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1.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

2.
Neuroradiology ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Deep white matter lesions (DWMLs), T2 high-intensity areas in the subcortical white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are a clinical phenotype of cerebral small vessel disease. Factors such as age and hypertension have been reported to significantly contribute to the presence and severity of DWMLs in cross-sectional studies. We herein report a 10-year longitudinal study on DWMLs in elderly Japanese subjects to reveal the clinical variables contributing to the progression of DWMLs. METHODS: A total of 469 Japanese subjects were invited to participate in the study. Of the participants at baseline, 259 subjects completed the revisit MRI study 10 years later. In those 259 subjects, we evaluated the correlation between the progression of DWMLs and clinical variables, such as the gender, age, and overt vascular risk factors. To clarify the role of hypertension, 200 subjects with grade 1 DWMLs at baseline were categorized into three groups according to their status of hypertension and its treatment. RESULTS: Of the 200 subjects with grade 1 DWMLs, 47 subjects (23.5%) showed progression of DWMLs (progression group). In the progression group, the percentage of subjects with hypertension and the systolic blood pressure values were higher than in the non-progression group. In addition, subjects ≥ 60 years old at baseline tended to show deterioration of DWMLs in the group with hypertension without antihypertensive treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this 10-year longitudinal study imply a positive correlation between long-standing hypertension and the progression of DWMLs.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546229

RESUMO

The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and/or gastric disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been elucidated. We investigated the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and/or atrophic gastritis (AG) and chronic kidney disease. In total, 3560 participants (1127 men and 2433 women) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. We divided participants into four study groups: with/without Helicobacter pylori infection and with/without AG. The HP (+) AG (-) group demonstrated a significant association with CKD compared with the HP (-) AG (-) group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.443; 95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.989). In contrast, the HP (+) AG (+) group showed significantly lower adjusted odds of CKD than the HP (-) AG (-) group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.608; 95% confidence interval, 0.402-0.920). H. pylori infection without AG might be associated with CKD in these participants. Conversely, the HP (+) AG (+) group had lower odds of CKD. Uncovering an association between gastric and renal conditions could lead to development of new treatment strategies.

5.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129180, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307412

RESUMO

Contamination levels and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were examined in a dated sediment core from the deepest part of the Beppu Bay, southwestern Japan. PBDEs were found in the upper layers of 0-15 cm depth at concentrations ranging from 5200 to 32,600 pg g-1 with the peak estimated at 1995. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was the most abundant congener, accounting for 96% in average of total PBDEs. The vertical profile of BDE-209 observed in our sediment core generally agreed with the historical pattern of domestic demand of commercial deca-BDE mixtures in Japan, and perfectly matched with maximum stock of these products (i.e., 42,000 tons in 1995). Among alternative BFRs, only decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a replacement of deca-BDE, was found at significant levels with concentrations of 69-850 pg g-1 in sediment layers dated between 1991 and 2011. Ratios of DBDPE to BDE-209 gradually increased during this period, implying opposite trends of these two compounds and the role of DBDPE as a deca-BDE's alternative. The occurrence of deca-BDE components in sediments may pose medium risk to benthic aquatic life, while the ecological risk of other PBDE homologs and DBDPE was negligible.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142504, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035974

RESUMO

The formation, emission, environmental occurrence, and potential adverse effects of unintentionally produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pigments are reviewed, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date picture on these pollutants. PCBs are typically formed during manufacturing of organic pigments that involve chlorinated intermediates and reaction solvents, rather than those of inorganic pigments. Concentrations and profiles of PCBs vary greatly among pigment types and producers, with total PCB levels ranging from lower than detection limits to several hundred ppm; major components can be low-chlorinated (e.g., CB-11) or high-chlorinated congeners (e.g., CB-209). Pigment-derived PCBs can be released into the environment through different steps including pigment production, application, and disposal. They can contaminate atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems, and then affect organisms living there. This situation garners scientific and public attention to nonlegacy emissions of PCBs and suggests the need for appropriate monitoring, management, and abatement strategies regarding these pollutants.

7.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone mass was recently reported to be related to skeletal muscle mass in humans, and a decrease in cortical bone is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Because circulating myostatin is a factor that primarily controls muscle metabolism, this study examined the role of myostatin in bone mass-skeletal muscle mass interactions. METHODS: The subjects were 375 middle-aged community residents with no history of osteoporosis or sarcopenia who participated in a health check-up. Cortical bone thickness and cancellous bone density were measured by ultrasonic bone densitometry in a health check-up survey. The subjects were divided into those with low cortical bone thickness (LCT) or low cancellous bone density (LBD) and those with normal values (NCT/NBD). Bone metabolism markers (TRACP-5b, etc.), skeletal muscle mass, serum myostatin levels, and lifestyle were then compared between the groups. RESULTS: The percentage of diabetic participants, TRACP-5b, and myostatin levels were significantly higher, and the frequency of physical activity, skeletal muscle mass, grip strength, and leg strength were significantly lower in the LCT group than in the NCT group. The odds ratio (OR) of high myostatin levels in the LCT group compared with the NCT group was significant (OR 2.17) even after adjusting for related factors. Between the low cancellous bone density (LBD) and normal cancellous bone density (NBD) groups, significant differences were observed in the same items as between the LCT and NCT groups, but no significant differences were observed in skeletal muscle mass and blood myostatin levels. The myostatin level was significantly negatively correlated with cortical bone thickness and skeletal muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in cortical bone thickness was associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass accompanied by an increase in the blood myostatin level. Blood myostatin may regulate the bone-skeletal muscle relationship and serve as a surrogate marker of bone metabolism, potentially linking muscle mass to bone structure.

8.
Bone ; 141: 115669, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acquisition of a high bone density at a young age is a strategy to prevent fractures/falls later in life. We therefore decided to investigate the increases in cortical thickness (CoTh) and trabecular bone density (TBD) of children. METHODS: Subjects comprised 1314 students (678 boys and 636 girls) aged between 12 and 18 years. Lifestyle factors were examined with a self-administered questionnaire (sleep times, exercise habits, and calcium intake). Bone growth was assessed based on CoTh and TBD using an ultrasonic bone densitometer. Height, weight, and body fat percentage were also measured. RESULTS: Increases in CoTh and TBD occurred earlier in girls than in boys. Calcium intake was not sufficient at any of the ages examined, and sleep times were shorter than those recommended by the National Sleep Foundation. Increases in CoTh and TBD occurred subsequent to increases in height. Although increases in CoTh were observed with age in both sexes, TBD increased in boys until the age of 17 years and in girls until the age of 15 years. At 18 years of age, the young adult mean value was greater than 100% for CoTh but lower than 100% for TBD. A multivariate analysis identified age, body mass index (BMI), and exercise as independent positive factors for CoTh, while body fat percentage was an independent negative factor. Age and BMI were independent positive factors for TBD in both sexes, whereas body fat percentage was a positive factor in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that CoTH and TBD varied with age and differed in increase in boys and girls; related factors of bone increase could also be found. The results of this study may contribute to the acquisition of high bone density in children and adolescents.

9.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140767, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758843

RESUMO

Contamination levels and profiles of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were characterized in a sediment core dated in 1954-2011 from Beppu Bay, southwestern Japan, providing a comprehensive and detailed picture on the environmental occurrence, temporal trends, and emission sources of these pollutants in the study area. Concentrations of total PCBs in the core ranged from 3.5 to 150 (median 15) ng g-1 dry weight and exhibited depth profile matching with Japanese PCB production and emission patterns (i.e., drastically increasing from the early 1960s, peaking in 1970, and then rapidly decreasing). Origin of PCBs in the studied samples largely associated with Kanechlor mixtures (e.g., KC-300 and KC-400), especially for sediment layers dated between the mid-1960s and early 1970s (i.e., the intensive PCB production period in Japan). In addition, dechlorination and weathering signals and emerging inputs of PCBs were also observed in deeper and shallower sediment segments with notable proportions of some unique congeners such as CB-47/48/51 and CB-11, respectively. Historical fluxes of PCBs in our samples showed quite similar vertical shape as concentrations. In the context of national implementation for complete treatment of PCB-containing waste until 2024, further investigations on spatiotemporal trends and environmental loads of PCBs in Japan are necessary.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138823, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570316

RESUMO

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of total 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in settled dust samples collected from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) processing, urban, and rural areas in northern Vietnam. Concentrations of total 209 PCBs, seven indicator congeners, and twelve dioxin-like PCBs decreased in the order: ELV working > ELV living ≈ urban > rural dusts. Penta- and hexa-CBs dominated the homolog patterns in all the samples with higher proportions in the ELV dusts compared to the urban and rural house dusts. The abundance and pattern of PCBs in the ELV dusts suggest on-going emissions of these compounds related to processing of vehicular oils and lubricants containing PCBs, whereas the presence of PCBs in the urban and rural house dusts indicate long-time releases. However, levels of some PCBs identified as by-products of pigment manufacturing (e.g., PCB-11 and PCB-209) were higher in the urban house dusts than those from other locations, resulting from human activities utilizing paints and pigments. Daily intake doses (ID), non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ), and lifetime cancer risk (CR) of PCBs through dust ingestion were estimated for ELV workers and residents in the studied areas. The workers and children in the ELV sites were estimated to be at higher risk of PCB exposure, however almost all of the HQ < 1 and CR < 10-4 indicate no serious risk related to dust-bound PCBs.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Criança , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Vietnã
12.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125991, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069737

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and unsubstituted/methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/Me-PAHs) were simultaneously monitored in the air samples collected from Vietnamese urban and vehicular waste processing areas by using polyurethane foam-based passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) method. Concentrations (pg m-3) of organic pollutants decreased in the order: PAHs (median 29,000; range 5100-100,000) > Me-PAHs (6000; 1000-33,000) > PCBs (480; 170-1100) > PBDEs (11; 5.3-86) > NBFRs (0.20; n. d. - 51) > BB-153 (n.d.). The difference in total PCB and PBDE concentrations between the urban and waste processing air samples was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, levels of PAHs, Me-PAHs, benzo [a]pyrene equivalents (BaP-EQs), and toxic equivalents of dioxin-like PCBs (WHO-TEQs) were much higher in the waste processing sites. This is the first report on the abundance of mono- and di-CBs (notably CB-11) in the air from a developing country, suggesting their roles as emerging and ubiquitous air pollutants. Our results have indicated potential sources of specific organic pollutants such as dioxin-like PCBs, PAHs, and Me-PAHs from improper treatment of end-of-life vehicles and other vehicle related materials (e.g., waste oils and rubber tires), as well as current emission of PCBs and PBDEs in the urban area in Vietnam. Further atmospheric monitoring studies should be conducted in this developing country that cover both legacy and emerging contaminants with a focus on areas affected by rapid urbanization and informal waste processing activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poliuretanos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Urbanização , Vietnã , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
13.
Pediatr Int ; 62(6): 694-700, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The process of birth causes stress for neonates, but additional stressors for sick neonates are a matter of concern. As analysis of heart-rate variability (HRV), which reflects autonomic activity, has demonstrated that low-frequency (LF) activity reflects overall autonomic activity, high-frequency (HF) activity reflects parasympathetic activity, and the LF/HF ratio reflects sympathetic activity, HRV has been clinically applied as a non-invasive index of physical stress. In this study, we evaluated whether HRV is useful as a stress index for neonates by analyzing it in comparison with their salivary cortisol level. METHODS: We measured the salivary cortisol level and HRV in 12 healthy neonates and 37 neonates born during between 2014 and 2016 and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. These examinations were performed at birth and after approximately 1 week. The changes in parameters with time were examined. RESULTS: The LF and HF values in both groups exhibited significant negative correlations with the salivary cortisol level. In those admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, the LF and HF values were correlated with gestational age and height. In the healthy neonates, a reduced salivary cortisol level and increase in the LF and HF values were observed approximately 1 week after birth compared with the values at birth, whereas the LF/HF ratio was not correlated with the salivary cortisol level and did not change over time. CONCLUSIONS: The LF and HF values were significantly correlated with the cortisol level, suggesting their usefulness as physiological indices of stress in clinical neonatal care.

14.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(2): 125-131, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481698

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to show the combined effect of weight gain within normal weight range in adulthood and parental HT on the prevalence of HT. The study subjects were 44,998 individuals (19,039 men and 25,959 women) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9) aged 35-69 years who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were categorized into six groups by weight gain from age 20 years (<10 kg, and ≥10 kg) and by the number of parents having HT (no parent, one parent, and both parents). Odds ratios for HT were estimated after adjustment for age, sex, current BMI, estimated daily sodium intake, and other confounding factors. The prevalence of HT (31.5% in total subjects) gradually increased with greater weight gain from age 20 years and with greater number of parents with HT. Subjects who gained weight ≥10 kg and having both parents with HT showed the highest risk of having HT compared with those who gained weight <10 kg without parental HT (59.8% vs. 24.9%, odds ratio 4.25, 95% CI 3.53-5.13 after adjustment). This association was similarly observed in any category of age, sex, and BMI. Subjects who gained weight within normal range of BMI and having one or both parent(s) with HT showed the higher risk of having HT independent of their attained BMI in their middle ages. Thus, subjects having parent(s) with HT should avoid gaining their weight during adulthood, even within normal range of BMI, to reduce the risk of having HT.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 267, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize the stomach and are considered an etiological agent of gastric cancer. The oral cavity is a transmission route to the stomach, but the exact site of colonization has not yet been explicated. Our study investigated the association between H. pylori infection and presence in oral samples. METHODS: Dental pulp, supragingival plaque, and saliva from 192 patients visiting the Dentistry's outpatient clinic were collected for testing. The H. pylori ureA gene was identified via Nested PCR. Urine anti-H. pylori antibody test was utilized to detect infection. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects were found to be antibody-positive. PCR analysis of dental pulp revealed that 23 subjects possessed the ureA gene. Twenty-one subjects were positive for both antibodies and genes in dental pulp. PCR testing revealed that 2 subjects were positive in dental plaque but negative for saliva. The subjects positive for H. pylori in dental pulp expressed clinical signs of severe dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infected subjects expressed H. pylori in samples from the oral cavity. The main reservoir for infection within the oral cavity was determined to be dental pulp. Moreover, H. pylori are likely transmitted from dental caries to the root canal.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saliva
16.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) are both H. pylori infection-related diseases, individuals with DU are known to have lower risk for GC. Many epidemiological studies have identified the PSCA rs2294008 T-allele as a risk factor of GC, while others have found an association between the rs2294008 C-allele and risk of DU and gastric ulcer (GU). Following these initial reports, however, few studies have since validated these associations. Here, we aimed to validate the association between variations in PSCA and the risk of DU/GU and evaluate its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population. METHODS: PSCA six SNPs were genotyped in 584 DU cases, 925 GU cases, and 8,105 controls from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC). Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between the SNPs and risk of DU/GU. RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 C-allele was associated with per allele OR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.51; P=2.28×10-6) for the risk of DU. This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit and H. pylori status. On the other hand, we did not observe an association between the risk of GU and PSCA SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and the risk of DU in a Japanese population.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(13)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277205

RESUMO

The temperature-dependent dynamics of the hydrogen/deuterium atoms in geometrically frustrated magnets Co2(OH)3Br and its deuterated form Co2(OD)3Br were investigated by muon spin relaxation (µSR). The deuterium atoms in Co2(OD)3Br were found to be rapidly fluctuating at high temperatures, which should be arising as a quantum atomic effect due to the small mass of deuterium, then they drastically slowed down toward Tc = 250 K where a broad anomaly appeared in the dielectric response, and finally became quasi-static at around 180 K. Meanwhile, the hydrogen atoms in Co2(OH)3Br also exhibited a two-step slowing at ~240 K and ~180 K, respectively. The revealed properties in Co2(OH)3Br/Co2(OD)3Br are reminiscent of relaxor-type ferroelectrics. The present study suggested the effectiveness of the µSR technique on revealing the hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) dynamics in Co2(OH)3Br/Co2(OD)3Br. Furthermore, magnetic coupling was found to be existing at high temperatures in this system. This work provides clear evidence to the mechanism of ferroelectric responses in the hydroxyl salts, i.e., the slowing of protons (deuterium ions) is directly related to the newly revealed ferroelectricity.

18.
Hypertens Res ; 42(10): 1599-1605, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019248

RESUMO

Based on the obesity paradox, people with a normal body mass index (BMI) may have a higher risk of mortality than those with a BMI that falls within the obese range. Despite the availability of other anthropometric measures, obesity is commonly evaluated based on BMI. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have recently been proposed as new anthropometric measures that are calculated with height, weight, and waist circumference. This study investigated the associations between the traditional and new body composition indices and arterial stiffness using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Overall, 3512 individuals (1228 men and 2284 women) were enrolled and were divided into two groups according to BMI. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between baPWV and body composition. baPWV was significantly associated with ABSI (ß = 0.087, p = 0.002), visceral adipose tissue (VAT; ß = 0.081, p = 0.002), and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) ratio (ß = 0.108, p < 0.001) in non-obese men. In non-obese women, baPWV was significantly associated with several variables but not the VAT/SAT ratio. Similarly, baPWV was significantly associated with BMI (ß = 0.103, p = 0.038), BRI (ß = 0.104, p = 0.036), VAT (ß = 0.167, p = 0.001), and the VAT/SAT ratio (ß = 0.106, p = 0.028) in obese women. ABSI can be used with high accuracy to evaluate fat distribution in non-obese men to predict arterial stiffness. However, the BRI should be used in addition to BMI to assess the body composition of women more accurately. ABSI and the BRI can be used to identify predictors of vascular remodeling or organic vascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 652: 345-355, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366335

RESUMO

A full congener-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was conducted for street dusts in some areas in northern Vietnam. Total 209 PCB concentrations (median and range) of 14 (2.2-120), 11 (6.6-32), and 0.25 (0.10-0.97) ng g-1 were measured in the street dusts from an industrial park, an urban area, and a rural commune, respectively, suggesting environmental loads of PCBs related to industrialization and urbanization in northern Vietnam. PCB patterns of street dusts from the industrial park were dominated by lightly chlorinated homologs (tri- and tetra-CBs), while more highly chlorinated homologs (penta- and hexa-CBs) were the major contributors to total PCBs in the urban samples, indicating different emission sources. Linear correlations of log-transformed sum of 7 indicator congeners with total PCBs and sum of dioxin-like PCBs were observed. PCB-11, an inadvertently produced congener of pigment manufacturing processes, was detected in all the samples with more elevated proportions in the urban and rural areas than industrial park. Our results have revealed complex emission sources of PCBs in the study areas, including both historical (e.g., the past usage of imported PCB-containing oils and old electric equipment) and current sources such as releases from industrial activities and increasing use of new consumer products. Occupationally exposed persons (e.g., street sweepers, street vendors, and traffic policemen) and children in the urban and industrial areas were estimated to receive much higher doses of dust-bound PCBs than general population, suggesting the need for appropriate protection conditions.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Vietnã
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(48): e13241, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508907

RESUMO

Brief exposure to passive smoking immediately elevates blood pressure. However, little is known about the association between exposure to passive smoking and chronic hypertension. We aimed to examine this association in a cross-sectional study, after controlling multiple potential confounders.Participants included 32,098 lifetime nonsmokers (7,216 men and 24,882 women) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Passive smoking was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The single question about exposure to passive smoking had five response options: "sometimes or almost never," "almost every day, 2 hours/day or less," "almost every day, 2 to 4 hours/day," "almost every day, 4 to 6 hours/day," and "almost every day, 6 hours/day or longer." Hypertension was defined as any of the following: systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hypertension were estimated by exposure level to passive smoking using unconditional logistic regression models.The multivariate-adjusted OR for hypertension in those exposed almost every day was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) compared with those exposed sometimes or almost never. The OR for a 1-hour per day increase in exposure was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.06, Pfor trend = .006). This association was stronger in men than in women; the ORs were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.15, Pfor trend = .036) and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00-1.05, Pfor trend = .055), respectively.Our findings suggest importance of tobacco smoke control for preventing hypertension.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , não Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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