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1.
JAMA ; 326(2): 137-144, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255009

RESUMO

Importance: Platelet-rich plasma injections are used as a treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, but evidence for this treatment is limited. Objective: In adults with midportion Achilles tendinopathy, to assess the effects of a single platelet-rich plasma injection, compared with sham injection, on the outcome of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score (a single composite measure of Achilles tendinopathy severity). Design, Setting, and Participants: A participant-blinded, multicenter randomized clinical trial that included 240 people from 24 sites assigned to either a platelet-rich plasma injection or a sham injection between April 2016 and February 2020. Final follow-up was July 2020. Participants were older than 18 years with midportion Achilles tendon pain for more than 3 months as confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. Interventions: A single intratendinous platelet-rich plasma injection (n = 121) or a single sham injection (insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle not entering the tendon) (n = 119). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the VISA-A score, measured 6 months after treatment allocation. The VISA-A score contains 8 questions that cover 3 domains of pain, function, and activity, analyzed as a composite score (range, 0 [worst symptoms] to 100 [no symptoms]; minimal clinically important difference in score, 12 points). The primary analysis was adjusted for laterality, age, sex, and baseline VISA-A score. Results: Among 240 patients assigned to a platelet-rich plasma or sham injection (mean age, 52 years; 138 [58%] women), 221 (92%) completed the trial. At 6-month follow-up, mean VISA-A score values in the plasma-rich plasma group vs the sham injection group were 54.4 vs 53.4 (adjusted mean difference, -2.7 [95% CI, -8.8 to 3.3]). The most common adverse events compared between patients in the platelet-rich plasma group vs the sham group were injection site discomfort (97 vs 73 patients), swelling (56 vs 52 patients) and bruising (48 vs 49 patients). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, treatment with a single injection of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma, compared with insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle, did not reduce Achilles tendon dysfunction at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of this treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN13254422.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Tendinopatia/terapia , Tendão do Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Esportes , Falha de Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045353, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tourniquet use in total knee replacement (TKR) is believed to improve the bone-cement interface by reducing bleeding, potentially prolonging implant survival. This study aimed to compare the risk of revision for primary cemented TKR performed with or without a tourniquet. DESIGN: We analysed data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for all primary cemented TKRs performed in England and Wales between April 2003 and December 2003. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression were used to assess the influence of tourniquet use, age at time of surgery, sex and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification on risk of revision for all-causes. RESULTS: Data were available for 16 974 cases of primary cemented TKR, of which 16 132 had surgery with a tourniquet and 842 had surgery without a tourniquet. At 10 years, 3.8% had undergone revision (95% CI 2.6% to 5.5%) in the no-tourniquet group and 3.1% in the tourniquet group (95% CI 2.8% to 3.4%). After adjusting for age at primary surgery, gender and primary ASA score, the HR for all-cause revision for cemented TKR without a tourniquet was 0.82 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that using a tourniquet for primary cemented TKR offers a clinically important or statistically significant reduction in the risk of all-cause revision up to 13 years after surgery. Surgeons should consider this evidence when deciding whether to use a tourniquet for cemented TKR.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação , Torniquetes , País de Gales
3.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(29): 1-84, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behaviour problems emerge early in childhood and place children at risk for later psychopathology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting intervention to prevent enduring behaviour problems in young children. DESIGN: A pragmatic, assessor-blinded, multisite, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Health visiting services in six NHS trusts in England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 300 at-risk children aged 12-36 months and their parents/caregivers. INTERVENTIONS: Families were allocated in a 1 : 1 ratio to six sessions of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) plus usual care or usual care alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms, which is a structured interview of behaviour symptoms. Secondary outcomes included caregiver-reported total problems on the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The intervention effect was estimated using linear regression. Health and social care service use was recorded using the Child and Adolescent Service Use Schedule and cost-effectiveness was explored using the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 300 families were randomised: 151 to VIPP-SD plus usual care and 149 to usual care alone. Follow-up data were available for 286 (VIPP-SD, n = 140; usual care, n = 146) participants and 282 (VIPP-SD, n = 140; usual care, n = 142) participants at 5 and 24 months, respectively. At the post-treatment (primary outcome) follow-up, a group difference of 2.03 on Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 4.01; p = 0.04) indicated a positive treatment effect on behaviour problems (Cohen's d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.40). The effect was strongest for children's conduct [1.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 2.78; p = 0.007 (d = 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.51)] versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms [0.29, 95% confidence interval -1.06 to 1.65; p = 0.67 (d = 0.05, 95% confidence interval -0.17 to 0.27)]. The Child Behaviour Checklist [3.24, 95% confidence interval -0.06 to 6.54; p = 0.05 (d = 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.31)] and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [0.93, 95% confidence interval -0.03 to 1.9; p = 0.06 (d = 0.18, 95% confidence interval -0.01 to 0.36)] demonstrated similar positive treatment effects to those found for the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms. At 24 months, the group difference on the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms was 1.73 [95% confidence interval -0.24 to 3.71; p = 0.08 (d = 0.17, 95% confidence interval -0.02 to 0.37)]; the effect remained strongest for conduct [1.07, 95% confidence interval -0.06 to 2.20; p = 0.06 (d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval -0.01 to 0.42)] versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms [0.62, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to 1.84; p = 0.32 (d = 0.10, 95% confidence interval -0.10 to 0.30)], with little evidence of an effect on the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The primary economic analysis showed better outcomes in the VIPP-SD group at 24 months, but also higher costs than the usual-care group (adjusted mean difference £1450, 95% confidence interval £619 to £2281). No treatment- or trial-related adverse events were reported. The probability of VIPP-SD being cost-effective compared with usual care at the 24-month follow-up increased as willingness to pay for improvements on the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms increased, with VIPP-SD having the higher probability of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay values above £800 per 1-point improvement on the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The proportion of participants with graduate-level qualifications was higher than among the general public. CONCLUSIONS: VIPP-SD is effective in reducing behaviour problems in young children when delivered by health visiting teams. Most of the effect of VIPP-SD appears to be retained over 24 months. However, we can be less certain about its value for money. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58327365. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 29. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Behaviour problems in young children are common and are linked to mental and physical health problems, and educational and social difficulties. An important factor that influences the development of behaviour problems is the quality of care that children receive from their caregivers. This study aimed to test if a six-session parenting programme [called Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD)] reduced behaviour problems in children aged 1 or 2 years who were showing early signs of behaviour problems (e.g. restlessness, impulsivity, tantrums and aggression). VIPP-SD supports caregivers in responding to their child's communication and behaviour. A total of 300 families participated. All families continued to access usual health-care services (e.g. health visitors and general practitioners), but half of the families were randomly allocated to also receive the VIPP-SD programme. We visited all families when the study started, and at 5 and 24 months to see if the children whose families received VIPP-SD showed fewer behaviour problems. We measured the children's behaviour by completing interviews and questionnaires with their caregivers. We also analysed whether or not VIPP-SD was good value for money compared with existing services. We did this by comparing the cost of all of the standard health and community services that families accessed during their time in the study, taking account of the impact that VIPP-SD had on children's behaviour. The children in the VIPP-SD group had lower levels of behaviour problems following the programme than children whose parents did not receive the programme. On average, VIPP-SD children scored 2 points lower on the main measure of behaviour; an example difference would be tantrums being rated as mild rather than severe. By the 2-year visit, the VIPP-SD children continued to show lower levels of behaviour problems. It is less clear whether or not VIPP-SD is good value for money, as this depends on how much money policy-makers are willing to invest for reductions in behaviour problems. Overall, there is strong evidence that the VIPP-SD programme is effective in reducing behaviour problems in the short term. Most of this benefit appears to be maintained for the following 2 years. However, we are less certain about the long-term effect and the VIPP-SD's value for money.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Pais
5.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 830-839, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683139

RESUMO

AIMS: Many surgeons choose to perform total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery with the aid of a tourniquet. A tourniquet is a device that fits around the leg and restricts blood flow to the limb. There is a need to understand whether tourniquets are safe, and if they benefit, or harm, patients. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits and harms of tourniquet use in TKA surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and trial registries up to 26 March 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing TKA with a tourniquet versus without a tourniquet. Outcomes included: pain, function, serious adverse events (SAEs), blood loss, implant stability, duration of surgery, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: We included 41 RCTs with 2,819 participants. SAEs were significantly more common in the tourniquet group (53/901 vs 26/898, tourniquet vs no tourniquet respectively) (risk ratio 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.73). The mean pain score on the first postoperative day was 1.25 points higher (95% CI 0.32 to 2.19) in the tourniquet group. Overall blood loss did not differ between groups (mean difference 8.61 ml; 95% CI -83.76 to 100.97). The mean length of hospital stay was 0.34 days longer in the group that had surgery with a tourniquet (95% CI 0.03 to 0.64) and the mean duration of surgery was 3.7 minutes shorter (95% CI -5.53 to -1.87). CONCLUSION: TKA with a tourniquet is associated with an increased risk of SAEs, pain, and a marginally longer hospital stay. The only finding in favour of tourniquet use was a shorter time in theatre. The results make it difficult to justify the routine use of a tourniquet in TKA surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):830-839.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Torniquetes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Torniquetes/efeitos adversos
6.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(6): 567-576, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720329

RESUMO

Importance: Behavior problems are one of the most common mental health disorders in childhood and can undermine children's health, education, and employment outcomes into adulthood. There are few effective interventions for early childhood. Objective: To test the clinical effectiveness of a brief parenting intervention, the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD), in reducing behavior problems in children aged 12 to 36 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Healthy Start, Happy Start study was a 2-group, parallel-group, researcher-blind, multisite randomized clinical trial conducted via health visiting services in 6 National Health Service trusts in England. Baseline and 5-month follow-up data were collected between July 30, 2015, and April 27, 2018. Of 818 eligible families, 227 declined to participate, and 300 were randomized into the trial. Target participants were caregivers of children who scored in the top 20% for behavior problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Participants were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to receive either VIPP-SD (n = 151) or usual care (n = 149), stratified by site and number of participating caregivers. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Statistical analysis was performed from September 5, 2019, to January 17, 2020. Interventions: All families continued to access usual care. Families allocated to VIPP-SD were offered 6 home-based video-feedback sessions of 1 to 2 hours' duration every 2 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the score on an early childhood version of the Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms, a semistructured interview of behavior symptoms, at 5 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included caregiver-reported behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: Among 300 participating children (163 boys [54%]; mean [SD] age, 23.0 [6.7] months), primary outcome data were available for 140 of 151 VIPP-SD participants (93%) and 146 of 149 usual care participants (98%). There was a mean difference in the total Preschool Parental Account of Children's Symptoms score of 2.03 (95% CI, 0.06-4.01; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.20 [95% CI, 0.01-0.40]) between trial groups, with fewer behavior problems in the VIPP-SD group, particularly conduct symptoms (mean difference, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.44-2.78]; P = .007; d = 0.30 [95% CI, 0.08-0.51]). Other child behavior outcomes showed similar evidence favoring VIPP-SD. No treatment or trial-related adverse events were reported. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that VIPP-SD was effective in reducing symptoms of early behavior problems in young children when delivered in a routine health service context. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN58327365.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043564, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tourniquets are routinely used during total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. They could increase the risk of thromboembolic events including cerebral emboli, cognitive decline, pain and other adverse events (AEs). A randomised controlled trial to assess whether tourniquet use might safely be avoided is therefore warranted but it is unclear whether such a trial would be feasible. METHODS: In a single-site feasibility study and pilot randomised controlled trial, adults having a TKR were randomised to surgery with an inflated tourniquet versus a non-inflated tourniquet. Participants underwent brain MRI preoperatively and within 2 days postoperatively. We assessed cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) and thigh pain using a Visual Analogue Scale at baseline and days 1 and 2, and 1 week postsurgery. AEs related to surgery were recorded up to 12 months. RESULTS: We randomised 53 participants (27 tourniquet inflated and 26 tourniquet not inflated). Fifty-one participants received care per-protocol (96%) and 48 (91%) were followed up at 12 months. One new ischaemic brain lesion was detected. Of the cognitive tests, MoCA was easy to summarise, sensitive to change with lower ceiling effects compared with OCS and MMSE. There was a trend towards more thigh pain (mean 49.6 SD 30.4 vs 36.2 SD 28 at day 1) and more AEs related to surgery (21 vs 9) in participants with an inflated tourniquet compared with those with a tourniquet not inflated. CONCLUSION: A full trial is feasible, but using MRI as a primary outcome is unlikely to be appropriate or feasible. Suitable primary outcomes would be cognition measured using MoCA, pain and AEs, all of which warrant investigation in a large multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN20873088.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Torniquetes , Adulto , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012874, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many surgeons prefer to perform total knee replacement surgery with the aid of a tourniquet. A tourniquet is an occlusive device that restricts distal blood flow to help create a bloodless field during the procedure. A tourniquet may be associated with increased risk of pain and complications. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of tourniquet use in knee replacement surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to 26 March 2020. We searched clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization trials portal, and several international registries and joint registries up to March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing knee replacement with use of a tourniquet versus without use of a tourniquet and non-randomised studies with more than 1000 participants. Major outcomes included pain, function, global assessment of success, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events (including venous thromboembolism, infection, re-operation, and mortality), cognitive function, and survival of the implant. Minor outcomes included blood loss, economic outcomes, implant stability, and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full texts, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 41 RCTs with 2819 participants. Trials included from 20 to 199 participants. Mean age ranged between 58 and 84 years. More than half of the RCTs had unclear risk of selection bias and unclear risk of performance and detection bias due to absence of blinding of participants and surgeons. Major outcomes Pain: at postoperative day 1, pain (on a scale from zero to 10, with higher scores indicating worse pain) was ranked at 4.56 points after surgery without a tourniquet and at 1.25 points (MD) higher (95% CI 0.32 higher to 2.19 higher) with a tourniquet (8 studies; 577 participants), for an absolute difference of 12.5% higher pain scores (95% CI 3.2% higher to 21.9% higher) and a relative difference of 19% higher pain scores (95% CI 3.4% higher to 49% higher) with a tourniquet. Evidence for these findings was of moderate certainty, downgraded due to risk of bias. Knee replacement with a tourniquet probably led to higher postoperative pain scores at day 1, although this difference may or may not be noticeable to patients (based on a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 1.0). Function: at 12 months, tourniquet use probably makes little or no difference to function, based on an MCID of 5.3 for Knee Society Score (KSS) and 5.0 for Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Mean function (on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better outcomes) was 90.03 points after surgery without a tourniquet and was 0.29 points worse (95% CI 1.06 worse to 0.48 better) on a 0 to 100 scale, absolute difference was 0.29% worse (1.06% worse to 0.48% better), with a tourniquet (5 studies; 611 participants). This evidence was downgraded to moderate certainty due to risk of bias. Global assessment of success: low-certainty evidence (downgraded due to bias and imprecision) indicates that tourniquet use may have little or no effect on success. At six months, 47 of 50 (or 940 per 1000) reported overall successful treatment after surgery without a tourniquet and 47 of 50 (or 940 per 1000) with a tourniquet (risk ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10) based on one study with 100 participants. Health-related quality of life: at six months, tourniquet may have little or no effect on quality of life. The 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12) score (mental component from zero to 100 (100 is best)) was 54.64 after surgery without a tourniquet and 1.53 (MD) better (95% CI 0.85 worse to 3.91 better) with a tourniquet (1 study; 199 participants); absolute difference was 1.53% better (0.85% worse to 3.91% better). Evidence was of low certainty, downgraded due to risk of bias and small number of participants. Serious adverse events: the risk of serious adverse events was probably higher with tourniquet; 26 of 898 (29 per 1000) reported events following surgery without a tourniquet compared to 53 of 901 (59 per 1000) with a tourniquet (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.73) in 21 studies (1799 participants). Twenty-nine more per 1000 patients (95% CI 3 to 50 more per 1000 patients) had a serious adverse event with a tourniquet. Forty-eight (95% CI 20 to 345) participants would need to have surgery without a tourniquet to avoid one serious adverse event. This evidence was downgraded to moderate certainty due to risk of bias. Cognitive function: one study reported cognitive function as an outcome; however the data were incompletely reported and could not be extracted for analysis. Survival of implant: it is uncertain if tourniquet has an effect on implant survival due to very low certainty evidence (downgraded for bias, and twice due to very low event rates); 2 of 107 (19 per 1000) required revision surgery in the surgery with a tourniquet group compared to 1 of 107 (9 per 1000) without a tourniquet group at up to two years' follow-up (RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 8.92). This equates to a 0.4% (0.7% lower to 7% more) increased absolute risk in surgery with a tourniquet. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence shows that knee replacement surgery with a tourniquet is probably associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events. Surgery with a tourniquet is also probably associated with higher postoperative pain, although this difference may or may not be noticeable to patients. Surgery with a tourniquet does not appear to confer any clinically meaningful benefit on function, treatment success or quality of life. Further research is required to explore the effects of tourniquet use on cognitive function and implant survival, to identify any additional harms or benefits. If a tourniquet continues to be used in knee replacement surgery, patients should be informed about the potential increased risk of serious adverse events and postoperative pain.


ANTECEDENTES: Muchos cirujanos prefieren realizar una cirugía de reemplazo total de rodilla con la ayuda de un torniquete. Un torniquete es un dispositivo oclusivo que restringe el flujo sanguíneo distal para ayudar a crear un campo sin sangre durante el procedimiento. El torniquete se puede asociar con un mayor riesgo de dolor y complicaciones. OBJETIVOS: Determinar los efectos beneficiosos y perjudiciales del uso de torniquetes en la cirugía de reemplazo de rodilla. MÉTODOS DE BÚSQUEDA: Se hicieron búsquedas en MEDLINE, Embase y en el Registro Cochrane central de ensayos controlados (CENTRAL) hasta el 26 de marzo de 2020. Se realizaron búsquedas en clinicaltrials.gov, el portal de ensayos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y en varios registros internacionales y registros conjuntos hasta marzo de 2020. CRITERIOS DE SELECCIÓN: Se incluyeron los ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECA) que compararon el reemplazo de rodilla con el uso de un torniquete versus sin el uso de un torniquete y los estudios no aleatorizados con más de 1000 participantes. Los desenlaces principales fueron el dolor, la funcionalidad, la evaluación general del éxito, la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, los eventos adversos graves (incluido el tromboembolismo venoso, la infección, la reintervención y la mortalidad), la función cognitiva y la supervivencia del implante. Los desenlaces secundarios incluyeron la pérdida de sangre, los desenlaces económicos, la estabilidad del implante y los eventos adversos. OBTENCIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LOS DATOS: Dos autores de la revisión examinaron los resúmenes y los textos completos, extrajeron los datos, realizaron las evaluaciones del riesgo de sesgo y evaluaron la certeza de la evidencia utilizando el enfoque GRADE. RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES: Se incluyeron 41 ECA con 2819 participantes. Los ensayos incluyeron de 20 a 199 participantes. La media de edad varió entre 58 y 84 años. Más de la mitad de los ECA tenían riesgo incierto de sesgo de selección y riesgo incierto de sesgo de realización y detección debido a la falta de cegamiento de los participantes y los cirujanos. Desenlaces principales Dolor: en el primer día después de la cirugía, el dolor (en una escala de 0 a 10, con puntuaciones mayores que indican un peor dolor) se clasificó en 4,56 puntos después de la cirugía sin torniquete y en 1,25 puntos (DM) mayor (IC del 95%: 0,32 mayor a 2,19 mayor) con un torniquete (ocho estudios; 577 participantes), para una diferencia absoluta de 12,5% de puntuaciones mayores de dolor (IC del 95%: 3,2% mayor a 21,9% mayor) y una diferencia relativa de 19% de puntuaciones mayores de dolor (IC del 95%: 3,4% mayor a 49% mayor) con un torniquete. La evidencia de estos hallazgos fue de certeza moderada, disminuida debido al riesgo de sesgo. El reemplazo de rodilla con un torniquete probablemente dio lugar a mayores puntuaciones de dolor en el primer día después de la cirugía, aunque esta diferencia puede o no ser perceptible para los pacientes (sobre la base de una diferencia mínima clínicamente importante [DMCI] de 1,0). Funcionalidad: a los 12 meses el uso de torniquetes probablemente da lugar a poca o ninguna diferencia en la funcionalidad, según una DMCI de 5,3 en la Knee Society Score (KSS) y de 5,0 en la Oxford Knee Score (OKS). La funcionalidad media (en una escala de 0 a 100, con puntuaciones más altas que indican mejores desenlaces) fue de 90,03 puntos después de la cirugía sin torniquete y fue 0,29 puntos peor (IC del 95%: 1,06 peor a 0,48 mejor) en una escala de 0 a 100, la diferencia absoluta fue 0,29% peor (1,06% peor a 0,48% mejor), con un torniquete (cinco estudios; 611 participantes). Esta evidencia se disminuyó a certeza moderada debido al riesgo de sesgo. Evaluación general del éxito: evidencia de certeza baja (disminuida debido al sesgo y la imprecisión) indica que el uso de torniquetes puede tener poco o ningún efecto en el éxito. A los seis meses, 47 de 50 (o 940 por 1000) informaron de un tratamiento general exitoso después de la cirugía sin torniquete y 47 de 50 (o 940 por 1000) con torniquete (razón de riesgos [RR] 1,0; IC del 95%: 0,91 a 1,10), según un estudio con 100 participantes. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: a los seis meses, el torniquete puede tener poco o ningún efecto en la calidad de vida. La puntuación de la 12­Item Short Form Survey (SF­12) (componente mental de 0 a 100 [100 es mejor]) fue de 54,64 después de la cirugía sin torniquete y 1,53 (DM) mejor (IC del 95%: 0,85 peor a 3,91 mejor) con torniquete (un estudio; 199 participantes); la diferencia absoluta fue 1,53% mejor (0,85% peor a 3,91% mejor). La evidencia fue de certeza baja, y se disminuyó debido al riesgo de sesgo y al escaso número de participantes. Eventos adversos graves: el riesgo de eventos adversos graves probablemente fue mayor con el uso de un torniquete; 26 de 898 (29 por 1000) notificaron eventos después de la cirugía sin torniquete en comparación con 53 de 901 (59 por 1000) con un torniquete (RR 1,73; IC del 95%: 1,10 a 2,73) en 21 estudios (1799 participantes). Veintinueve más por cada 1000 pacientes (95% CI 3 a 50 más por 1000 pacientes) presentaron un evento adverso grave con un torniquete. Cuarenta y ocho (IC del 95%: 20 a 345) participantes tendrían que ser operados sin torniquete para evitar un evento adverso grave. Esta evidencia se disminuyó a certeza moderada debido al riesgo de sesgo. Función cognitiva: un estudio informó de la función cognitiva como un desenlace; sin embargo, los datos se informaron de manera incompleta y no se pudieron extraer para el análisis. Supervivencia del implante: no está claro si el torniquete tiene un efecto sobre la supervivencia del implante debido a evidencia de certeza muy baja (disminuida por el sesgo, y dos veces debido a las tasas de eventos muy bajas); dos de 107 (19 por 1000) requirieron cirugía de revisión en el grupo de cirugía con torniquete en comparación con uno de 107 (nueve por 1000) en el grupo sin torniquete hasta los dos años de seguimiento (RR 1,44; IC del 95%: 0,23 a 8,92). Esto equivale a un 0,4% (0,7% menos a 7% más) de aumento del riesgo absoluto en la cirugía con torniquete. CONCLUSIONES DE LOS AUTORES: Evidencia de certeza moderada muestra que la cirugía de reemplazo de rodilla con torniquete probablemente se asocia con un mayor riesgo de eventos adversos graves. La cirugía con torniquete también se asocia probablemente con un mayor dolor posoperatorio, aunque esta diferencia puede o no ser perceptible para los pacientes. La cirugía con torniquete no parece conferir efectos beneficiosos clínicamente significativos en la funcionalidad, el éxito del tratamiento o la calidad de vida. Se necesitan estudios de investigación adicionales para explorar los efectos del uso de torniquetes en la función cognitiva y la supervivencia del implante, para identificar cualquier efecto perjudicial o beneficioso adicional. Si se sigue utilizando un torniquete en la cirugía de reemplazo de rodilla, se debe informar a los pacientes sobre el posible aumento del riesgo de que se produzcan efectos adversos graves y dolor posoperatorio.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Torniquetes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Falha de Prótese , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Viés de Seleção , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JAMA Surg ; 155(12): 1113-1121, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965493

RESUMO

Importance: One-year outcomes from the Early Venous Reflux Ablation (EVRA) randomized trial showed accelerated venous leg ulcer healing and greater ulcer-free time for participants who are treated with early endovenous ablation of lower extremity superficial reflux. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux in patients with venous leg ulceration. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between October 24, 2013, and September 27, 2016, the EVRA randomized clinical trial enrolled 450 participants (450 legs) with venous leg ulceration of less than 6 months' duration and superficial venous reflux. Initially, 6555 patients were assessed for eligibility, and 6105 were excluded for reasons including ulcer duration greater than 6 months, healed ulcer by the time of randomization, deep venous occlusive disease, and insufficient superficial venous reflux to warrant ablation therapy, among others. A total of 426 of 450 participants (94.7%) from the vascular surgery departments of 20 hospitals in the United Kingdom were included in the analysis for ulcer recurrence. Surgeons, participants, and follow-up assessors were not blinded to the treatment group. Data were analyzed from August 11 to November 4, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive compression therapy with early endovenous ablation within 2 weeks of randomization (early intervention, n = 224) or compression with deferred endovenous treatment of superficial venous reflux (deferred intervention, n = 226). Endovenous modality and strategy were left to the preference of the treating clinical team. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome for the extended phase was time to first ulcer recurrence. Secondary outcomes included ulcer recurrence rate and cost-effectiveness. Results: The early-intervention group consisted of 224 participants (mean [SD] age, 67.0 [15.5] years; 127 men [56.7%]; 206 White participants [92%]). The deferred-intervention group consisted of 226 participants (mean [SD] age, 68.9 [14.0] years; 120 men [53.1%]; 208 White participants [92%]). Of the 426 participants whose leg ulcer had healed, 121 (28.4%) experienced at least 1 recurrence during follow-up. There was no clear difference in time to first ulcer recurrence between the 2 groups (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.17; P = .28). Ulcers recurred at a lower rate of 0.11 per person-year in the early-intervention group compared with 0.16 per person-year in the deferred-intervention group (incidence rate ratio, 0.658; 95% CI, 0.480-0.898; P = .003). Time to ulcer healing was shorter in the early-intervention group for primary ulcers (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12-1.64; P = .002). At 3 years, early intervention was 91.6% likely to be cost-effective at a willingness to pay of £20 000 ($26 283) per quality-adjusted life year and 90.8% likely at a threshold of £35 000 ($45 995) per quality-adjusted life year. Conclusions and Relevance: Early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux was highly likely to be cost-effective over a 3-year horizon compared with deferred intervention. Early intervention accelerated the healing of venous leg ulcers and reduced the overall incidence of ulcer recurrence. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ISRCTN02335796.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Úlcera Varicosa/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Endovasculares/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Úlcera Varicosa/economia , Úlcera Varicosa/terapia , Cicatrização
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033324, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Young people moving from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS) are faced with significant challenges. To improve this state of affairs, there needs to be a recognition of the problem and initiatives and an urgent requirement for appropriate tools for measuring readiness and outcomes at the transfer boundary (16-18 years of age in Europe). The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Transition Readiness and Appropriateness Measure (TRAM) for assessing a young person's readiness for transition, and their outcomes at the transfer boundary. DESIGN: MILESTONE prospective study. SETTING: Eight European Union (EU) countries participating in the EU-funded MILESTONE study. PARTICIPANTS: The first phase (MILESTONE validation study) involved 100 adolescents (pre-transition), young adults (post-transition), parents/carers and both CAMHS and AMHS clinicians. The second phase (MILESTONE cohort study and nested cluster randomised trial) involved over 1000 young people. RESULTS: The development of the TRAM began with a literature review on transitioning and a review of important items regarding transition by a panel of 34 mental health experts. A list of 64 items of potential importance were identified, which together comprised the TRAM. The psychometric properties of the different versions of the TRAM were evaluated and showed that the TRAM had good reliability for all versions and low-to-moderate correlations when compared with other established instruments and a well-defined factor structure. The main results of the cohort study with the nested cluster randomised trial are not reported. CONCLUSION: The TRAM is a reliable instrument for assessing transition readiness and appropriateness. It highlighted the barriers to a successful transition and informed clinicians, identifying areas which clinicians on both sides of the transfer boundary can work on to ease the transition for the young person. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN83240263 (Registered 23 July 2015), NCT03013595 (Registered 6 January 2017); Pre-results.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466214

RESUMO

Recent advancement in the immunological understanding of genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has implicated a decline in anti-tumour immunity on the background of chronic inflammatory state of liver parenchyma. The development of HCC involves a network of immunological activity in the tumour microenvironment involving continuous interaction between tumour and stromal cells. The reduction in anti-tumour immunity is secondary to changes in various immune cells and cytokines, and the tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in modulating the process of liver fibrosis, hepatocarcinogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor invasion and metastasis. Thus, it is considered as one of primary factor behind the despicable tumour behavior and observed poor survival; along with increased risk of recurrence following treatment in HCC. The primary intent of the present review is to facilitate the understanding of the complex network of immunological interactions of various immune cells, cytokines and tumour cells associated with the development and progression of HCC.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456200

RESUMO

A majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in the setting of persistent chronic inflammation as immunological mechanisms have been shown to play a vital role in the initiation, growth and progression of tumours. The index review has been intended to highlight ongoing immunological changes in the hepatic parenchyma responsible for the genesis and progression of HCC. The in-situ vaccine effect of radiofrequency (RF) is through generation tumour-associated antigens (TAAs), following necrosis and apoptosis of tumour cells, which not only re-activates the antitumour immune response but can also act in synergism with checkpoint inhibitors to generate a superlative effect with intent to treat primary cancer and distant metastasis. An improved understanding of oncogenic responses of immune cells and their integration into signaling pathways of the tumour microenvironment will help in modulating the antitumour immune response. Finally, we analyzed contemporary literature and summarised the recent advances made in the field of targeted immunotherapy involving checkpoint inhibitors along with RF application with the intent to reinstate antitumour immunity and outline future directives in very early and early stages of HCC.

13.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(4): 747-755, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Constipation can be a significant problem in critically unwell patients, associated with detrimental outcomes. Opioids are thought to contribute to the mechanism of bowel dysfunction. We tested if methylnaltrexone, a pure peripheral mu-opioid receptor antagonist, could reverse opioid-induced constipation. METHODS: The MOTION trial is a multi-centre, double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether methylnaltrexone alleviates opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in critical care patients. Eligibility criteria included adult ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated, receiving opioids and were constipated (had not opened bowels for a minimum 48 h) despite prior administration of regular laxatives as per local bowel management protocol. The primary outcome was time to significant rescue-free laxation. Secondary outcomes included gastric residual volume, tolerance of enteral feeds, requirement for rescue laxatives, requirement for prokinetics, average number of bowel movements per day, escalation of opioid dose due to antagonism/reversal of analgesia, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, incidence of diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection and finally 28 day, ICU and hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 84 patients were enrolled and randomized (41 to methylnaltrexone and 43 to placebo). The baseline demographic characteristics of the two groups were generally well balanced. There was no significant difference in time to rescue-free laxation between the groups (Hazard ratio 1.42, 95% CI 0.82-2.46, p = 0.22). There were no significant differences in the majority of secondary outcomes, particularly days 1-3. However, during days 4-28, there were fewer median number of bowel movements per day in the methylnaltrexone group, (p = 0.01) and a greater incidence of diarrhoea in the placebo group (p = 0.02). There was a marked difference in mortality between the groups, with ten deaths in the methylnaltrexone group and two in the placebo group during days 4-28 (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence to support the addition of methylnaltrexone to regular laxatives for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in critically ill patients; however, the confidence interval was wide and a clinically important difference cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Constipação Induzida por Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e034076, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the UK, 150 000 people every year experience mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy. Typically patients are offered a range of treatment options such as exercise, electrotherapy, injections and surgery. With large variations in current practice, there is a pressing need to establish which treatments are effective and which are not. This is the protocol for a multi-centre randomised trial of platelet rich plasma (PRP) versus placebo injection for patients with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Adult patients with mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy for longer than 3 months will be screened. Randomisation will be on a 1:1 basis, stratified by centre and bilateral presentation. Participants will be allocated to either a single PRP injection or placebo injection. A minimum of 240 patients will be recruited into the study; this number will provide 90% power to detect a difference of 12 points in Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles score at 6 months. Quality of life, pain and complications data will be collected at baseline, 2-week, 3-month and 6-month post-randomisation. The differences between treatment groups will be assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. ETHICS, REGISTRATION AND DISSEMINATION: This trial was funded by Versus Arthritis and commenced on 1 September 2015 (Versus Arthritis 20831). National Research Ethic Committee approved this study on 30 October 2015 (15/WM/0359). It was registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry with reference number ISRCTN 13254422 on 28 October 2015. The first site opened to recruitment on 27 April 2016 and the trial was in active recruitment at the point of submitting the protocol paper. The results of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal and will inform clinical practice with regard to the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Tendinopatia/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido
15.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(24): 1-96, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous ulceration is a common and costly health-care issue worldwide, with poor healing rates greatly affecting patient quality of life. Compression bandaging has been shown to improve healing rates and reduce recurrence, but does not address the underlying cause, which is often superficial venous reflux. Surgical correction of the reflux reduces ulcer recurrence; however, the effect of early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux on ulcer healing is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of compression therapy with early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux compared with compression therapy with deferred endovenous ablation in patients with venous ulceration. DESIGN: A pragmatic, two-arm, multicentre, parallel-group, open randomised controlled trial with a health economic evaluation. SETTING: Secondary care vascular centres in England. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a venous leg ulcer of between 6 weeks' and 6 months' duration and an ankle-brachial pressure index of ≥ 0.8 who could tolerate compression and were deemed suitable for endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised 1 : 1 to either early ablation (compression therapy and superficial endovenous ablation within 2 weeks of randomisation) or deferred ablation (compression therapy followed by endovenous ablation once the ulcer had healed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time from randomisation to ulcer healing, confirmed by blinded assessment. Secondary outcomes included 24-week ulcer healing rates, ulcer-free time, clinical success (in addition to quality of life), costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: A total of 450 participants were recruited (224 to early and 226 to deferred superficial endovenous ablation). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Time to ulcer healing was shorter in participants randomised to early superficial endovenous ablation than in those randomised to deferred ablation [hazard ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 1.68; p = 0.001]. Median time to ulcer healing was 56 (95% CI 49 to 66) days in the early ablation group and 82 (95% CI 69 to 92) days in the deferred ablation group. The ulcer healing rate at 24 weeks was 85.6% in the early ablation group, compared with 76.3% in the deferred ablation group. Median ulcer-free time was 306 [interquartile range (IQR) 240-328] days in the early ablation group and 278 (IQR 175-324) days in the deferred endovenous ablation group (p = 0.002). The most common complications of superficial endovenous ablation were pain and deep-vein thrombosis. Differences in repeated measures of Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire scores (p < 0.001), EuroQol-5 Dimensions index values (p = 0.03) and Short Form questionnaire-36 items body pain (p = 0.05) over the follow-up period were observed, in favour of early ablation. The mean difference in total costs between the early ablation and deferred ablation groups was £163 [standard error (SE) £318; p = 0.607]; however, there was a substantial and statistically significant gain in QALY over 1 year [mean difference between groups 0.041 (SE 0.017) QALYs; p = 0.017]. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of early ablation at 1 year was £3976 per QALY, with a high probability (89%) of being more cost-effective than deferred ablation at conventional UK decision-making thresholds (currently £20,000 per QALY). Sensitivity analyses using alternative statistical models give qualitatively similar results. LIMITATIONS: Only 7% of screened patients were recruited, treatment regimens varied significantly and technical success was assessed only in the early ablation group. CONCLUSIONS: Early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux, in addition to compression therapy and wound dressings, reduces the time to healing of venous leg ulcers, increases ulcer-free time and is highly likely to be cost-effective. FUTURE WORK: Longer-term follow-up is ongoing and will determine if early ablation will affect recurrence rates in the medium and long term. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02335796. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 24. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Venous leg ulcers are open wounds occurring on the legs of patients with venous disease. They are common, painful and distressing and reduce patient quality of life. Leg ulcers often result from valves in the leg veins not working properly. The valves normally force blood back up towards the heart; however, blood can flow backwards (reflux) when valves do not work properly, and this can cause swelling and ulceration. Compression therapy (wrapping bandages around the legs) has been shown to help ulcers heal, but it does not treat the underlying reflux problem with the veins. Newer, less invasive, techniques (known as endovenous ablation) have taken over from surgery to correct venous reflux and are more acceptable to patients as they can be performed quickly under local anaesthetic. The aim of the trial was to find out if treating patients with leg ulcers by early endovenous ablation (within 2 weeks) and standard compression therapy can increase ulcer healing compared with standard compression therapy and delayed endovenous ablation once the ulcer has healed. In total, 450 people agreed to take part in this study and were treated in 20 hospitals across England. Participants were randomly allocated to either early or delayed endovenous ablation and followed up for 12 months. The trial found that treating the veins early resulted in quicker ulcer healing than delaying treatment until the ulcer had healed. The trial also showed that participants had more time without an ulcer if the treatment was performed early rather than after ulcer healing. No safety issues with early intervention were identified. There is some evidence that quality of life was better in the early treatment group and that people in this group had less body pain. Treating ulcers early appears likely to be more cost-effective (i.e. a better use of NHS resources) than delayed treatment. Future work will focus on collecting longer-term follow-up data to find out if early endovenous ablation also reduces the chances of the ulcer coming back.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Bandagens Compressivas , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera Varicosa/cirurgia , Cicatrização , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva
17.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 12(6): 501-509, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145188

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore General Practice teams cultural-competence, in particular, ethnicity, linguistic skillset and cultural awareness. The practice teams' access to diabetes-training, and overall perception of cultural-competence were also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional single-city-survey with one in three people with diabetes from an ethnic minority group, using 35 semi-structured questions was completed. Self-reported data analysed using descriptive statistics, interpreted with reference to the Culturally-Competent-Assessment-Tool. RESULTS: Thirty-four (52%) of all 66 practices in Coventry responded between November 2011 and January 2012. KEY FINDINGS: (1) One in five practice staff was from a minority group in contrast with one in ten of Coventry's population, (2) 164 practice staff (32%) spoke a second language relevant to the practice's minority population, (3) 56% of practices were highly culturally-competent at providing diabetes services for minority populations, (4) 94% of practices reported the ethnicity of their populations, and (5) the most frequently stated barriers to culturally-competent service delivery were language and knowledge of nutritional habits. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally-competent diabetes care is widespread across the city. Language barriers are being addressed, cultural knowledge of diabetes-related-nutrition requires further improvement. Further studies should investigate if structured cultural-competence training for diabetes service providers produces positive effects in diabetes-related outcome-measures in minority populations.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Medicina Geral , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde das Minorias/etnologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Multilinguismo , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente
18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(33): 3135-3143, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052878

RESUMO

Aims: Systematically reviewing the literature found orthostatic hypotension (OH) to be associated with an increased risk of incident dementia but limited data were available in those at highest risk, the hypertensive oldest-old. Our aim was to analyse the relationship between OH and incident cognitive decline or dementia in this group and to synthesize the evidence base overall. Method and results: Participants aged ≥80 years, with hypertension, were from the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET) cohort. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a fall of ≥15 mmHg in systolic and or ≥7 mmHg in diastolic pressure after 2 min standing from a sitting position. Subclinical orthostatic hypotension with symptoms (SOH) was defined as a fall

Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipotensão Ortostática/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e022067, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study is designed to determine whether a full randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and safety of total knee replacement surgery with or without a tourniquet is warranted and feasible. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Single centre, patient-blinded and assessor-blinded RCT. A computer-generated randomisation service will allocate 50 participants into one of two trial treatments, surgery with or without a tourniquet. The primary objective is to estimate recruitment, crossovers and follow-up of patients. All patients will have an MRI scan of their brain preoperatively and day 1 or 2 postoperatively to identify ischaemic cerebral emboli (primary clinical outcome). Oxford Cognitive Screen, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination will be evaluated as outcome tools for measuring cognitive impairment at days 1, 2 and 7 postoperatively. Thigh pain, blood transfusion requirements, venous thromboembolism, revision surgery, surgical complications, mortality and Oxford knee and five-level EuroQol-5D scores will be collected over 12 months. Integrated qualitative research study: 30 trial patients and 20 knee surgeons will take part in semistructured interviews. Interviews will capture views regarding the pilot trial and explore barriers and potential solutions to a full trial. Multicentre cohort study: UK National Joint Registry data will be linked to Hospital Episode Statistics to estimate the relationship between tourniquet use and venous thromboembolic event, length of hospital stay, risk of revision surgery and death. The study will conclude with a multidisciplinary workshop to reach a consensus on whether a full trial is warranted and feasible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: National Research Ethics Committee (West Midlands-Edgbaston) approved this study on 27 January 2016 (15/WM/0455). The study is sponsored by University of Warwick and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire. The results will be disseminated via high-impact peer-reviewed publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN20873088; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Torniquetes , Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Protocolos Clínicos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , País de Gales
20.
N Engl J Med ; 378(22): 2105-2114, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous disease is the most common cause of leg ulceration. Although compression therapy improves venous ulcer healing, it does not treat the underlying causes of venous hypertension. Treatment of superficial venous reflux has been shown to reduce the rate of ulcer recurrence, but the effect of early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux on ulcer healing remains unclear. METHODS: In a trial conducted at 20 centers in the United Kingdom, we randomly assigned 450 patients with venous leg ulcers to receive compression therapy and undergo early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux within 2 weeks after randomization (early-intervention group) or to receive compression therapy alone, with consideration of endovenous ablation deferred until after the ulcer was healed or until 6 months after randomization if the ulcer was unhealed (deferred-intervention group). The primary outcome was the time to ulcer healing. Secondary outcomes were the rate of ulcer healing at 24 weeks, the rate of ulcer recurrence, the length of time free from ulcers (ulcer-free time) during the first year after randomization, and patient-reported health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Patient and clinical characteristics at baseline were similar in the two treatment groups. The time to ulcer healing was shorter in the early-intervention group than in the deferred-intervention group; more patients had healed ulcers with early intervention (hazard ratio for ulcer healing, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.68; P=0.001). The median time to ulcer healing was 56 days (95% CI, 49 to 66) in the early-intervention group and 82 days (95% CI, 69 to 92) in the deferred-intervention group. The rate of ulcer healing at 24 weeks was 85.6% in the early-intervention group and 76.3% in the deferred-intervention group. The median ulcer-free time during the first year after trial enrollment was 306 days (interquartile range, 240 to 328) in the early-intervention group and 278 days (interquartile range, 175 to 324) in the deferred-intervention group (P=0.002). The most common procedural complications of endovenous ablation were pain and deep-vein thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Early endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux resulted in faster healing of venous leg ulcers and more time free from ulcers than deferred endovenous ablation. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Program; EVRA Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN02335796 .).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Úlcera Varicosa/terapia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera Varicosa/cirurgia , Cicatrização
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