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1.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 192, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Available evidence on urban-rural differences on neurological diseases is scare in such countries. Our study objective was to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in urban and rural tertiary care hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted in selected urban and rural region of tertiary care hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. The outpatients medical records of adults (18 years and above) was obtained from January 1st, 2014 to December 31st, 2014. RESULTS: A total of 10,786 outpatients visit were recorded in this period. Mean age of the participants was 40.6 ± 15 years; majority was females 6104 (56.6%). About three-fourth of the patients were from rural hospital 7828 (72.6%). Common neurological diseases were headache disorders 3613 (33.4%), nerve and root lesion 2928 (27.1%), vascular diseases 1440 (13.3%), epilepsies 566 (5.2%), muscle disorders 424 (3.9%), psychiatric disorders 340 (3.1%) and CNS infection 303 (2.8%). Comparison between the urban and rural samples showed that ischaemic stroke (72.7% vs. 82%) and psychiatric disorders (2.1% vs. 3.5%) were more prevalent in rural area as compared to urban setting. CONCLUSION: Stroke, headache and nerve and root lesion are major causes of neurological disorders in urban and rural settings of Sindh, Pakistan. The policy and planning must be focus on primary care, preventive measures and the promotion of health.

2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(10): 104247, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Most of the studies and registries related to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are reported from European countries and the United States. The objective of the present study is to identify risk factors, presentation, and outcome of CVT in Asian patients. METHODS: Asian CVT registry is a prospective multinational observational study that included patients (aged > 16 years) with symptomatic CVT. RESULTS: Eight hundred and twelve patients (59% women) from 20 centers in 9 Asian countries were included. Mean age of the patients was 31 years. Motor weakness in limbs was present in 325 (40%) patients. One hundred and eighty (22.1%) patients had a normal Glasgow coma scale (GCS) at presentation, and another 529 patients (65%) had GCS between 11 and 14. The rest (103; 13%) had a GCS of less than 10 at presentation. Permanent risk factors were present in 264 (33%) patients, transient in 342 (42%) patients, both in 43 (5%) patients and no risk factors were found in 163 (20%) patients. Anemia was present in 51%, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was present in 12% women and a hypercoaguable state was present in more than 40% of those tested. One hundred and forty-three cases (18%) were in women who were either pregnant (18; 2%) or in the puerperium (up to 6 weeks postpartum; N = 125; 15%). A total of 86 (10.5%) patients were diagnosed with infection in any part of the body. The most common MRI finding was local brain edema or ischemia (53.3%) followed by hemorrhage (26.7%). Twenty-seven patients (3.3%) died during hospital stay. The mRS score at discharge was available for 661 (81%) patients. Of these, 577 (87.3%) had good functional outcome at discharge. Motor weakness at presentation, GCS of 9 or less and mental status disorder were the strongest independent predictors of mortality at last follow-up among patients with CVT. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences were identified as compared to western data including younger age, high frequency of anemia, low use of OCP, and high frequency of hypercoaguable states. Functional outcome at discharge was good.

3.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(5): 657-668, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a paucity of literature related to the neuroimaging of CNS tuberculosis (TB) and largely covers pediatric CNS TB. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of different forms of CNS TB and its associated complications and to study longitudinal disease course using computed tomography (CT) and MRI. METHODS: Retrospective chart and imaging review of patients diagnosed with CNS TB in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan over a 10-year period. A total of 452 initial brain MRI and 209 CT scans were reviewed by an expert radiologist specialized in neuroimaging. This was followed by review of 53 MRI/52 CT and 7 MRI/14 CT first and second follow-up scans, respectively. RESULTS: Note that 559 patients, 296 males and 263 females were included in the study. On the initial CT scans, tuberculomas were found in 25 (12%), infarction in 54 (25%), basal meningeal enhancement in 29 (14%), and hydrocephalus in 84 (40%). On initial MRI, tuberculomas were found in 182 (40%), infarction in 120 (27%), basal meningeal enhancement in 184 (41%), and hydrocephalus in 116 (26%). On review of follow-up CT scans, 13 (25%) showed new or worsening hydrocephalus, 8 (15%) showed new infarcts, 1 exhibited new tuberculoma, and 5 showed worsening cerebral edema. On review of follow-up MRI scans, new or worsening hydrocephalus was seen in 3 (6%), new infarcts in 3 (6%), new tuberculoma in 10 (19%), worsening cerebral edema in 7 (13%), and TB myelitis in 4 (8%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculoma, hydrocephalus, and cerebral infarcts are the most prominent findings in CNS tuberculosis. Our study showed development of new lesions on subsequent neuroimaging suggesting a dynamic and progressive nature of the disease process in some individuals.

4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(5): 608-609, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105276
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(9): 1339-1344, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the time in therapeutic range in patients on warfarin anti-coagulation therapy. METHODS: The retrospective chart review was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of patients having undergone anti-coagulation with warfarin from January 2013 to April 2015. To determine the mean time in therapeutic range, Rosendaal method was used. Association of time in therapeutic range with the composite outcome, bleeding and thromboembolic events was also assessed. Percentage of patients with time in therapeutic range <60% was calculated. RESULTS: There were 92 patients whose median time in therapeutic range was 34.9% (interquartile range: 20.0- 55.7). Overall, 71(77.2%) patients had time in therapeutic range below 60% which had statistically significant correlation with the composite outcome (p<0.05). Number of comorbids was significant in predicting time in therapeutic range and patients with time in therapeutic range< 60% (p<0.05). Conclusion: Subjects had poor anti-coagulation quality. It might be prudent to move towards novel oral anticoagulant drugsas the first choice for therapeutic anti-coagulation.

6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(9): 1403-1406, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317276

RESUMO

Atypical/anaplastic meningiomas are prone to aggressive behaviour which affects treatment planning and prognostication. Our aim was to assess the role of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values of MRI brain in differentiating typical from atypical/anaplastic meningioma. We reviewed 84 typical and 37 atypical/anaplastic meningiomas and compared mean ADC values and ADC ratios of their preoperative MRI brain. At 3 Tesla, mean ADC value for typical meningioma was1.03±0.10x10-3 and 0.63±0.05x10-3 for atypical/anaplastic meningioma. At 1.5 Tesla, mean ADC value for typical meningioma was 1.05±0.11x10-3 and atypical/ anaplastic meningioma was 0.70 ± 0.04x10-3. The mean ADC ratios were 1.08 ± 0.17 and 0.85 ± 0.15 for typical and atypical/anaplastic meningomas respectively. Mean ADC ratios and the mean ADC values of typical and atypical/anaplastic meningiomas were significantly different (p< 0.001). ADC values and ADC ratios have important role in differentiating typical from atypical/anaplastic meningioma and it must be part of the routine preoperative MRI reporting.

7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(7): 984-985, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317287
8.
Stroke ; 49(10): 2288-2293, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355085

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Cerebral infarctions complicate a variable proportion of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases and adversely affect outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictors of cerebral infarcts in patients with TBM and to assess their impact on mortality. Methods- The study was based on a retrospective chart review of all patients with TBM admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2002 and 2013. Data were collected on basic demographics, conventional vascular risk factors, radiological findings, severity of TBM, and neurological outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0. Binary logistic regression was done to determine the factors predictive of cerebral infarcts and of mortality in patients with TBM. Results- A total of 559 patients were admitted with TBM during the study period. Mean age was 41.9 years (SD, 17.7 years), and 47% were women. A quarter of the patients had stage III disease. One hundred forty-four (25.8%) patients had cerebral infarcts on brain imaging of which 3 quarters were acute or subacute. Those with cerebral infarcts were more likely to be >40 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7) and to have hypertension (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8), dyslipidemia (AOR, 9.7; 95% CI, 3.8-24.8), and diabetes mellitus (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.6). Presence of cerebral infarction was an independent predictor of mortality among patients with TBM (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.22-3.5). Conclusions- Cerebral infarcts complicate a substantial proportion of TBM cases. Conventional vascular risk factors are the most important predictors of infarction, and future efforts need to focus on these high-risk patients with TBM to reduce morbidity and mortality.

9.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(3): 204, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452678
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 545, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The burden of neurological diseases in developing countries is rising although little is known about the epidemiology and clinical pattern of neurological disorders. The objective of this study was to understand the burden of disease faced by neurologists a in tertiary care setting. RESULTS: A prospective observational study was conducted of all presentations to neurology clinics at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi over a period of 2 years. A total of 16,371 out-patients with neurological diseases were seen during the study period. The mean age of the study participants were 46.2 ± 18.3 years and 8508 (52%) were male. Headache disorders were present in 3058 (18.6%) of patients followed by vascular diseases 2842 (17.4%), nerve and root lesions 2311 (14.1%) and epilepsies 2055 (12.5%). Parkinson's disease was more prevalent in male participants 564 (70.8%) as compared to female 257 (62.1%) (p = 0.002). Migraines and vertigo disease were more diagnosed in females as compared to males. Epilepsies were seen more in younger age groups. Parkinson's disease was seen in 50.9% of participants between the ages of 45 and 65 years, and the frequency increased with age.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 382: 108-115, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey AOAN member countries regarding their organizational structure, postgraduate neurology training program, and resources for neurological care provision. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey using a 36-item questionnaire was conducted among country representatives to AOAN from August 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS: A total of 18/20 AOAN member countries participated in the survey. All the countries have organized association with regular meetings, election of officers and neurology training program. In 9/18 countries, professionals other than neurologists were eligible for affiliation. In 11/18 countries, prior Internal medicine training (or equivalent postgraduate housemanship) is prerequisite to neurology program. Recertification examination is not a practice, but submission of CME is required in 7/18 countries to maintain membership. 12/18 countries publish peer-reviewed journals with at least 1 issue per year. Subspecialty training is offered in 14/18 countries. The ratio of neurologist to population ranges from 1:14,000 to as low as 1:32 million with 9/18 having <1 neurologist per 100,000 population. 6/18 countries have at least 1 specialized center solely for neurological diseases. In government-funded hospitals, the lag time to be seen by a neurologist and/or obtain neuroimaging scan ranges from 1day to 3months. All except one country have several medical- and lay- advocacy or support groups for different neurological conditions. IMPLICATIONS: The data generated can be used for benchmarking to improve neurological care, training, collaborative work and research in the field of neurosciences among the AOAN member countries. The paper presented several strategies used by the different organizations to increase their number of neurologists and improve the quality of training. Sharing of best practices, academic networking, exchange programs and use of telemedicine have been suggested.


Assuntos
Neurologia/educação , Neurologia/organização & administração , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Oceania , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Stroke Res Treat ; 2016: 5610797, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688924

RESUMO

Background. Stroke is an important morbidity for low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. We established the first stroke registry in Bangladesh. Methods. Data was collected from stroke patients who were admitted in Department of Neurology of BIRDEM with first ever stroke, aged between 30 and 90 years. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage, and posttrauma features were excluded. Results. Data was gathered from 679 stroke patients. Mean age was 60.6 years. Almost 68% of patients were male. Small vessel strokes were the most common accounting for 45.4% of all the patients followed by large vessel getting affected in 32.5% of the cases. Only 16 (2.4%) died during treatment, and 436 (64.2%) patients had their mRS score of 3 to 5. Age greater than 70 years was associated with poor outcome on discharge [OR 1.79 (95% CI: 1.05 to 3.06)] adjusting for gender, duration of hospital stay, HDL, and pneumonia. Age, mRS, systolic blood pressure, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and stroke severity explained the Barthel score. Conclusion. Mortality was low but most of patient had moderate to severe disability at discharge. Age, mRS, systolic blood pressure, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and stroke severity influenced the Barthel score.

18.
J Neurol Sci ; 362: 221-7, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944152

RESUMO

Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, once a common and deadly disease, has fortunately become rare now. Not only that the incidence has fallen significantly after the antibiotic era, the morbidity and mortality has also decreased substantially. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is by far the commonest form of septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Due to its rare occurrence, a lot of current generation clinicians have not encountered the entity in person. Despite all the advances in diagnostic modalities, a high index of clinical suspicion remains the mainstay in prompt diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal condition. Keeping this in view, the authors have reviewed the subject including the old literature and have summarized the current approach to diagnosis and management. Septic cavernous thrombosis is a fulminant disease with dramatic presentation in most cases comprised of fever, periorbital pain and swelling, associated with systemic symptoms and signs. The preceding infection is usually in the central face or paranasal sinuses. The disease rapidly spreads to contralateral side and if remains undiagnosed and untreated can result in severe complications or even death. Prompt diagnosis using radiological imaging in suspected patient, early use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and judicial use of anticoagulation may save the life and prevent disability. Surgery is used only to treat the nidus of infection.


Assuntos
Sepse/complicações , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/complicações , Humanos , Infecção/complicações , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/terapia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/patologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/terapia
19.
Open Neurol J ; 9: 53-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191094

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani's and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. METHODS: Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. RESULTS: There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population.

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