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1.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766858

RESUMO

Microbial roles in cancer formation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment have been disputed for centuries. Recent studies have provocatively claimed that bacteria, viruses, and/or fungi are pervasive among cancers, key actors in cancer immunotherapy, and engineerable to treat metastases. Despite these findings, the number of microbes known to directly cause carcinogenesis remains small. Critically evaluating and building frameworks for such evidence in light of modern cancer biology is an important task. In this Review, we delineate between causal and complicit roles of microbes in cancer and trace common themes of their influence through the host's immune system, herein defined as the immuno-oncology-microbiome axis. We further review evidence for intratumoral microbes and approaches that manipulate the host's gut or tumor microbiome while projecting the next phase of experimental discovery.

2.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 301-309, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558722

RESUMO

The association among pathological response, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) with neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we pooled data from six clinical trials of anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. In total, 192 patients were included; 141 received immunotherapy (104, combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab; 37, anti-PD-1 monotherapy), and 51 received targeted therapy. A pathological complete response (pCR) occurred in 40% of patients: 47% with targeted therapy and 33% with immunotherapy (43% combination and 20% monotherapy). pCR correlated with improved RFS (pCR 2-year 89% versus no pCR 50%, P < 0.001) and OS (pCR 2-year OS 95% versus no pCR 83%, P = 0.027). In patients with pCR, near pCR or partial pathological response with immunotherapy, very few relapses were seen (2-year RFS 96%), and, at this writing, no patient has died from melanoma, whereas, even with pCR from targeted therapy, the 2-year RFS was only 79%, and OS was only 91%. Pathological response should be an early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and a new benchmark for development and approval in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 504-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603241

RESUMO

Ipilimumab improves clinical outcomes when combined with nivolumab in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy and impact on the immune microenvironment in operable NSCLC remain unclear. We report the results of the phase 2 randomized NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) of neoadjuvant nivolumab or nivolumab + ipilimumab followed by surgery in 44 patients with operable NSCLC, using major pathologic response (MPR) as the primary endpoint. The MPR rate for each treatment arm was tested against historical controls of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The nivolumab + ipilimumab arm met the prespecified primary endpoint threshold of 6 MPRs in 21 patients, achieving a 38% MPR rate (8/21). We observed a 22% MPR rate (5/23) in the nivolumab arm. In 37 patients resected on trial, nivolumab and nivolumab + ipilimumab produced MPR rates of 24% (5/21) and 50% (8/16), respectively. Compared with nivolumab, nivolumab + ipilimumab resulted in higher pathologic complete response rates (10% versus 38%), less viable tumor (median 50% versus 9%), and greater frequencies of effector, tissue-resident memory and effector memory T cells. Increased abundance of gut Ruminococcus and Akkermansia spp. was associated with MPR to dual therapy. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant nivolumab + ipilimumab-based therapy enhances pathologic responses, tumor immune infiltrates and immunologic memory, and merits further investigation in operable NSCLC.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(1): 6-15, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349682

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is known to be clinically beneficial for cancer patients and in many cases represents the new standard of care. Because of this success, the interest in integrating nanomedicine with cancer immunotherapy to further improve clinical response and toxicity profiles has grown. However, unlike conventional systemic therapies, which are directly cytotoxic to tumour cells, cancer immunotherapy relies on the host's immune system to generate tumouricidal effects. As such, proper design of cancer immune nanomedicine requires scrutiny of tumours' intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may impact host antitumour immunity. Here, we highlight key parameters that differentiate cancer immunotherapy from conventional cytotoxic agents, and we discuss their implications for designing preclinical cancer immune nanomedicine studies. We emphasize that these factors, including intratumoural genomic heterogeneity, commensal diversity, sexual dimorphism and biological ageing, which were largely ignored in traditional cancer nanomedicine experiments, should be carefully considered and incorporated into cancer immune nanomedicine investigations given their critical involvement in shaping the body's antitumour immune responses.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Science ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303685

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been shown to influence the response of tumors to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in pre-clinical mouse models and observational patient cohorts. However, modulation of gut microbiota in cancer patients has not been investigated in clinical trials. Here we performed a phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and feasibility of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and re-induction of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in ten patients with anti-PD-1-refractory metastatic melanoma. We observed clinical responses in three patients, including two partial responses and one complete response. Notably, treatment with FMT was associated with favorable changes in immune cell infiltrates and gene expression profiles in both the gut lamina propria and the tumor microenvironment. Together, these early findings have important implications for modulating the gut microbiota in cancer treatment.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188142

RESUMO

Tremendous progress has been made in treating patients with metastatic melanoma over the past decade. In that timeframe, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 12 novel treatments for patients with advanced unresectable melanoma, comprising both kinase-targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and 5 treatments for adjuvant (postoperative) use in patients with high-risk resectable stage III melanoma. It is not known whether outcomes can be further improved by administering kinase inhibitors or ICI in the neoadjuvant (presurgical) setting in patients with high-risk resectable melanomas. Noting research community interest in exploring the neoadjuvant approach for treating melanoma and recognizing that early harmonization of methodologies may expedite the development of therapeutics in this space, the FDA and Melanoma Research Alliance convened a public workshop on November 6, 2019, in National Harbor, Maryland, to discuss key issues. The workshop consisted of 23 faculty and included more than 250 live participants. Topics discussed included opportunities for advancing novel endpoints for regulatory purposes as well as translational research, clinical trial design considerations, and strategies for optimizing patient selection while mitigating risk.

7.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(11): 1365-1380, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917656

RESUMO

Despite the clinical success of T-cell checkpoint blockade, most patients with cancer still fail to have durable responses to immunotherapy. The molecular mechanisms driving checkpoint blockade resistance, whether preexisting or evolved, remain unclear. To address this critical knowledge gap, we treated B16 melanoma with the combination of CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 blockade and a Flt3 ligand vaccine (≥75% curative), isolated tumors resistant to therapy, and serially passaged them in vivo with the same treatment regimen until they developed complete resistance. Using gene expression analysis and immunogenomics, we determined the adaptations associated with this resistance phenotype. Checkpoint resistance coincided with acquisition of a "hypermetabolic" phenotype characterized by coordinated upregulation of the glycolytic, oxidoreductase, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathways. These resistant tumors flourished under hypoxic conditions, whereas metabolically starved T cells lost glycolytic potential, effector function, and the ability to expand in response to immunotherapy. Furthermore, we found that checkpoint-resistant versus -sensitive tumors could be separated by noninvasive MRI imaging based solely on their metabolic state. In a cohort of patients with melanoma resistant to both CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade, we observed upregulation of pathways indicative of a similar hypermetabolic state. Together, these data indicated that melanoma can evade T-cell checkpoint blockade immunotherapy by adapting a hypermetabolic phenotype.

9.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 878-880, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946762

RESUMO

Recent work by Kadosh et al. (2020) suggests that mutant p53 activity in gut epithelia is influenced by local production of microbial metabolites. The switch of p53 from tumor suppressor to oncogene is location-dependent and is impacted by microbially derived gallic acid.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carcinogênese , Humanos , Oncogenes , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
J Exp Med ; 217(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491160

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells are master effectors of antitumor immunity, and their presence at tumor sites correlates with favorable outcomes. However, metabolic constraints imposed by the tumor microenvironment (TME) can dampen their ability to control tumor progression. We describe lipid accumulation in the TME areas of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) populated by CD8+ T cells infiltrating both murine and human tumors. In this lipid-rich but otherwise nutrient-poor TME, access to using lipid metabolism becomes particularly valuable for sustaining cell functions. Here, we found that intrapancreatic CD8+ T cells progressively accumulate specific long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which, rather than provide a fuel source, impair their mitochondrial function and trigger major transcriptional reprogramming of pathways involved in lipid metabolism, with the subsequent reduction of fatty acid catabolism. In particular, intrapancreatic CD8+ T cells specifically exhibit down-regulation of the very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) enzyme, which exacerbates accumulation of LCFAs and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that mediate lipotoxicity. Metabolic reprogramming of tumor-specific T cells through enforced expression of ACADVL enabled enhanced intratumoral T cell survival and persistence in an engineered mouse model of PDA, overcoming one of the major hurdles to immunotherapy for PDA.

11.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 22(7): 74, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577835

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review emerging evidence regarding the impact of gut microbes on antitumor immunity, and ongoing efforts to translate this in clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Pre-clinical models and human cohort studies support a role for gut microbes in modulating overall immunity and immunotherapy response, and numerous trials are now underway exploring strategies to modulate gut microbes to enhance responses to cancer therapy. This includes the use of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), which is being used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection among other non-cancer indications. The use of FMT is now being extended to modulate gut microbes in patients being treated with cancer immunotherapy, with the goal of enhancing responses and/or to ameliorate toxicity. However, significant complexities exist with such an approach and will be discussed herein. Data from ongoing studies of FMT in cancer will provide critical insights for optimization of this approach.

12.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(11): 2146-2156.e4, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304704

RESUMO

The integrity of the immune system represents a pivotal risk factor and prognostic biomarker for Merkel cell carcinoma. A higher density of tumor-associated T cells correlates with improved Merkel cell carcinoma-specific survival, but the prognostic importance of the T-cell infiltrate reactivity is unknown. We evaluated the T-cell receptor repertoire associated with 72 primary Merkel cell carcinomas and correlated metrics of the T-cell receptor repertoire with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient outcomes. We showed that a high Simpson's Dominance index (SDom) was significantly associated with fewer metastases (P = 0.01), lower stage at presentation (P = 0.02), lower final stage at last follow-up (P = 0.05), and longer time to first lymph node metastasis (P = 0.04). These correlations were mostly preserved in the Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative subgroup. Combining SDom with CD3+ or CD8+ T-cell density revealed three distinct prognostic groups with respect to disease-specific survival. Patients with both high SDom and high CD3+ or CD8+ T-cell density had markedly improved disease-specific survival compared with patients with low SDom and low CD3+ or CD8+ T-cell density (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively). Patients with either high SDom or high CD3+ or CD8+ had intermediate disease-specific survival. Our findings demonstrate that the quality of the tumor-associated T-cell infiltrate informs patient prognosis in primary Merkel cell carcinoma beyond the T-cell density.

14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1244: 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301026

RESUMO

The field of cancer therapy has been revolutionized through the use of immunotherapy, and treatment with these therapies now spans from early to late stage, and even into prevention. However, there are still a significant proportion of patients who do not derive long-term benefit from monotherapy and even combined therapy regimens, and novel approaches are needed to enhance therapeutic responses. Additionally, ideal biomarkers of response to immunotherapy are lacking and are critically needed. An emerging area of interest in immuno-oncology (IO) is the microbiome, which refers to the collection of microbes (and their genomes) that inhabit an individual and live in symbiosis. There is now evidence that these microbes (particularly those within the gut) impact host physiology and can impact responses to immunotherapy. The field of microbiome research in immuno-oncology is quickly emerging, with the potential use of the microbiome (in the gut as well as in the tumor) as a biomarker for response to IO as well as a therapeutic target. Notably, the microbiome may even have a role in toxicity to therapy. The state of the science in microbiome and IO are discussed and caveats and future directions are outlined to provide insights as we move forward as a field.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Microbiota/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1839, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296058

RESUMO

Complex tumor microenvironmental (TME) features influence the outcome of cancer immunotherapy (IO). Here we perform immunogenomic analyses on 67 intratumor sub-regions of a PD-1 inhibitor-resistant melanoma tumor and 2 additional metastases arising over 8 years, to characterize TME interactions. We identify spatially distinct evolution of copy number alterations influencing local immune composition. Sub-regions with chromosome 7 gain display a relative lack of leukocyte infiltrate but evidence of neutrophil activation, recapitulated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples, and associated with lack of response to IO across three clinical cohorts. Whether neutrophil activation represents cause or consequence of local tumor necrosis requires further study. Analyses of T-cell clonotypes reveal the presence of recurrent priming events manifesting in a dominant T-cell clonotype over many years. Our findings highlight the links between marked levels of genomic and immune heterogeneity within the physical space of a tumor, with implications for biomarker evaluation and immunotherapy response.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Ativação de Neutrófilo/genética , Ativação de Neutrófilo/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 885-896, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067144

RESUMO

With the advent of next-generation sequencing approaches, there has been a renaissance in the microbiome field. Microbial taxonomy and function can now be characterized relatively easily and rapidly-no longer mandating complex culturing approaches. With this renaissance, there is now a strong and growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome (referring to microbes and their genomes) in modulating many facets of physiology-including overall immunity. This is particularly true of the gut microbiome, and there is now an evolving body of the literature demonstrating a role for gut microbes in modulating responses to cancer treatment-particularly immunotherapy. Gut microbes can modulate immunity and anti-tumor responses via a number of different interactions, and these will be discussed herein. Additionally, data regarding the impact of gut microbes on cancer immunotherapy response will be discussed, as will strategies to manipulate the microbiome to enhance therapeutic responses. These efforts to date are not completely optimized; however, there is evidence of efficacy though much additional work is needed in this space. Nonetheless, it is clear that the microbiome plays a central role in health and disease, and strategies to manipulate it in cancer and overall precision health are being explored.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunoterapia/tendências , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 853, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051401

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have achieved unprecedented results in melanoma, the biological features of the durable responses initiated by these drugs remain unknown. Here we show the genetic and phenotypic changes induced by treatment with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade in a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma driven by oncogenic BRAF. In this controlled system anti-PD-1 treatment yields responses in ~35% of the tumors, and prolongs survival in ~27% of the animals. We identify increased stroma remodeling and reduced expression of proliferation markers as features associated with prolonged response. These traits are corroborated in two independent early on-treatment anti-PD-1 melanoma patient cohorts. These insights into the biological responses of tumors to ICI provide a strategy for identification of durable response early during the course of treatment and could improve patient stratification for checkpoint inhibitory drugs.


Assuntos
Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1886-1895, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015020

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a need for sensitive, reproducible biomarkers for patients with stage III melanoma to guide clinical decision making. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be detected in patients with melanoma; however, there are limited data regarding their significance in stage III disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether CTCs are associated with early relapse in stage III melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We prospectively assessed CTCs at first presentation in clinic (baseline) for 243 patients with stage III melanoma. CTCs were measured using the CellSearch System. Relapse-free survival (RFS) was compared between patients with one or more baseline CTC versus those with no CTCs. Log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were applied to establish associations of CTCs with RFS. RESULTS: At least one baseline CTC was identified in 90 of 243 (37%) patients. Forty-five (19%), 67 (28%), 118 (49%), and 13 (5%) patients were stage IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, or IIID, respectively. CTC detection was not associated with substage, or primary tumor characteristics. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the detection of ≥1 baseline CTC was significantly associated with decreased 6-month RFS [log-rank, P < 0.0001; HR, 3.62, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78-7.36; P < 0.0001] and 54-month RFS (log-rank, P = 0.01; HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.54; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ≥1 CTC was independently associated with melanoma relapse, suggesting that CTC assessment may be useful to identify patients at risk for relapse who could derive benefit from adjuvant therapy.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 603, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001676

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting T cells is increasingly utilized to treat solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This requires a better understanding of the T cells in the lungs of patients with NSCLC. Here, we report T cell repertoire analysis in a cohort of 236 early-stage NSCLC patients. T cell repertoire attributes are associated with clinicopathologic features, mutational and immune landscape. A considerable proportion of the most prevalent T cells in tumors are also prevalent in the uninvolved tumor-adjacent lungs and appear specific to shared background mutations or viral infections. Patients with higher T cell repertoire homology between the tumor and uninvolved tumor-adjacent lung, suggesting a less tumor-focused T cell response, exhibit inferior survival. These findings indicate that a concise understanding of antigens and T cells in NSCLC is needed to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity with immunotherapy, particularly adoptive T cell therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Células Clonais , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
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