SNPs or DNAm with serum lipid levels. These results suggest that the SNPs identified as being significant for lipid levels through the EA genome-wide association studies may not be significant across AA populations. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in morbidity and mortality due to variation in lipids among AAs may be achieved through a better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors associated with serum lipid levels for early and appropriate screening. Further large-scale studies specifically within AA and other non-EA populations are warranted.

14.
Psychosom Med ; 80(3): 242-251, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shared genetic background may explain phenotypic associations between depression and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to study, on a genome-wide level, if genetic correlation and pleiotropic loci exist between depressive symptoms and T2D or glycemic traits. METHODS: We estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and analyzed genetic correlation between depressive symptoms and T2D and glycemic traits with the linkage disequilibrium score regression by combining summary statistics of previously conducted meta-analyses for depressive symptoms by CHARGE consortium (N = 51,258), T2D by DIAGRAM consortium (N = 34,840 patients and 114,981 controls), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function and insulin resistance by MAGIC consortium (N = 58,074). Finally, we investigated pleiotropic loci using a bivariate genome-wide association study approach with summary statistics from genome-wide association study meta-analyses and reported loci with genome-wide significant bivariate association p value (p < 5 × 10). Biological annotation and function of significant pleiotropic SNPs were assessed in several databases. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 in each individual trait. In the linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses, depressive symptoms showed no significant genetic correlation with T2D or glycemic traits (p > 0.37). However, we identified pleiotropic genetic variations for depressive symptoms and T2D (in the IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, CDKN2B-AS, and PLEKHA1 genes), and fasting glucose (in the MADD, CDKN2B-AS, PEX16, and MTNR1B genes). CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant overall genetic correlations between depressive symptoms, T2D, or glycemic traits suggesting major differences in underlying biology of these traits. However, several potential pleiotropic loci were identified between depressive symptoms, T2D, and fasting glucose, suggesting that previously established phenotypic associations may be partly explained by genetic variation in these specific loci.

15.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2(6): 1111-1121, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270519

RESUMO

Introduction: Urine pH is critical for net acid and solute excretion, but the genetic factors that contribute to its regulation are incompletely understood. Methods: We tested the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 16 genes related to ammonia (NH3) metabolism (15 biological candidates selected a priori, 1 selected from a previous genome-wide association study analysis) to that of 24-hour urine pH in 2493 individuals of European descent across 2 different cohorts using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Results: Of 2871 total SNPs in these genes, 13 SNPs in ATP6V0A4 (a4 subunit of hydrogen- adenosine triphosphatase), SLC9A3 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger, isoform 3), and RHCG (Rhesus C glycoprotein), and 12 SNPs from insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) had a meta-analysis P value <0.01 in the joint analysis plus a consistent direction of effect and at a least suggestive association (P < 0.1) in both cohorts. The maximal effect size (in pH units) for each additional minor allele of the identified SNPs was -0.13 for IGFBP7, -0.08 for ATP6V0A4, 0.06 for RHCG, and -0.06 for SLC9A3; SNP rs34447434 in IGFBP7 had the lowest meta-analysis P value (P = 7.1 × 10-8). After adjusting for net alkali absorption, urine pH remained suggestively associated with multiple SNPs in IGFBP, 1 SNP in ATP6V0A4, and a new SNP in GLS (phosphate-dependent glutaminase). Discussion: Overall, these findings suggest that variants in common genes involved in ammonia metabolism may substantively contribute to basal urine pH regulation. These variations might influence the likelihood of developing disease conditions associated with altered urine pH, such as uric acid or calcium phosphate kidney stones.

16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(10): 1149-1158, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149250

RESUMO

The association between cigarette smoking and inflammation is well known. However, the biological mechanisms behind the association are not fully understood, particularly the role of DNA methylation, which is known to be affected by smoking. Using 2-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the association between cigarette smoking and inflammation. In 822 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy, phase 2 (Jackson, Mississippi; 2000-2005), study population, we examined the association of cigarette smoking with DNA methylation using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in previous genome-wide association studies of cigarette smoking. We then investigated the association of DNA methylation with levels of inflammatory markers using cis-methylation quantitative trait loci single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that current smoking status was associated with the DNA methylation levels (M values) of cg03636183 in the coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 gene (F2RL3) (M = -0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.84, -0.45) and of cg19859270 in the G protein-coupled receptor 15 gene (GPR15) (M = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.27, -0.15). The DNA methylation levels of cg03636183 in F2RL3 were associated with interleukin-18 concentration (-0.11 pg/mL, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.04). These combined negative effects suggest that cigarette smoking increases interleukin-18 levels through the decrease in DNA methylation levels of cg03636183 in F2RL3.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Inflamação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Mississippi , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Physiol Rep ; 5(19)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038354

RESUMO

Urinary citrate (Ucit) protects against urinary stone formation. Acid base status and diet influence Ucit. However, the effect of demographics, diet, and glucose metabolism on Ucit excretion, urinary pH (U-pH) and net gastrointestinal alkali absorption (NAA) are not known. Twenty-four hour urine samples, blood glucose, creatinine, and cystatin C were obtained from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN (n = 446; 64.5 ± 9 years; 58% female). Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The impact of blood glucose, demographics and dietary elements on Ucit excretion, U-pH, and NAA were evaluated in bivariate and multivariable models and interaction models that included age, sex, and weight. NAA significantly associated with Ucit and U-pH In multivariate models Ucit increased with age, weight, eGFRCys, and blood glucose, but decreased with loop diuretic and thiazide use. U-pH decreased with serum creatinine, blood glucose, and dietary protein but increased with dietary potassium. NAA was higher in males and increased with age, weight, eGFRCys and dietary potassium. Significant interactions were observed for Ucit excretion with age and blood glucose, weight and eGFRCys, and sex and thiazide use. Blood glucose had a significant and independent effect on U-pH and also Ucit. This study provides the first evidence that blood glucose could influence urinary stone risk independent of urinary pH, potentially providing new insight into the association of obesity and urinary stone disease.


Assuntos
Álcalis/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/urina , Dieta , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Absorção Intestinal , Tiazidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Creatinina/urina , Cistatina C/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(8): 786-797, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902444

RESUMO

Suicide is a global public health problem with particular resonance for the US military. Genetic risk factors for suicidality are of interest as indicators of susceptibility and potential targets for intervention. We utilized population-based nonclinical cohorts of US military personnel (discovery: N = 473 cases and N = 9778 control subjects; replication: N = 135 cases and N = 6879 control subjects) and a clinical case-control sample of recent suicide attempters (N = 51 cases and N = 112 control subjects) to conduct GWAS of suicide attempts (SA). Genomewide association was evaluated within each ancestral group (European-, African-, Latino-American) and study using logistic regression models. Meta-analysis of the European ancestry discovery samples revealed a genomewide significant locus in association with SA near MRAP2 (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2) and CEP162 (centrosomal protein 162); 12 genomewide significant SNPs in the region; peak SNP rs12524136-T, OR = 2.88, p = 5.24E-10. These findings were not replicated in the European ancestry subsamples of the replication or suicide attempters samples. However, the association of the peak SNP remained significant in a meta-analysis of all studies and ancestral subgroups (OR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.70, 2.80). Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses showed some association of SA with bipolar disorder. The association with SNPs encompassing MRAP2, a gene expressed in brain and adrenal cortex and involved in neural control of energy homeostasis, points to this locus as a plausible susceptibility gene for suicidality that should be further studied. Larger sample sizes will be needed to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961216

RESUMO

Obesity, which develops over time, is one of the leading causes of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, hundreds of BMI (body mass index)-associated genetic loci identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) only explain about 2.7% of BMI variation. Most common human traits are believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Past studies suggest a variety of environmental features that are associated with obesity, including socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. This study combines both gene/regions and environmental factors to explore whether social/psychosocial factors (childhood and adult socioeconomic status, social support, anger, chronic burden, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms) modify the effect of sets of genetic variants on BMI in European American and African American participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In order to incorporate longitudinal phenotype data collected in the HRS and investigate entire sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within gene/region simultaneously, we applied a novel set-based test for gene-environment interaction in longitudinal studies (LGEWIS). Childhood socioeconomic status (parental education) was found to modify the genetic effect in the gene/region around SNP rs9540493 on BMI in European Americans in the HRS. The most significant SNP (rs9540488) by childhood socioeconomic status interaction within the rs9540493 gene/region was suggestively replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (p = 0.07).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
20.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006728, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498854

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10-8) for either systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, or for combined traits. Single-trait analyses identified two loci (TARID/TCF21 and LLPH/TMBIM4) and multiple-trait analyses identified one novel locus (FRMD3) for blood pressure. At these three loci, as well as at GRP20/CDH17, associated variants had alleles common only in African-ancestry populations. Functional annotation showed enrichment for genes expressed in immune and kidney cells, as well as in heart and vascular cells/tissues. Experiments driven by these findings and using angiotensin-II induced hypertension in mice showed altered kidney mRNA expression of six genes, suggesting their potential role in hypertension. Our study provides new evidence for genes related to hypertension susceptibility, and the need to study African-ancestry populations in order to identify biologic factors contributing to hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Hipertensão/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Afro-Americanos/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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