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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140176

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Bacterial co-infections are associated with unfavourable outcomes in respiratory viral infections; however, microbiological and antibiotic data related to COVID-19 are sparse. Adequate use of antibiotics in line with antibiotic stewardship (ABS) principles is warranted during the pandemic. We performed a retrospective study of clinical and microbiological characteristics of 140 COVID-19 patients admitted between February and April 2020 to a German University hospital, with a focus on bacterial co-infections and antimicrobial therapy. The final date of follow-up was 6 May 2020. Clinical data of 140 COVID-19 patients were recorded: The median age was 63.5 (range 17-99) years; 64% were males. According to the implemented local ABS guidelines, the most commonly used antibiotic regimen was ampicillin/sulbactam (41.5%) with a median duration of 6 (range 1-13) days. Urinary antigen tests for Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus peumoniae were negative in all cases. In critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (n = 50), co-infections with Enterobacterales (34.0%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.0%) were detected. Blood cultures collected at admission showed a diagnostic yield of 4.2%. Bacterial and fungal co-infections are rare in COVID-19 patients and are mainly prevalent in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of antimicrobial therapy on therapeutic outcome in COVID-19 patients to prevent antimicrobial overuse. ABS guidelines could help in optimising the management of COVID-19. Investigation of microbial patterns of infectious complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients is also required.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091046

RESUMO

For acute medicine physicians, distinguishing between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) and clinically relevant urinary tract infections (UTI) is challenging, resulting in overtreatment of ABU and under-recognition of urinary-source bacteraemia without genitourinary symptoms (USB). We conducted a retrospective analysis of ED encounters in a university hospital between October 2013 and September 2018 who met the following inclusion criteria: Suspected UTI with simultaneous collection of paired urinary cultures and blood cultures (PUB) and determination of Procalcitonin (PCT). We sought to develop a simple algorithm based on clinical signs and PCT for the management of suspected UTI. Individual patient presentations were retrospectively evaluated by a clinical "triple F" algorithm (F1 ="fever", F2 ="failure", F3 ="focus") supported by PCT and PUB. We identified 183 ED patients meeting the inclusion criteria. We introduced the term UTI with systemic involvement (SUTI) with three degrees of diagnostic certainty: bacteremic UTI (24.0%; 44/183), probable SUTI (14.2%; 26/183) and possible SUTI (27.9%; 51/183). In bacteremic UTI, half of patients (54.5%; 24/44) presented without genitourinary symptoms. Discordant bacteraemia was diagnosed in 16 patients (24.6% of all bacteremic patients). An alternative focus was identified in 67 patients, five patients presented with S. aureus bacteremia. 62 patients were diagnosed with possible UTI (n = 20) or ABU (n = 42). Using the proposed "triple F" algorithm, dichotomised PCT of < 0.25 pg/ml had a negative predictive value of 88.7% and 96.2% for bacteraemia und accordant bacteraemia respectively. The application of the algorithm to our cohort could have resulted in 33.3% reduction of BCs. Using the diagnostic categories "possible" or "probable" SUTI as a trigger for initiation of antimicrobial treatment would have reduced or streamlined antimicrobial use in 30.6% and 58.5% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, the "3F" algorithm supported by PCT and PUB is a promising diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship tool.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The concept of dysphagia/aspiration-related structures (DARS) was developed against the background of severe late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). DARS can be delineated on CT scans, but with a better morphological discrimination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Swallowing function was analyzed by use of patient charts and prospective investigations and questionnaires. METHOD: Seventeen HNC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) ± chemotherapy between 5/2012 - 8/2015 were included. Planning CT (computed tomography) scans and MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) prior, during 40 Gray (Gy) radiotherapy and posttreatment were available and co-registered to delineate DARS. The RT dose of each DARS was calculated. Five patients were investigated posttreatment for swallowing function and assessed by means of various questionnaires for quality of life (QoL), swallowing, and voice function. RESULTS: By retrospective comparison of DARS volume, a significant change in four of eight DARS was detected over time. Three increased and one diminished. The risk of posttreatment dysphagia rose by every 1Gy above the mean dose (D mean) of RT to DARS. 7.5 was the risk factor for dysphagia in the first 6 months, reducing to 4.7 for months 6-12 posttreatment. For all five patients of the prospective part of swallowing investigations, a function disturbance was detected. These results were in contrast to the self-assessment of patients by questionnaires. There was neither a dose dependency of D mean DARS volume changes over time nor of dysphonia and no correlation between volume changes, dysphagia or dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Delineation of DARS on MRI co-registered to planning CT gave the opportunity to differentiate morphology better than by CT alone. Due to the small number of patients with complete MRI scans over time, we failed to detect a dose dependency of DARS and swallowing and voice disorder posttreatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/radioterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sucção , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voz , Adulto Jovem
4.
Obes Facts ; 13(3): 331-343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a potential role in energy and glucose metabolism in humans. Thyroid hormones (TH) are main regulators of BAT development and function. However, it remains unknown how the magnetic resonance (MR)-based proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of supraclavicular adipose tissue used as a surrogate marker for BAT presence relates to TH. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between supraclavicular PDFF and serum levels of TH. METHODS: In total, 96 adult volunteers from a large cross-sectional study who underwent additional MR examination of the neck and pelvis were included in this analysis. Segmented PDFF maps of the supraclavicular and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue were generated. Delta PDFF was calculated as the difference between gluteal and supraclavicular PDFF and grouped as high (≥12%) or low (<12%) based on the median and the clinical rationale of a high versus low probability of BAT being present. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (mIU/L), free triiodothyronine (FT3, pg/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4, ng/dL) levels were determined in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2. Statistical analyses included the use of paired samples ttest, simple linear regression analysis and a multivariable linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The median age of the subjects (77% female) was 33 years, BMI ranged from 17.2 to 43.1 kg/m2. Supraclavicular and gluteal PDFF differed significantly (76.5 ± 4.8 vs. 89.4 ± 3.5 %, p < 0.01). Supraclavicular PDFF was associated with FT3 in subjects with high delta PDFF (R2 = 0.17, p < 0.01), with higher FT3 being associated with lower supraclavicular PDFF (y = 85.2 + -3.6 x). In a multivariable linear regression analysis considering further potential prognostic factors, the interaction between the delta PDFF group and FT3 remained a predictor for supraclavicular PDFF (B = -4.65, p < 0.01). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Supraclavicular PDFF corresponds to the presence of BAT. In the present analysis, supraclavicular PDFF is correlated with FT3 in subjects with high delta PDFF. Therefore, the present findings suggest that biologically active T3 may be involved in the development of supraclavicular BAT.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncoplastic surgery techniques lead to a rearrangement of the breast tissue and impede target definition during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). The aim of this study was to assess local control rates after immediate oncoplastic surgery and adjuvant RT. METHODS: This study comprises 965 patients who underwent breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant RT between 01/2000 and 12/2005. 288 patients received immediate oncoplastic surgery (ONC) and 677 patients breast-conserving surgery only (NONC). All patients were treated with adjuvant external tangential-beam RT (total dose: 50/50.4 Gy; fraction dose 1.8/2.0 Gy). An additional boost dose of 10-16 Gy to the primary tumor bed was given in 900 cases (93.3%). Local control rates (LCR), Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed retrospectively after a median follow-up period of 67 (Q25-Q75: 51-84) months. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between ONC and NONC in regard to LCR (5-yr: ONC 96.8% vs. NONC 95.3%; p = 0.25). This held also true for PFS (5-yr: ONC 92.1% vs. NONC 89.3%; p = 0.09) and OS (5-yr: ONC 96.0% vs. NONC 94.8%; p = 0.53). On univariate analyses G2-3 (p = 0.04), a younger age (p = 0.01), T-stage (p < 0.01) lymph node involvement (p < 0.01) as well as triple negative tumors (p < 0.01) were identified as risk factors for local recurrence. In a propensity score stratified Cox-regression model no significant impact of oncoplastic surgery on local control rate was found (HR: 2.05, 95% CI [0.93; 4.51], p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: Immediate oncoplastic surgery seems not to affect the effectiveness of adjuvant whole breast RT on local control rates in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Cirurgia Plástica , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1091, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated predominant microorganisms causing community-onset bacteraemia at the medical emergency department (ED) of a tertiary-care university hospital in Germany from 2013 to 2018 and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns in patients with positive blood cultures presenting to an internal medicine ED were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Blood cultures were obtained at 5191 of 66,879 ED encounters, with 1013 (19.5%) positive results, and true positive results at 740 encounters (diagnostic yield, 14.3%). The most frequently isolated relevant microorganisms were Enterobacterales (n = 439, 59.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 92, 12.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 34, 4.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 32, 4.3%), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 16, 2.2%), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 18, 2.4%), and Enterococcus faecium (n = 12, 1.6%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high proportion of resistance against ampicillin-sulbactam in Enterobacterales (42.2%). The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was low (0.4%). Piperacillin-tazobactam therapy provided coverage for 83.2% of all relevant pathogens using conventional breakpoints. Application of the new European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recommendations increased the percentage of susceptible isolates to high-dose piperacillin-tazobactam to 92.8% (p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum carbapenems would only cover an additional 4.8%. The addition of vancomycin or linezolid extended coverage by just 1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Using an ureidopenicillin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination at the high dose suggested by the new EUCAST recommendations provided nearly 93% coverage for relevant pathogens in patients with suspected bloodstream infection in our cohort. This might offer a safe option to reduce the empiric use of carbapenems. Our data support the absence of a general need for glycopeptides or oxazolidinones in empiric treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Carbapenêmicos/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Alemanha , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piperacilina/efeitos adversos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Tazobactam/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Z Gastroenterol ; 56(10): 1257-1266, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE) represents an autoimmune disease with a highly variable clinical course affecting numerous organs. Hepatic manifestation seems to be rare. It is not clear whether hepatic disease in SLE is of any prognostic importance or whether it correlates with disease activity. METHODS: Our patient cohort included 172 patients with proven SLE, all treated at Bogenhausen Hospital between 01.2009 and 12.2015. Retrospectively, all admissions as inpatients and outpatients were analyzed (n = 671; mean 3.9 per patient). Liver damage was diagnosed by evaluation of laboratory parameters on the basis of pathological liver enzymes and by imaging methods. Disease activity of SLE was calculated by using European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement-(ECLAM-)Score. Additionally, parameters of SLE including disease duration, organ damage and immune suppressive medication and their possible association with hepatopathy were analyzed. RESULTS: Elevated liver parameters (ASAT, ALAT, GGT, AP) indicating liver damage were detectable in 109 patients (63.4 % of total population) demonstrating significant association with disease activity (on the basis of ECLAM-score, p < 0.001), duration of treatment, frequency of admissions (p < 0.01, respectively), number of used immunosuppressive agents (p < 0.018), increased blood sedimentation rate (p < 0.001) and reduction of serum complement (p < 0.03). Abnormal ultrasound findings of the liver (e. g., non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) were diagnosed in 19.8 %. DISCUSSION: Elevated liver parameters occur frequently in patients with SLE, especially in context with increased disease activity (on the basis of ECLAM-Score or intensified immunosuppressive therapy) and prolonged course of the disease. Liver enzymes should be obtained regularly in patients with SLE and, if necessary, further diagnostic steps should be initiated. Further prospective studies might clarify whether abnormal liver parameters must be included in activity indices to judge disease activity in SLE.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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