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1.
Pathobiology ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023616

RESUMO

Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene rearrangement is a key driver mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although Break-Apart ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a reliable diagnostic method for detecting ALK gene rearrangement, it is also costly and time-consuming to use as a routine screening test. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel one-step, automated, rapid FISH (Auto-RaFISH) method developed to facilitate hybridization. This method takes advantage of the non-contact mixing effect of an alternating-current electric field. Ten representative specimens from 85 patients diagnosed at multiple centers with primary lung cancer with identified ALK-FISH status were collected. The specimens were all tested using FISH, RaFISH, and Auto-RaFISH. With both RaFISH protocols, the ALK test was completed within 4.5 h, as compared to the 20 h needed for the standard protocol. We found 100% agreement between the standard FISH, RaFISH, and new Auto-RaFISH based on the ALK status, and all methods stained equally well. These findings suggest that Auto-RaFISH could potentially serve as an automated clinical tool for prompt determination of ALK status in NSCLC.

2.
Circ J ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no data comparing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) outcomes in real clinical practice in Japan.Methods and Results:We combined 2 independent registries, the K-TAVI Registry (a 6-center prospective registry of consecutive patients who underwent TAVI) and the CURRENT AS Registry (a large, 27-center registry of 3,815 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis [AS]). In the K-TAVI Registry, 338 patients underwent TAVI with SAPIEN XT balloon-expandable valves from October 2013 to January 2016, whereas in the CURRENT AS Registry 237 patients with severe AS underwent SAVR from January 2003 to December 2011. Propensity score matching was conducted, with final cohort comprising 306 patients. The cumulative 2-year incidence of all-cause death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization did not differ significantly between the TAVI and SAVR groups (13.7% vs. 12.4% [P=0.81] and 7.9% vs 3.9% [P=0.13], respectively). After adjusting for residual confounders, there were no significant differences between the TAVI and SAVR groups in the risk for all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-1.58; P=0.43) or HF hospitalization (HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.40-4.59; P=0.69). CONCLUSIONS: These findings from 2 independent Japanese registries suggest that the 2-year risk of all-cause mortality and HF does not differ significantly between TAVI and SAVR groups in real-world practice in Japan.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in medical settings in Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 45 A. baumannii clinical isolates were obtained in medical settings in Myanmar. The whole genomes were sequenced by a next generation sequencer, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. RESULTS: Thirty-eight MDR Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were obtained from seven hospitals in Myanmar. The majority of MDR A. baumannii isolates belonged to ST2. Of the 38 isolates, 5 harbored blaNDM-1, and 28 did armA or armA2 CONCLUSIONS: A. baumannii ST2 producing 16S rRNA methylase ArmA has been spreading in medical settings in Myanmar.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828537

RESUMO

Echocardiography offers rapid and cost-effective estimations of left ventricular (LV) mass, but its accuracy in patients with cardiac disease remains unclear. LV mass was measured by M-mode-based linear method and two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE)-based area-length method in pig models and correlation with actual LV weight was assessed. Twenty-six normal, 195 ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 33 non-IHD HF pigs were included. A strong positive linear relationship to the actual LV weight was found with 2DE-based area-length method (r = 0.82, p < 0.001), whereas a moderate relationship was found with M-mode method in the overall population (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Two correlation coefficients were significantly different (p < 0.001), and were driven mainly by incremental overestimation of LV mass in heavier hearts using the M-mode method. IHD and LV dilation were the factors contributing to overestimation using M-mode method. 2DE-based area-length method provides a better estimation of LV weight in swine models of HF, particularly in those with IHD.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(24): 2499-2511, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of the decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 1-year follow-up in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) managed conservatively. BACKGROUND: No previous study has explored the association between LVEF decline during follow-up and clinical outcomes in patients with severe AS. METHODS: Among 3,815 patients with severe AS enrolled in the multicenter CURRENT AS (Contemporary Outcomes After Surgery and Medical Treatment in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis) registry in Japan, 839 conservatively managed patients who underwent echocardiography at 1-year follow-up were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was a composite of AS-related deaths and hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: There were 91 patients (10.8%) with >10% declines in LVEF and 748 patients (89.2%) without declines. Left ventricular dimensions and the prevalence of valve regurgitation and atrial fibrillation or flutter significantly increased in the group with declines in LVEF. The cumulative 3-year incidence of the primary outcome measure was significantly higher in the group with declines in LVEF than in the group with no decline (39.5% vs. 26.5%; p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the excess risk of decline in LVEF over no decline for the primary outcome measure remained significant (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.29 to 3.06). When stratified by LVEF at index echocardiography (≥70%, 60% to 69%, and <60%), the risk of decline in LVEF on the primary outcome was consistently seen in all the subgroups, without any interaction (p = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe AS with >10% declines in LVEF at 1 year after diagnosis had worse AS-related clinical outcomes than those without declines in LVEF under conservative management. (Contemporary Outcomes After Surgery and Medical Treatment in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Registry; UMIN000012140).

6.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain management makes an important contribution to good respiratory care and early recovery after thoracic surgery. Although the development of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has led to improved patient outcomes, chest tube removal could be distressful experience for many patients. The aim of this trial was to test whether the addition of lidocaine cream would have a significant impact on the pain treatment during chest tube removal from patients who had undergone VATS for lung cancer. METHODS: This clinical trial was a double-blind randomized study. Forty patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer amenable to lobectomy/segmentectomy were enrolled. All patients had standard perioperative care. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either epidural anesthesia plus placebo cream (placebo, Group P) or epidural anesthesia plus 7% lidocaine cream cutaneously around the chest tube insertion site and on the skin over the tube's course 20 min (Group L) before chest drain removal. RESULTS: Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were higher in Group P (median 5, IQR, 3.25-8) than in Group L (median 2, IQR, 1-3). Pain intensities measured using a PainVision system were also higher in Group P (median 296.7, IQR, 216.9-563.5) than Group L (median 41.2, IQR, 11.8-97.0). VAS scores and the pain intensity associated with chest drain removal were significantly lower in Group L than Group P (p=0.0002 vs p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Analgesia using lidocaine cream is a very simple way to reduce the pain of chest tube removal after VATS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000013824.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750316

RESUMO

Coronary microembolization is one of the main causes of the "no-reflow" phenomenon, which commonly occurs after reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery. Given its high incidence and the fact that it has been proven to be an independent predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality, there is an imperative need to study its underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology. Large animal models are essential to perform translational studies. Currently there is no animal model that recapitulates a clinical scenario of thrombogenic microembolism with preceding myocardial ischemia. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop and characterize a novel pig model of coronary microembolization using autologous thrombus injection (CMET). Twenty-three pigs underwent myocardial infarction through percutaneous balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Each animal was enrolled in one of two groups: (1) the CMET group, in which the LAD occlusion was followed by delivery of autologous clotted blood in the LAD (distal to the balloon occlusion) and reperfusion; (2) the ischemic reperfusion (I/R) group, in which the LAD ischemia was followed by reperfusion. Surviving animals underwent functional and morphological characterization at 1-week post-procedure. Three sham operated animals were used as a control. CMET resulted in impaired left ventricular function compared to I/R pigs at 1 week. Three-dimensional echocardiography demonstrated reduced ejection fraction in the CMET group (CMET vs. I/R: 35.6 ± 4.2% vs. 47.6 ± 2.4%, p = 0.028). Invasive hemodynamic measurements by Swan-Ganz and left ventricular pressure-volume catheters revealed that CMET impaired left ventricular contractility and diastolic function. This was confirmed by both load-dependent indices including cardiac output (CMET vs. I/R: 2.7 ± 0.2 l/min, vs. 4.0 ± 0.1 l/min, p = 0.002) and load independent indices including preload-recruitable stroke work (CMET vs. I/R: 25.8 ± 4.0 vs. 47.5 ± 6.5 mmHg, p = 0.05) and end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (slope, 0.68 ± 0.07 vs. 0.40 ± 0.11 mmHg/ml, p = 0.01). Our unique closed-chest model of coronary microembolization using autologous thrombus injection resembles the clinical condition of thrombogenic coronary microembolization in I/R injury. This model offers opportunities to conduct translational studies for understanding and treating coronary microembolization in myocardial infarction.

8.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 4(6): 701-714, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709319

RESUMO

No effective treatment is yet available to reduce infarct size and improve clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction by enhancing early reperfusion therapy using primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The study showed that Kyoto University Substance 121 (KUS121) reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, maintained adenosine triphosphate levels, and ameliorated the infarct size in a murine cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury model. The study confirmed the cardioprotective effect of KUS121 in a porcine ischemia and reperfusion injury model. These findings confirmed that KUS121 is a promising novel therapeutic agent for myocardial infarction in conjunction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is criticized by some as an expensive treatment in super-elder patients with limited life expectancy. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the magnitude of clinical benefit provided by TAVI in comparison with conservative management in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) in real clinical practice, which would be important in the decision making for TAVI. METHODS: We combined two independent registries, namely CURRENT AS and K-TAVI registries. CURRENT AS was a multicenter registry enrolling 3815 consecutive patients with severe AS irrespective to treatment modalities between January 2003 and December 2011. K-TAVI was a multicenter, prospective registry including 449 consecutive patients with severe AS, who underwent TAVI with SAPIEN XT balloon-expandable valves between October 2013 and June 2016. In these 2 registries, 449 patients received TAVI and 894 patients were managed with conservative strategy. We conducted propensity score matching and finally obtained a cohort of 556 patients (278 patients for each group) for the analysis. The primary outcome measures were all-cause death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization at 2-year. RESULTS: The cumulative 2-year incidences of all-cause death and HF hospitalization were significantly lower in the TAVI group than in the conservative group (16.8% versus 36.6%, P<0.001, and 10.7% versus 37.2%, P<0.001). After adjusting the residual confounders, TAVI reduced the risks of all-cause death (HR, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.32-0.69; P = 0.0001) and HF hospitalizations (HR, 0.25; 95%CI, 0.16-0.40; P<0.0001) compared with conservative strategy. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of non-cardiovascular death between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAVI in the early Japanese experience was associated with striking risk reduction for all-cause death as well as HF hospitalization as compared with the historical cohort of patients with severe AS who were managed conservatively just before introduction of TAVI in Japan.

10.
J Biol Chem ; 294(44): 16429-16439, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533987

RESUMO

Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, and Trithorax (SET) domain-containing protein 8 (SET8) is the sole enzyme that monomethylates Lys-20 of histone H4 (H4K20). SET8 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, the cell cycle, and senescence. SET8 quickly undergoes ubiquitination and degradation by several E3 ubiquitin ligases; however, the enzyme that deubiquitinates SET8 has not yet been identified. Here we demonstrated that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 17-like family member (USP17) deubiquitinates and therefore stabilizes the SET8 protein. We observed that USP17 interacts with SET8 and removes polyubiquitin chains from SET8. USP17 knockdown not only decreased SET8 protein levels and H4K20 monomethylation but also increased the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. As a consequence, USP17 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. We noted that USP17 was down-regulated in replicative senescence and that USP17 inhibition alone was sufficient to trigger cellular senescence. These results reveal a regulatory mechanism whereby USP17 prevents cellular senescence by removing ubiquitin marks from and stabilizing SET8 and transcriptionally repressing p21.

11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(4): 114882, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495528

RESUMO

CRE-JU is a novel selective agar for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that contains ceftazidime, cloxacillin, meropenem, and vancomycin. This study evaluated the ability of 63 carbapenem-resistant isolates and 53 non-carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains clinically isolated in Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Vietnam to grow on CRE-JU. CRE-JU showed 92.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae compared with dug susceptibility profiles.

12.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) comprise a tumorigenic subpopulation of cells that are resistant to radio- and chemo-therapies and are responsible for cancer recurrence. The aim of this study was to identify novel compounds that specifically eradicate GICs using a high throughput drug screening approach. METHODS: We performed a cell proliferation/death-based drug screening using 10,560 independent compounds. We identified DHODH as a target protein of hit compound 10580 using ligand-fishing and mass spectrometry analysis. The medical efficacy of 10580 was investigated by in vitro cell proliferation/death and differentiation and in vivo tumorigenic assays. RESULTS: Among the effective compounds, we identified 10580, which induced cell cycle arrest, decreased the expression of stem cell factors in GICs and prevented tumorigenesis upon oral administration without any visible side effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that 10580 decreased pyrimidine nucleotide levels and enhanced SOX2 nuclear export by antagonizing the enzyme activity of DHODH, an essential enzyme for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified 10580 as a promising new drug against GICs. Given that normal tissue cells, in particular brain cells, tend to use the alternative salvage pathway for pyrimidine synthesis, our findings suggest that 10580 can be used for glioblastoma therapy without side effects.

13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(11): 3377-3384, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368883

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated as strain BML3T, was isolated from a sputum sample of a hospital patient in Japan. Strain BML3T grew at temperatures from 4 to 40 °C, in 1.0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-9.0. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of housekeeping genes, including the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB, rpoD and gyrB, showed that strain BML3T was part of the Pseudomonas putida group and located close to Pseudomonas asiatica, Pseudomonas monteiliiand P. putida . Whole-genome comparisons, using average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, confirmed strain BML3T to be a distinct species among the P. putida group. Phenotypic characterization tests demonstrated that the utilization of phenylmercuric acetate could distinguish this strain from other closed species of the P. putida group. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, strain BML3T should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas juntendi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BML3T (=DSM 109244T,=JCM 33395T), with a DNA G+C content of 62.66 mol %.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Urina/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Japão , Mianmar , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Phys Med Biol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Compton camera can simultaneously acquire images of multiple isotopes injected in a body; therefore, it has the potential to introduce a new subfield in the field of biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of a prototype semiconductor-based silicon/cadmium telluride (Si/CdTe) Compton camera to simultaneously capture the distributions of technetium (99mTc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) (141 keV emission) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (511 keV emission) injected into a human volunteer. &#13; Methods: 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG are injected intravenously into a 25-year-old male volunteer. The distributions of 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG are simultaneously visualized by setting a specified energy window for each radioisotope. The images of these radiopharmaceuticals acquired using the prototype Compton camera are superimposed onto computed tomography images for reference.&#13; Results: The reconstructed image showed that 99mTc-DMSA had accumulates in both kidneys, which is consistent with the well-known diagnostic distribution determined by clinical imaging via single-photon emission computed tomography. In the 18F-FDG image, there is broad distribution around the liver and kidneys, which was expected based on routine clinical positron emission tomography imaging.&#13; Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, the current study demonstrates first time that the Si/CdTe Compton camera is capable of simultaneously imaging the distributions of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG, in a human body. These results suggest that the Si/CdTe Compton camera has the potential to become a novel modality for nuclear medical diagnoses enabling multi-probe simultaneous tracking.&#13; &#13.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 565, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in bacterial laboratories at medical settings, a new immunochromatographic assay for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamases (NDMs) was developed. METHODS: The immunochromatographic assay for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamases producers was developed using rat monoclonal antibodies against NDMs. The assessment was performed using 350 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter baumannii (51 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (163 isolates), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (136 isolates) obtained from 2015 to 2017 in medical settings in Myanmar. Of them, 302 isolates were resistant to carbapenems, including imipenem and/or meropenem. The blaNDM genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Of the 350 clinical isolates tested, 164 (46.9%) (60 isolates of Escherichia coli, 51 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae, 23 isolates of P. aeruginosa, and 5 isolates of A. baumannii) were positive on this assay, and all the positive isolates harbored genes encoding NDM-1, - 4, - 5 and - 7. The remaining 186 (53.1%) isolates negative on the assay did not harbor genes encoding NDMs. The assay had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 100%. The assessment revealed that more than 90% of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae produced NDMs. CONCLUSIONS: The immunochromatographic assay is an easy-to-use and reliable kit for detection of NDMs-producing Gram-negative bacteria. The assay revealed that NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates are wide-spread in medical settings in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Imunoensaio/métodos , beta-Lactamases/imunologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzimologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/enzimologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mianmar , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138570

RESUMO

Pseudomonas asiatica is a recently proposed species of the genus Pseudomonas This study describes eight isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. asiatica harboring bla NDM-1 and bla VIM-2, genes encoding metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL). These isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients hospitalized in Myanmar. These isolates were resistant to carbapenems but susceptible to colistin. All eight isolates were positive for a carbapenemase inactivation method, CIMTrisII, and seven were positive on an immunochromatographic assay for NDM-type MBL. One isolate was highly resistant to aminoglycosides. Whole-genome sequencing showed that seven isolates harbored bla NDM-1 and one harbored bla VIM-2, with these genes located on the chromosome. One isolate harbored bla NDM-1 and rmtC, a gene encoding 16S rRNA methylase. Five types of genomic environments surrounding bla NDM-1 and bla VIM-2 were detected in these eight isolates, with four isolates having the same type. These data indicate that P. asiatica isolates harboring genes encoding carbapenemases, including bla NDM-1 and bla VIM-2, are spreading in medical settings in Myanmar.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(15): 1931-1944, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin cardiac benefits in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial cannot be explained exclusively by its antihyperglycemic activity. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis was that empagliflozin's cardiac benefits are mediated by switching myocardial fuel metabolism away from glucose toward ketone bodies (KB), which improves myocardial energy production. METHODS: Heart failure was induced in nondiabetic pigs (n = 14) by 2-h balloon occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery. Animals were randomized to empagliflozin or placebo for 2 months. Animals were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional echocardiography. Myocardial metabolite consumption was analyzed by simultaneous blood sampling from coronary artery and coronary sinus. Myocardial samples were obtained for molecular evaluation. Nonmyocardial infarction animals served as comparison. RESULTS: Despite similar initial ischemic myocardial injury in both groups, the empagliflozin group showed amelioration of adverse remodeling at 2 months (lower left ventricular [LV] mass, reduced LV dilatation, less LV sphericity) versus the control group. LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction and echocardiography-derived strains) was improved, as was neurohormonal activation. Compared with nonmyocardial infarction, control animals increased myocardial glucose consumption mainly through anaerobic glycolysis while reducing utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). Empagliflozin-treated pigs did not consume glucose (reduction in myocardial glucose uptake, and glucose-related enzymes) but instead switched toward utilization of KB, FFA, and BCAA (increased myocardial uptake of these 3 metabolites, and enhanced expression/activity of the enzymes implicated in the metabolism of KB/FFA/BCAA). Empagliflozin increased myocardial ATP content and enhanced myocardial work efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin ameliorates adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure in a nondiabetic porcine model. Empagliflozin switches myocardial fuel utilization away from glucose toward KB, FFA, and BCAA, thereby improving myocardial energetics, enhancing LV systolic function, and ameliorating adverse LV remodeling.

18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1361-1368, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810522

RESUMO

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, RYU5T, was isolated from a stool sample of an inpatient at a hospital in Okinawa, Japan. The optimal growth temperature of RYU5T was 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of housekeeping genes, including the 16S rRNA, rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, showed that RYU5T was a member of the Pseudomonas putida group and was located close to Pseudomonas monteilii and P. putida. Whole-genome comparisons, using average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, confirmed that strain RYU5T should be classified as a novel species of Pseudomonas. Phenotypic characterization tests showed that utilization of d-mannose, d-serine, l-arabinose and d-fructose could distinguish this strain from other related species of the genus Pseudomonas. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, strain RYU5T should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas asiatica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RYU5T (=DSM 107182T, =JCM 32716T), with a DNA G+C content of 62.25 mol%.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Mianmar , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803967

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious worldwide medical problem. This study was designed to clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitals in Myanmar. Forty-five MDR P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from different patients in seven hospitals in Myanmar were screened using the broth microdilution method. The whole genomes of the MDR isolates were sequenced using a MiSeq platform (Illumina). Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced, and drug resistance genes were identified. Of the 45 isolates, 38 harbored genes encoding carbapenemases, including DIM-1, IMP-1, NDM-1, VIM-2, and VIM-5, and 9 isolates had genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases, including RmtB, RmtD3, RmtE, and RmtF2. Most MDR P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Myanmar belonged to sequence type 1047 (ST1047). This is the first molecular epidemiological analysis of MDR P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in Myanmar. These findings strongly suggest that P. aeruginosa ST1047 strains harboring carbapenemases, including DIM-, IMP-, NDM-, and VIM-type metallo-ß-lactamases, have been spreading throughout medical settings in Myanmar.

20.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 12(2): 135-141, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845440

RESUMO

Non-invasive means of evaluating appropriate cardiac unloading remain to be established. We hypothesized that myocardial deformation assessed by echocardiographic speckle-tracking strain analysis can reliably estimate the degree of left ventricular (LV) unloading under mechanical circulatory support. A total of 24 Yorkshire pigs underwent Impella-mediated acute LV unloading 1-2 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI). Echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume measurements were used to evaluate the degree of LV unloading. Pressure-volume analysis before and after LV unloading exhibited a significant decrease in stroke work (3399 ± 1440 to 1244 ± 659 mmHg ml, p < 0.001), suggesting reduced external cardiac work. Both longitudinal strain (- 14.6 ± 4.1% to - 10.6 ± 2.3%, p < 0.001) and circumferential strain (- 18.7 ± 6.1% to - 9.3 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001) decreased after LV unloading, and there were linear relationships between stroke work and echocardiographic longitudinal (r = - 0.61, p < 0.001) as well as circumferential strains (r = - 0.75, p < 0.001). Echocardiographic LV strain analysis offers a non-invasive assessment of LV unloading in subacute MI.

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