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Behav Pharmacol ; 25(2): 158-65, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24557322


We investigated whether pretreatment with the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator agmatine (decarboxylated L-arginine) affected methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy in male ICR mice. Agmatine pretreatment alone had no effects on locomotion or stereotypy, but it produced a dose-dependent attenuation of locomotion and the total incidence of stereotyped behavior induced by a low dose of METH (5 mg/kg). The stereotypy induced by this dose was predominantly characterized by stereotyped sniffing. By contrast, agmatine did not affect the total incidence of stereotypy induced by a higher dose of METH (10 mg/kg). However, the nature of stereotypy induced by this dose of METH was substantially altered; agmatine pretreatment significantly reduced stereotyped biting but significantly increased stereotyped sniffing and persistent locomotion. Agmatine pretreatment therefore appears to produce a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for METH. Pretreatment of mice with piperazine-1-carboxamidine (a putative agmatinase inhibitor) had no effect on locomotion or stereotypy induced by a low dose of METH, suggesting that endogenous agmatine may not regulate the METH action.

Agmatina/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ureo-Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores
Brain Res ; 1522: 88-98, 2013 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23727404


We investigated whether pretreatment with opioid receptor antagonists affected methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy in mice. Pretreatment of male ICR mice with naloxone, a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the total incidence of METH-induced stereotypical behavior compared with saline vehicle-pretreated subjects. Furthermore, the distribution of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was affected by naloxone administration. Thus, METH-induced stereotypical sniffing and persistent locomotion were significantly increased by naloxone treatment while stereotypical biting was reduced. One way to interpret this pattern of effects is that pretreatment with naloxone appeared to produce a shift in the dose-response curve for METH. Thus, while the more intense forms of oral-facial stereotypies were reduced, increased persistent locomotion was observed in mice given naloxone followed by METH. The selective µ opioid receptor antagonist ß-funaltrexamine, but not nor-binaltorphimine (a κ-selective antagonist) nor naltrindole (a δ-selective antagonist), mimicked the effect of naloxone. These observations suggest that opioid receptor antagonists may attenuate METH-induced stereotypical biting in mice via µ opioid receptors, and suggest that antagonism of this system may be a potential therapeutic approach to reducing some deleterious effects of METH use and perhaps in the treatment of some forms of self-injurious behavior.

Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu/antagonistas & inibidores , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Naltrexona/farmacologia
Brain Res ; 1429: 155-63, 2012 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22079320


Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments.

Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Escuridão , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Neurochem Res ; 35(5): 749-60, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20148307


A variety of drug treatment regimens have been proposed to model the dysphoric state observed during methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal in rats, but little has been established in experiments using mice. In male ICR mice, a fixed-dose injection regimen of METH (1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 10 consecutive days) induced a significant decrease in the time spent in open arms in an elevated plus maze after 5 days of drug abstinence. Under an escalating-dose injection regimen (0.2-2.0 mg/kg, i.p., 3 times daily for 4 days, total: 15 mg/kg/animal) or continuous subcutaneous administration with osmotic mini-pumps (15 or 76 mg/kg of METH for 2 weeks), no significant behavioral change was observed after 5 days of drug abstinence, compared with control animals. Reduced gains in body weight were observed during repeated treatment with METH in the fixed-dose injection and mini-pump treatment regimens, but not the escalating-dose injection regimen. HPLC analysis revealed significant decreases in the level of cerebral 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a norepinephrine metabolite, and norepinephrine turnover, which may be attributed to the expression of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze. These observations suggest that the mice treated with a fixed-dose of METH may model the anxiety-related behavior observed in the dysphoric state induced by METH withdrawal in humans.

Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/metabolismo , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Animais , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Neurochem Res ; 31(6): 805-13, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16791472


Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization in mice were inhibited by clorgyline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor. In this study, the effect of clorgyline pretreatment on METH-induced rewarding effect was assessed by a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using an apparatus developed with Supermex sensors (infrared pyroelectric sensors). Although intact male ICR mice showed significant CPP for METH (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), pretreatment with subchronic clorgyline (0.1 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) did not affect the magnitude of CPP. At a dose of 1 mg/kg, pretreatment of the mice with clorgyline showed a similar CPP index in both saline/saline and METH/saline pairing groups. During the conditioning session, the mice did not express behavioral sensitization to METH. Pretreatment with clorgyline (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) decreased striatal apparent monoamine turnover in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that clorgyline pretreatment (0.1 and 10 mg/kg) did not influence the METH-induced rewarding effect in mice, although pretreatment of the mice with clorgyline at a dose of 1 mg/kg appeared to influence the CPP for METH.

Clorgilina/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Clássico , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Motivação , Análise de Variância , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR