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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Each year, millions of people suffer from fragility fractures. Hip fractures are the most devastating type of such fractures. We aimed to investigate whether the association of dietary calcium intake with hip fracture risk can be modified by a healthy diet, herein defined as the modified Mediterranean diet score (mMED), in Swedish adults. METHODS: The study included 82,092 men and women at baseline. Diet and covariate data were collected twice, 12 years apart, using questionnaires. Information on incident hip fractures was collected from a national registry. Dietary calcium intake and mMED were each categorized into low, medium and high categories, and in nine combined strata of the two exposures. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of hip fracture with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, with time-updated information on exposures and covariates. Non-linear trends were assessed using restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: During 20 years of follow-up including 1,367,260 person-years at risk, 5938 individuals experienced a hip fracture. Dietary calcium intake and hip fracture were non-linearly associated, whereas adherence to mMED decreased hip fracture rates in a dose-response pattern. The lowest hip fracture rates were observed among women and men who reported a calcium intake of 800 mg or more, combined with a high adherence to mMED. In each stratum of calcium intake, the HRs of hip fracture were increasingly higher with lower adherence to mMED, compared with the reference level (high calcium and high mMED). Individuals with low calcium intake (<800 mg/day) or high calcium intake (>1200 mg/day) combined with low adherence to mMED had a HR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.28-1.85) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.26-1.77), respectively. No major differences in the hip fracture risk patterns were discerned between women and men. CONCLUSION: A moderate to high dietary calcium intake in the context of an overall healthy diet were associated with lower hip fracture rates.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-31, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526150

RESUMO

Historically, there are inconsistencies in the calculation of whole-grain intake, particularly through use of highly variable whole-grain food definitions. The current study aimed to determine the impact of using a whole-grain food definition on whole-grain intake estimation in Australian and Swedish national cohorts; and investigate impacts on apparent associations with CVD risk factors. This utilised the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12, the Swedish Riksmaten adults 2010-11, and relevant food composition databases. Whole-grain intakes and associations with CVD risk factors were determined based on consumption of foods complying with the Healthgrain definition (≥30% whole grain (dry weight), more whole than refined grain and meeting accepted standards for 'healthy foods' based on local regulations), and compared to absolute whole-grain intake. Compliance of whole-grain containing foods with the Healthgrain definition were low in both Sweden (29 of 155 foods) and Australia (214 of 609 foods). Significant mean differences of up to 24.6g/10MJ/day of whole-grain intake were highlighted using Swedish data. Despite these large differences, application of a whole-grain food definition altered very few associations with CVD risk factors. Specifically, changes with body weight and blood glucose associations in Australian adults where a whole-grain food definition was applied, and some anthropometric measures in Swedish data where a high percentage of whole-grain content was included. Use of whole-grain food definitions appear to have limited impact on measuring whole-grain health benefits but may have greater relevance in public health messaging.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872582

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and sarcopenia contribute to the risk of fracture in the population. These conditions share common features, and it is known that a healthy diet may have beneficial effects on both, theoretically resulting in fewer fractures. The present narrative review gives an overview of recent epidemiological research related to the association between healthy diets/dietary patterns, bone health and fragility fractures. The review also gives a brief overview on general dietary recommendations and advice as the cornerstone of public health nutrition. Although muscle health and sarcopenia contribute to the risk of fractures, these endpoints were not the focus of this review. Healthy diets are nutrient dense and contain bioactive components that are needed for the constant remodeling of the skeleton and to slow the rate of bone loss and muscle wasting, thus contributing to the prevention of fragility fractures. Compliance with healthy dietary patterns were predominantly found to be inversely associated with bone outcomes, although this was not entirely consistent across all studies. Different a priori diet scores, such as the Mediterranean diet score and the Dietary Inflammatory Index, as well as a posteriori data driven dietary patterns, such as the prudent or healthy dietary pattern, were inversely associated with fragility fractures in different populations. In conclusion, different healthy dietary patterns may contribute to bone health and less fractures. Following current dietary guidelines is thus advisable for the prevention of fragility fractures.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899514

RESUMO

Results indicating that a high milk intake is associated with both higher and lower risks of fragility fractures, or that indicate no association, can all be presented in the same meta-analysis, depending on how it is performed. In this narrative review, we discuss the available studies examining milk intake in relation to fragility fractures, highlight potential problems with meta-analyses of such studies, and discuss potential mechanisms and biases underlying the different results. We conclude that studies examining milk and dairy intakes in relation to fragility fracture risk need to study the different milk products separately. Meta-analyses should consider the doses in the individual studies. Additional studies in populations with a large range of intake of fermented milk are warranted.

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition linked to noncommunicable diseases presents major health problems across Europe. The World Health Organisation encourages countries to conduct national dietary surveys to obtain data to inform public health policies designed to prevent noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: Data on 27334 participants aged 19-64y were harmonised and pooled across national dietary survey datasets from 12 countries across the WHO European Region. Weighted mean nutrient intakes were age-standardised using the Eurostat 2013 European Standard Population. Associations between country-level Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and key nutrients and nutrient densities were investigated using linear regression. The potential mitigating influence of participant-level educational status was explored. FINDINGS: Higher GDP was positively associated with total sugar intake (5·0% energy for each 10% increase in GDP, 95% CI 0·6, 9·3). Scandinavian countries had the highest vitamin D intakes. Participants with higher educational status had better nutritional intakes, particularly within lower GDP countries. A 10% higher GDP was associated with lower total fat intakes (-0·2% energy, 95% CI -0·3, -0·1) and higher daily total folate intakes (14µg, 95% CI 12, 16) in higher educated individuals. INTERPRETATION: Lower income countries and lower education groups had poorer diet, particularly for micronutrients. We demonstrate for the first time that higher educational status appeared to have a mitigating effect on poorer diet in lower income countries. It illustrates the feasibility and value of harmonising national dietary survey data to inform European policy regarding access to healthy diets, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It specifically highlights the need for strong policies supporting nutritional intakes, prioritising lower education groups and lower income countries.


Assuntos
Dieta , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(10): 1754-1765, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Groups with low socio-economic status have less healthy diets and higher prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Using the latest Swedish national dietary survey data, we developed a healthy eating index and a diet diversity score with the aim to explore associations between the scores and socio-demographic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional national dietary survey. A web-based retrospective registration of food and beverages during 2 d was used to assess dietary intake. This information was used to construct the Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015 (SHEIA15) and the Riksmaten Adolescents Diet Diversity Score (RADDS). The scores were based on the latest Swedish dietary guidelines from 2015. Intakes of food and nutrients across the scores were examined. Mixed-effects multilevel models were used to assess associations between the scores and household education, sex, school grade, weight status and school municipality. SETTING: School-based survey in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 2905 adolescents in grades 5, 8 and 11, 56 % girls. RESULTS: High scores on SHEIA15 and RADDS were associated with higher intake of vegetables, fish and several nutrients, and lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and red meat. Boys and participants in households with lower education level scored lower on both indices. Individuals with overweight/obesity scored lower on RADDS. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed indices can be used to identify healthy eating patterns among Swedish adolescents. Both indices show that boys and adolescents from households with lower education level have poorer dietary habits. Lower diet diversity was related to overweight/obesity, but the overall healthy eating index was not.

8.
Mycotoxin Res ; 36(2): 193-206, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838651

RESUMO

The exposure to mycotoxins of Swedish adolescents is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the exposure to mycotoxins and their association with food intake, and background characteristics in adolescents of a national dietary survey. About 3000 school students (1000 from the 5th, 8th and 11th school years) were recruited for the survey. The participants completed Web-based questionnaires on food propensity, sociodemography and health, and a Web-based dietary recall. Spot urine and blood samples were collected from 1105 of the participants for mycotoxin biomarker analysis. Mycotoxins were analysed with multibiomarker methods in urine (HPLC-MS/MS) and serum (HPLC-MS/MS). Of the 35 different analytes in urine, the frequency of positive samples were the following: deoxynivalenol (DON, 4.8%), DON-15-ß-D-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA, 9.1%), dihydro-citrinone (DH-CIT, 0.5%), HT-2-glucuronide (HT-2-3-GlcA, 0.1%) and ochratoxin A (OTA, 0.1%). Of the 27 different analytes in serum, OTA was detected in all samples, while 2'R-ochratoxin A (2'R-OTA) was found in 8.3% and enniatin B (EnB) in 99.2% of the samples. Exposure assessment calculations were performed on OTA from the serum concentration and on DON equivalents (DON eqv) from the urine concentration. All probable daily intake (PDI) estimates were below tolerable daily intakes, except for 1.6% of the participants for DON. The maximum PDI was 4.3 µg DON eqv/kg body weight and day. Consumption of cereal grain commodities was associated with levels of DON, EnB or OTA in biofluids. Serum OTA was also associated with intakes of raisins and coffee. Furthermore, coffee consumption correlated well with 2'R-OTA concentration in serum. In conclusion, exposure to mycotoxins in Swedish adolescents is common, but fortunately, high exposure was rare.


Assuntos
Dieta , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Micotoxinas/sangue , Micotoxinas/urina , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Suécia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(10): e12572, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Web-based dietary assessment tool-RiksmatenFlex-was developed for the national dietary survey of adolescents in Sweden. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the Web-based method RiksmatenFlex and to test the validity of the reported dietary intake by comparing dietary intake with 24-hour dietary recalls (recall interviews), estimated energy expenditure, and biomarkers. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15, and 17-18 years were recruited through schools. In total, 78 students had complete dietary information and were included in the study. Diet was reported a few weeks apart with either RiksmatenFlexDiet (the day before and a random later day) or recall interviews (face-to-face, a random day later by phone) in a cross-over, randomized design. At a school visit, weight and height were measured and blood samples were drawn for biomarker analyses. Students wore an accelerometer for 7 days for physical activity measurements. Dietary intake captured by both dietary methods was compared, and energy intake captured by both methods was compared with the accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure (EEest). Intake of whole grain wheat and rye and fruit and vegetables by both methods was compared with alkylresorcinol and carotenoid concentrations in plasma, respectively. RESULTS: The mean of the reported energy intake was 8.92 (SD 2.77) MJ by RiksmatenFlexDiet and 8.04 (SD 2.67) MJ by the recall interviews (P=.01). Intake of fruit and vegetables was 224 (169) g and 227 (150) g, and whole grain wheat and rye intake was 12.4 (SD 13.2) g and 12.0 (SD 13.1) g, respectively; the intakes of fruit and vegetables as well as whole grain wheat and rye did not differ between methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.57 for protein and carbohydrates to 0.23 for vegetables. Energy intake by RiksmatenFlexDiet was overreported by 8% (P=.03) but not by the recall interviews (P=.53) compared with EEest. The Spearman correlation coefficient between reported energy intake and EEest was 0.34 (P=.008) for RiksmatenFlexDiet and 0.16 (P=.21) for the recall interviews. Spearman correlation coefficient between whole grain wheat and rye and plasma total alkylresorcinol homologs was 0.36 (P=.002) for RiksmatenFlexDiet and 0.29 (P=.02) for the recall interviews. Spearman correlations between intake of fruit and vegetables and plasma carotenoids were weak for both dietary tools. The strongest correlations were observed between fruit and vegetable intake and lutein/zeaxanthin for RiksmatenFlexDiet (0.46; P<.001) and for recall interviews (0.28; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: RiksmatenFlexDiet provides information on energy, fruit, vegetables, and whole grain wheat and rye intake, which is comparable with intake obtained from recall interviews in Swedish adolescents. The results are promising for cost-effective dietary data collection in upcoming national dietary surveys and other studies in Sweden. Future research should focus on how, and if, new technological solutions could reduce dietary reporting biases.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Nutricional , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e011860, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433701

RESUMO

Background Mechanisms related to the influence of diet on the development of cardiovascular disease are not entirely understood, and protein biomarkers may help to understand these pathways. Studies of biomarkers identified with multiplex proteomic methods and dietary patterns are largely lacking. Methods and Results Dietary patterns were generated through principal component analysis in 2 population-based Swedish cohorts, the EpiHealth (EpiHealth study; n=20 817 men and women) and the SMCC (Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical [n=4650 women]). A set of 184 protein cardiovascular disease biomarkers were measured with 2 high-throughput, multiplex immunoassays. Discovery and replication multivariable linear regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between the principal component analysis-generated dietary patterns and the cardiovascular disease-associated protein biomarkers, first in the EpiHealth (n=2240) and then in the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical. Four main dietary patterns were identified in the EpiHealth, and 3 patterns were identified in the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical. The healthy and the Western/traditional patterns were found in both cohorts. In the EpiHealth, 57 protein biomarkers were associated with 3 of the dietary patterns, and 41 of these associations were replicated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical, with effect estimates ranging from 0.057 to 0.083 (P-value range, 5.0×10-2-1.4×10-9) for each SD increase in the relative protein concentration. Independent associations were established between dietary patterns and the 21 protein biomarkers. Two proteins, myeloperoxidase and resistin, were associated with both the healthy and the light meal pattern but in opposite directions. Conclusions We have discovered and replicated independent associations between dietary patterns and 21 biomarkers linked to cardiovascular disease, which have a role in the pathways related to inflammation, endothelial and immune function, cell adhesion, and metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Peroxidase/sangue , Proteômica , Resistina/sangue , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
Br J Nutr ; 119(7): 836-846, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569544

RESUMO

High adherence to healthy diets has the potential to prevent disease and prolong life span, and healthy dietary pattern scores have each been associated with disease and mortality. We studied two commonly promoted healthy diet scores (modified Mediterranean diet score (mMED) and the Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI)) and the combined effect of the two scores in association with all-cause and cause-specific mortality (cancer, CVD and ischaemic heart disease). The study included 38 428 women (median age of 61 years) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Diet and covariate data were collected in a questionnaire. mMED and HNFI were generated and categorised into low-, medium- and high-adherence groups, and in nine combinations of these. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of register-ascertained mortality and 95 % CI were calculated in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During follow-up (median: 17 years), 10 478 women died. In the high-adherence categories compared with low-adherence categories, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·81) for mMED and 0·89 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·96) for HNFI. Higher adherence to mMED was associated with lower mortality in each stratum of HNFI in the combined analysis. In general, mMED, compared with HNFI, was more strongly associated with a lower cause-specific mortality. In Swedish women, both mMED and HNFI were inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The combined analysis, however, indicated an advantage to be adherent to the mMED. The present version of HNFI did not associate with mortality independent of mMED score.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/normas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(7): 605-616, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585122

RESUMO

Dietary pattern analysis is a useful tool to study the importance of food components in the context of a diet and how they relate to health and disease. The association between dietary patterns and fractures is at present uncertain. We aimed to study associations between dietary patterns and risk of hip fracture in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 56,736 women (median baseline age 52 years). Diet data was collected in food frequency questionnaires at two investigations and dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis using 31 food groups. Information on hip fractures was collected from the Swedish National Patient Register. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The two patterns identified-the healthy and Western/convenience dietary patterns-were time-updated and analysed. During a median follow-up time of 25.5 years, 4997 women experienced a hip fracture. Hip fracture rate was 31% lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of the healthy dietary pattern [HR (95% CI) 0.69 (0.64; 0.75)]. In contrast, women in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of the Western/convenience dietary pattern had a 50% higher [HR (95% CI) 1.50 (1.38; 1.62)] hip fracture rate. Further, in each stratum of a Western/convenience dietary pattern a higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with less hip fractures. The present results suggest that a varied healthy diet may be beneficial for the prevention of fragility fractures in women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Ocidental , Comportamento Alimentar , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
J Nutr Sci ; 5: e39, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27752306

RESUMO

Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEEDLW), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEEDLW was measured in a subsample (n 40). Compared with TEEDLW, both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEEDLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method (P < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

14.
Ups J Med Sci ; 121(4): 271-275, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring. AIM: To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18-80 years-'Riksmaten 2010-11 adults'. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed. RESULTS: Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 µg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18-44 years of age had depleted iron stores. CONCLUSIONS: The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18-44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements.

15.
Br J Nutr ; 115(1): 95-104, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26490112

RESUMO

Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Suécia
16.
J Nutr Sci ; 4: e25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26495117

RESUMO

The aims of a national dietary study are several-fold. One purpose is to monitor the intake of foods and nutrients in the population and to compare intakes with dietary recommendations. It is, however, difficult to measure dietary fat intake and plasma biomarker fatty acid (FA) composition may be used as an objective measure of dietary fat intake. Thus, the relative ability of a diet record to capture habitual fat intake was validated against biomarker FA. Dietary fat intake was measured in a novel self-assisted web-based 4-d food record - the 'Riksmaten' method. Spearman rank correlations between dietary FA, certain food groups (fish-shellfish, dairy products, meat and sausages, and spreads) and the fat content of these food groups and biomarker FA were explored. Participants were 150 women and 129 men, aged 18-80 years, who took part in the Swedish National Dietary Survey, Riksmaten adults 2010-11. Blood samples were collected on average 20 d after the diet record and FA composition was measured in plasma phospholipids by GLC. Total n-3 FA (r 0·31), EPA (r 0·34) and DHA (r 0·42) were correlated between plasma and diet (all P ≤ 0·001). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the relationships. Linoleic acid was only marginally correlated (r 0·15; P = 0·06) in women. Plasma pentadecaenoic acid and heptadecaenoic acid were correlated with dairy product intake as previously reported. In conclusion, the Riksmaten method appears valid for the purpose of collecting data on dietary fat composition, at least in a healthy adult population.

17.
BMJ ; 349: g6015, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61,433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45,339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15,541 women died and 17,252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10,112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker). CONCLUSIONS: High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 99(3): 551-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24368438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or a high ratio of MUFAs to saturated fatty acids in plasma, reflecting a high activity of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), has been shown to be related to cancer death and incidence in some studies. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study whether the serum cholesteryl ester proportion of palmitoleic acid [16:1n-7 (16:1ω-3)] and the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid (16:1n-7/16:0), as an estimation of the activity of SCD-1, are related to cancer death and to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene are related to cancer mortality. DESIGN: A community-based cohort of 50-y-old men was followed for a maximum of >40 y. Survival analysis was used to relate fatty acid composition in serum, analyzed at baseline by gas-liquid chromatography (n = 1981), and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene (n = 986) to cancer death. A 7-d dietary record was completed at age 70 y (n = 880). RESULTS: The proportions of 16:1n-7 and the ratio of 16:1n-7 to 16:0 were associated with cancer mortality during follow-up in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of 16:1n-7 (adjusted HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82). Inherited variance of the SCD-1 gene seemed to be related to cancer death, especially among men with a low proportion of PUFA in the diet in a comparison of the highest with the lowest weighted genetic risk score (HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.04). CONCLUSION: The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that there is an association between endogenously synthesized MUFAs and cancer death.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Ésteres do Colesterol/sangue , Ésteres do Colesterol/química , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ ; 346: f228, 2013 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between long term intake of dietary and supplemental calcium and death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Swedish mammography cohort, a population based cohort established in 1987-90. PARTICIPANTS: 61 433 women (born between 1914 and 1948) followed-up for a median of 19 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures, identified from registry data, were time to death from all causes (n=11 944) and cause specific cardiovascular disease (n=3862), ischaemic heart disease (n=1932), and stroke (n=1100). Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires at baseline and in 1997 for 38 984 women, and intakes of calcium were estimated. Total calcium intake was the sum of dietary and supplemental calcium. RESULTS: The risk patterns with dietary calcium intake were non-linear, with higher rates concentrated around the highest intakes (≥1400 mg/day). Compared with intakes between 600 and 1000 mg/day, intakes above 1400 mg/day were associated with higher death rates from all causes (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.67), cardiovascular disease (1 49, 1.09 to 2.02), and ischaemic heart disease (2.14, 1.48 to 3.09) but not from stroke (0.73, 0.33 to 1.65). After sensitivity analysis including marginal structural models, the higher death rate with low dietary calcium intake (<600 mg/day) or with low and high total calcium intake was no longer apparent. Use of calcium tablets (6% users; 500 mg calcium per tablet) was not on average associated with all cause or cause specific mortality but among calcium tablet users with a dietary calcium intake above 1400 mg/day the hazard ratio for all cause mortality was 2.57 (95% confidence interval 1.19 to 5.55). CONCLUSION: High intakes of calcium in women are associated with higher death rates from all causes and cardiovascular disease but not from stroke.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
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