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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105452, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580386

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant influence on social interactions, introducing novel social norms such as mask-wearing and social distancing to protect people's health. Because these norms and associated practices are completely novel, it is unknown how children assess what kinds of interventions are appropriate under what circumstances and what principles they draw on in their decisions. We investigated children's reasoning about interventions against individuals who failed to adhere to COVID-19 norms. In this pre-registered study (N = 128), 4- to 7-year-olds heard stories about a norm violator, that is, a person who refuses to wear a mask in class (COVID condition) or wear indoor shoes in class when his or her shoes are muddy (Muddy Shoes condition). Children evaluated four different interventions-giving a mask/indoor shoes (Giving), preventing the person from entering (Exclusion), throwing a paper ball at the person (Throwing), and not intervening (Doing Nothing)-in terms of their rightness, niceness, and effectiveness. We found that across measures children evaluated Giving most positively, whereas they viewed Throwing most negatively. Doing Nothing and Exclusion received mixed evaluations across measures, revealing nuanced judgments of these interventions in children. In most measures, there was no difference between the COVID and Muddy Shoes conditions, suggesting that children's evaluations are not specific to the novel COVID-19 context. Together, our results show that children dynamically evaluate each intervention, taking multiple factors into account. The current study has implications for the development of interventions against norm violations.

2.
Dev Psychol ; 58(5): 866-873, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324225

RESUMO

Third-party punishment has been regarded as an important mechanism to promote fairness. Although previous research has shown that children aged 6 and older punish unfair behaviors at a personal cost, it is unknown whether they actually intend to establish equality or whether equality is a mere byproduct of punishment. In this preregistered study, N = 60 five- to 9-year-olds witnessed that an agent made unfair resource allocations to a peer. Children could then decide not only whether to punish but also how much to punish. We found that with age, children's intervention is more likely to equalize outcomes between third parties (e.g., turning 3:1 into 1:1). In conclusion, the egalitarian motive to reduce differences in payoffs could underlie children's punishment over development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Punição , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Motivação , Grupo Associado
3.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 43: 323-328, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530222

RESUMO

Children act prosocially already in their first years of life. Research has shown that this early prosociality is mostly motivated by sympathy for others, but that, over the course of development, children's prosocial behaviors become more varied, more selective, and more motivationally and cognitively complex. Here, we review recent evidence showing that starting at around age 5, children become gradually capable of strategically using prosocial acts as instrumental means to achieve ulterior goals such as to improve their reputation, to be chosen as social partners, to elicit reciprocity, and to navigate interpersonal obligations. Children's sympathy-based prosociality is thus being extended and reshaped into a behavioral repertoire that enables individuals to pursue and balance altruistic, mutualistic, and selfish motives.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Humanos , Motivação
4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1819): 20190673, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423631

RESUMO

A key component of economic decisions is the integration of information about reward outcomes and probabilities in selecting between competing options. In many species, risky choice is influenced by the magnitude of available outcomes, probability of success and the possibility of extreme outcomes. Chimpanzees are generally regarded to be risk-seeking. In this study, we examined two aspects of chimpanzees' risk preferences: first, whether setting the value of the non-preferred outcome of a risky option to zero changes chimpanzees' risk preferences, and second, whether individual risk preferences are stable across two different measures. Across two experiments, we found chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, n = 23) as a group to be risk-neutral to risk-avoidant with highly stable individual risk preferences. We discuss how the possibility of going empty-handed might reduce chimpanzees' risk-seeking relative to previous studies. This malleability in risk preferences as a function of experimental parameters and individual differences raises interesting questions about whether it is appropriate or helpful to categorize a species as a whole as risk-seeking or risk-avoidant. This article is part of the theme issue 'Existence and prevalence of economic behaviours among non-human primates'.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Recompensa , Assunção de Riscos , Animais , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Individualidade , Masculino
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 200: 104909, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866656

RESUMO

Humans punish fairness violations both as victims and as impartial third parties, which can maintain cooperative behavior. However, it is unknown whether similar motivations underlie punishment of unfairness in these two contexts. Here we approached this question by focusing on how both types of punishment develop in children, asking the question: What motivates young children to punish in response to fairness norm violations? We explored two potential factors: the direct experience of unfair outcomes and a partner's fair versus unfair intentions. The participants, 5- and 7-year-olds, were given the chance to engage in both second- and third-party punishment in response to either intended or unintended fairness norm violations in a single paradigm. In both age-groups, children were more likely to punish when they were directly affected by the allocation (second-party punishment) than when they were an uninvolved third party (third-party punishment). Reliable third-party punishment was shown only in the older age-group. Moreover, children's punishment was driven by outcome rather than intent, with equal rates of punishment when unequal outcomes were either the result of chance or the intentional act of another child. These findings suggest that younger children may be mainly motivated to create equal outcomes between themselves and others, whereas older children are motivated to enforce fairness norms as a general principle.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Intenção , Punição/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Cognition ; 205: 104374, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819708

RESUMO

Third-party punishment of selfish individuals is an important mechanism to intervene against unfairness. However, there is another way in which third parties can intervene. Rather than focusing on the unfair individual, third parties can choose to help those who were treated unfairly by reducing inequality. Such third-party helping as an alternative to third-party punishment has received little attention in studies with children. Across four studies, we examined the evaluations of third-party punishment versus third-party helping in N = 322 5- to 9-year-old children. Study 1, 3 and 4 showed that when asked about the agents directly, children evaluated both helpers and punishers positively, but they preferred helpers over punishers overall. When asked about the type of intervention itself, children preferred helping over punishment, suggesting that their preference for the type of intervention corresponds to how children think about the agents performing these interventions. Study 2 showed that children's preference for third-party helping is driven by distributive justice concerns and not a mere preference for giving or resource maximization as children consider which type of third-party intervention decreases inequality. Together, these studies demonstrate that children between 5 and 9 years of age develop a sophisticated understanding of punishment and helping as two adequate forms of intervention, but also display a preference for third-party helping. We discuss how these findings and prior work with adults support the hypothesis of developmental continuity, showing that a preference for helping over punishment is deeply rooted in ontogeny.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Punição , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Justiça Social
7.
Dev Psychol ; 56(4): 773-782, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999186

RESUMO

Advantageous inequity aversion emerges relatively late in child development, yet the mechanisms explaining its late emergence are poorly understood. Here, we ask whether children begin to reject advantageous inequity, a costly form of fairness, once reputational concerns are in place. Specifically, we examine the role of peer monitoring in promoting fair behavior. In Study 1 (N = 212 pairs; Ages 6 to 9), we test whether children are less likely to reject advantageous allocations depending on who is aware of their behavior. Results show that children are more likely to accept advantageous allocations when their peer partner is unaware of their advantage. In Study 2 (N = 134 pairs; Ages 8 and 9), we show that this effect is driven specifically by whether the affected peer partners can see the allocation and not by whether third-party peer observers witness the decision. Together, these results shed light on the factors influencing fairness development in childhood and, more specifically, suggest that advantageous inequity aversion is influenced by a desire to appear fair to those getting the short end of the stick. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 188: 104675, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446310

RESUMO

Adults will offer favors to advance their standing and solicit a favor in return, using ostensibly prosocial acts strategically for selfish ends. Here we assessed the developmental emergence of such strategic behaviors in which individuals are generous to elicit future reciprocation from others. In a novel experimental paradigm with children aged 3 to 7 years, we tested whether children are willing to share more valuable resources when this act could prompt subsequent reciprocation. In an Experimental condition, children could share a more attractive or less attractive resource with a person who they knew would subsequently choose to play a game with either the children or another individual. In the Control condition, children knew the person would play alone. Across two studies, we found that over repeated trials, 5- and 7-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, learned to share more valuable resources in the Experimental condition than in the Control condition. This shows that older age groups were able to quickly learn how to influence the subsequent partner choice in a novel situation. We address theoretical questions about the various types of reciprocity as being supported by different psychological mechanisms and discuss whether the current results could be explained by children's emerging ability for future-directed thinking.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Aprendizagem , Comportamento Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino
9.
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1907): 20190822, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337306

RESUMO

Mutually beneficial interactions often require trust that others will reciprocate. Such interpersonal trust is foundational to evolutionarily unique aspects of human social behaviour, such as economic exchange. In adults, interpersonal trust is often assessed using the 'trust game', in which a lender invests resources in a trustee who may or may not repay the loan. This game captures two crucial elements of economic exchange: the potential for greater mutual benefits by trusting in others, and the moral hazard that others may betray that trust. While adults across cultures can trust others, little is known about the developmental origins of this crucial cooperative ability. We developed the first version of the trust game for use with young children that addresses these two components of trust. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that 4- and 6-year-olds recognize opportunities to invest in others, sharing more when reciprocation is possible than in a context measuring pure generosity. Yet, children become better with age at investing in trustworthy over untrustworthy partners, indicating that this cooperative skill emerges later in ontogeny. Together, our results indicate that young children can engage in complex economic exchanges involving judgements about interpersonal trust and show increasing sensitivity to appropriate partners over development.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento , Comportamento Social , Confiança/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 181: 110-120, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711299

RESUMO

Prospection, the ability to engage in future-oriented thinking and decision making, begins to develop during the preschool years yet remains far from adult-like. One specific challenge for children of this age is with regard to thinking and reasoning about their future selves. Drawing from work indicating the importance of adult-child conversation in language and cognitive development, the current study examined the extent to which conversations about the future and the self may facilitate preschool-aged children's prospective thinking. The participants, 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 68), were randomly assigned to read books surrounding one of four topics with an adult experimenter: their present self, their future self, another child's present self, or another child's future self. Children whose conversations were centered on their future selves outperformed other children in the sample on a battery of prospection assessments taken immediately after the manipulation. Of the three prospection assessments administered, the manipulation had the strongest effect on children's prospective memories. Results are discussed in terms of the role that everyday conversation can play in fostering children's cognitive development during the early childhood years.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Previsões , Leitura , Pensamento , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Dev Sci ; 22(1): e12702, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978941

RESUMO

Human prosocial behaviors are supported by early-emerging psychological processes that detect and fulfill the needs of others. However, little is known about the mechanisms that enable children to deliver benefits to others at costs to the self, which requires weighing other-regarding and self-serving preferences. We used an intertemporal choice paradigm to systematically study and compare these behaviors in 5-year-old children. Our results show that other-benefiting and self-benefiting behavior share a common decision-making process that integrates delay and reward. Specifically, we found that children sought to minimize delay and maximize reward, and traded off delays against rewards, regardless of whether these rewards were for the children themselves or another child. However, we found that children were more willing to invest their time to benefit themselves than someone else. Together, these findings show that from childhood, other- and self-serving decisions are supported by a general mechanism that flexibly integrates information about the magnitude of rewards, and the opportunity costs of pursuing them. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/r8S0DGe7f8Q.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Recompensa , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 177: 282-296, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274706

RESUMO

Recent research has shown that children's sense of fairness is shaped in part by cultural practices, values, and norms. However, the specific social factors that motivate children's fairness decisions remain poorly understood. The current study combined an ethnographic approach with experimental tests of fairness (the Inequity Game) in two Chinese schools with qualitatively different practices and norms. In the "University school," children received explicit moral instruction on fairness reinforced by adults when supervising children's activities. By contrast, in the "Community school," children received less formal moral education and little adult supervision during play time, but norms of cooperation and fairness emerged through informal interactions with peers and other members of the community. Contrary to our predictions, children in both schools (N = 66) rejected both disadvantageous and advantageous allocations of resources in the test trials. However, in the very first practice trials, children from the Community school tended to reject all inequalities, whereas children from the University school tended to accept inequalities. We draw on the ethnographies of the schools to interpret these results, concluding that, despite the similarities in the experimental results, different motivations and social factors likely underlie the rejection of inequality in the two schools.


Assuntos
/etnologia , Comportamento Infantil , Princípios Morais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Psicologia da Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 69: 205-229, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876999

RESUMO

In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms. I review empirical studies with children showing a dissociation in the origins of and developmental change seen in these two sets of processes. In addition, comparative studies of nonhuman apes also highlight important differences between these skills: The ability to generate benefits has evolutionary roots that are shared between humans and nonhuman apes, whereas there is little evidence that other apes exhibit comparable capacities for distributing benefits. I conclude by proposing ways in which this framework can motivate new developmental, comparative, and cross-cultural research about human cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento de Ajuda , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente
17.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187787, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141009

RESUMO

Humans are unique in their propensity for helping. Not only do we help others in need by reacting to their requests, we also help proactively by assisting in the absence of a request. Proactive helping requires the actor to detect the need for help, recognize the intention of the other, and remedy the situation. Very little is known about the development of this social phenomenon beyond an urban, industrialized setting. We examined helping in nineteen two- to five-year old children in small-scale rural villages of Vanuatu. In the experimental condition, the intentions of the experimenter were made salient, whereas in the control condition they were ambiguous. Children helped more often in the experimental compared to the control condition, suggesting that the propensity to monitor others' goals and act accordingly can be detected in different cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Vanuatu
18.
Cognition ; 168: 344-356, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797935

RESUMO

Children across diverse societies reject resource allocations that place them at a disadvantage (disadvantageous inequity aversion; DI). In certain societies, older children also reject advantageous allocations (advantageous inequity aversion; AI). Other work demonstrates that after collaboration, children reduce inequity by sharing. However, it is unknown whether collaboration leads to greater sharing because it encourages prosociality (Generosity Hypothesis) or because collaboration elicits stronger equitable tendencies (Equity Hypothesis). Here we use measures of inequity aversion that can disambiguate between these hypotheses. We tested 7- to 13-year-old children from rural India, a population that has shown DI but not AI, and 4- to 10-year-old children from rural Canada, a population that shows both AI and DI. Pairs of children worked either collaboratively or in parallel obtaining candy that was then used in a test of DI and AI. Results showed that in both societies collaboration did not encourage children to accept DI offers, providing evidence against the Generosity Hypothesis. However, in both societies older children demonstrated AI after collaboration but not after parallel work. For children in India AI emerged in ages where it had not been previously observed and children in Canada showed AI during early middle childhood. This suggests that collaboration can induce a willingness to sacrifice an advantage to achieve equity, consistent with the Equity Hypothesis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interpessoais , Alocação de Recursos , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Evol Anthropol ; 25(6): 297-305, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004893

RESUMO

Across all cultures, humans engage in cooperative activities that can be as simple as preparing a meal or sharing food with others and as complex as playing in an orchestra or donating to charity. Although intraspecific cooperation exists among many other animal species, only humans engage in such a wide array of cooperative interaction and participate in large-scale cooperation that extends beyond kin and even includes strangers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
20.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 152: 149-160, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552298

RESUMO

Adult influence on children's altruistic behavior may differ between cultural communities. We used an experimental approach to assess the influence of adult models on children's altruistic giving in a city in the United States and rural villages in India. Children between 3 and 8 years of age were tested with their parents in the United States (n=163) and India (n=154). Parents modeled either a generous or stingy donation; children then performed a similar task in private. Children in both communities were influenced by the stingy model, but only children in India increased their giving after viewing a generous model. The model's influence also increased with age in India. Results of a questionnaire revealed that parents in both communities believed that children learned sharing behavior from them. We consider these results in light of differences between these societies, including different socialization goals, cultural values, and content biases that may affect altruistic giving.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Doações , Relações Pais-Filho , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Saúde da População Rural , Socialização , Estados Unidos
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