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1.
Transfus Med ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tests have been mandated in Japan since 1986, and notification of HTLV-1-seropositive donors started in 1999. However, donor knowledge and response to notification has not been assessed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among blood donors notified of HTLV-1 seropositivity regarding their knowledge of HTLV-1 and unmet information needs. To reduce anxiety among notified individuals and raise awareness of their infection status, we created a booklet containing information that would be useful for these individuals without causing unnecessary anxiety while also requesting that they refrain from donating blood in the future. RESULTS: A questionnaire survey conducted before the distribution of a new booklet revealed that 15.0% of respondents donated blood again despite receiving an HTLV-1-seropositive notification at the previous donation. While 62.2% of respondents reacted to the notification favourably, 40.2% expressed anxiety and 32.5% requested information on related diseases and medical institutions for consultation. In the secondary survey after distribution of the new booklet, 87.9% of respondents reported that the information was comprehensible, and an increase in consultations of medical institutions by notification recipients was observed. Furthermore, no re-visiting donors were observed among the HTLV-1-seropositive recipients who were notified using the new information booklet. CONCLUSION: The new information booklet provided enlightenment on HTLV-1 infection and facilitated the consultation of medical institutions by seropositive donors, leading to an improvement in the health-related quality of life of seropositive blood donors and the safety of blood products.

2.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4346-4354, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355480

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a T-cell malignancy that is endemic to Japan. In this latest nationwide study of ATL, we collected the data from 4 nationwide registries of patients diagnosed in 2012-2013; the Hematology Blood Disease, the Skin Cancer Society, the Hospital-Based Cancer Registries, and information from the hospitals that participated in the Japanese nationwide survey of ATL in 2010-2011. In the present study, 2614 patients with ATL were diagnosed based on the registries, and 117 departments registered 1042 patients. Among these patients, 984 were eligible for analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 69 y. A larger proportion of patients with ATL older than 70 y was diagnosed with the lymphoma subtype, and more than half of the patients with ATL in the metropolitan areas were born in the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1)-endemic areas of Kyushu/Okinawa, which are almost identical to the findings in our 2010-2011 study. Additionally, we identified that patients with ATL migrated from the endemic areas for HTLV-1 to the non-endemic metropolitan areas. The present study was able to reduce the burden of searching each hospital and to update the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of a large number of patients with ATL in Japan, suggesting the usefulness and feasibility of the novel data collection method. The establishment of a more sophisticated database management system for ATL is necessary for future continuous surveys.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4821, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376672

RESUMO

Subclonal genetic heterogeneity and their diverse gene expression impose serious problems in understanding the behavior of cancers and contemplating therapeutic strategies. Here we develop and utilize a capture-based sequencing panel, which covers host hotspot genes and the full-length genome of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), to investigate the clonal architecture of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). For chronologically collected specimens from patients with ATL or pre-onset individuals, we integrate deep DNA sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing to detect the somatic mutations and virus directly and characterize the transcriptional readouts in respective subclones. Characteristic genomic and transcriptomic patterns are associated with subclonal expansion and switches during the clinical timeline. Multistep mutations in the T-cell receptor (TCR), STAT3, and NOTCH pathways establish clone-specific transcriptomic abnormalities and further accelerate their proliferative potential to develop highly malignant clones, leading to disease onset and progression. Early detection and characterization of newly expanded subclones through the integrative analytical platform will be valuable for the development of an in-depth understanding of this disease.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Evolução Clonal/genética , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/virologia , Mutação , RNA-Seq/métodos , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(25): 30198-30204, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152731

RESUMO

Developing high-performance solid electrolytes that are operable at room temperature is one of the toughest challenges related to all-solid-state fluoride-ion batteries (FIBs). In this study, tetragonal ß-Pb0.78Sn1.22F4, a promising solid electrolyte material for mild-temperature applications, was modified through annealing under various atmospheres using thin-film models. The annealed samples exhibited preferential growth and enhanced ionic conductivities. The rate-determining factor for electrode/electrolyte interface reactions in all-solid-state FIBs was also investigated by comparing ß-Pb0.78Sn1.22F4 with representative fluoride-ion- and lithium-ion-conductive materials, namely, LaF3, CeF3, and Li7La3Zr2O12. The overall rate constant of the interfacial reaction, k0, which included both mass and charge transfers, was determined using chronoamperometric measurements and Allen-Hickling simulations. Arrhenius-type correlations between k0 and temperature indicated that activation energies calculated from k0 and ionic conductivities (σion) were highly consistent. The results indicated that the mass transfer (electrolyte-side fluoride-ion conduction) should be the rate-determining process at the electrode/electrolyte interface. ß-Pb0.78Sn1.22F4, with a large σion value, had a larger k0 value than Li7La3Zr2O12. Therefore, it is hoped that the development of high-conductivity solid electrolytes can lead to all-solid-state FIBs with superior rate capabilities similar to those of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries.

5.
ACS Omega ; 6(22): 14130-14137, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124435

RESUMO

The dispersion of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers in catalyst inks is an important factor that controls the performance of catalyst layers in membrane electrode assemblies of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Herein, the effects of water/alcohol compositions on the morphological properties and proton transport are examined by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thin films cast by a high water/alcohol ratio Nafion dispersion have high proton conductivity and well-defined hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation, which indicates that the proton conductivity and morphology of the Nafion thin films are strongly influenced by the state of dispersion. This finding is expected to further understand the morphology and proton transport properties of Nafion thin films with different water/alcohol ratios, which has implications for the performance of the Pt/Nafion interface.

6.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 86, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease called HTLV-I-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The exact genetic or epigenetic events and/or environmental factors that influence the development of ATL, or HAM/TSP diseases are largely unknown. The tumor suppressor gene, Fragile Histidine Triad Diadenosine Triphosphatase (FHIT), is frequently lost in cancer through epigenetic modifications and/or deletion. FHIT is a tumor suppressor acting as genome caretaker by regulating cellular DNA repair. Indeed, FHIT loss leads to replicative stress and accumulation of double DNA strand breaks. Therefore, loss of FHIT expression plays a key role in cellular transformation. METHODS: Here, we studied over 400 samples from HTLV-I-infected individuals with ATL, TSP/HAM, or asymptomatic carriers (AC) for FHIT loss and expression. We examined the epigenetic status of FHIT through methylation specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing; and correlated these results to FHIT expression in patient samples. RESULTS: We found that epigenetic alteration of FHIT is specifically found in chronic and acute ATL but is absent in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers and TSP/HAM patients' samples. Furthermore, the extent of FHIT methylation in ATL patients was quantitatively comparable in virus-infected and virus non-infected cells. We also found that longitudinal HTLV-I carriers that progressed to smoldering ATL and descendants of ATL patients harbor FHIT methylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that germinal epigenetic mutation of FHIT represents a preexisting mark predisposing to the development of ATL diseases. These findings have important clinical implications as patients with acute ATL are rarely cured. Our study suggests an alternative strategy to the current "wait and see approach" in that early screening of HTLV-I-infected individuals for germinal epimutation of FHIT and early treatment may offer significant clinical benefits.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649182

RESUMO

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The aim of our study was to identify genetic determinants related to the onset of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. We conducted a genome-wide association study comprising 753 HAM/TSP patients and 899 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. We also performed comprehensive genotyping of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 genes using next-generation sequencing technology for 651 HAM/TSP patients and 804 carriers. A strong association was observed in HLA class I (P = 1.54 × 10-9) and class II (P = 1.21 × 10-8) loci with HAM/TSP. Association analysis using HLA genotyping results showed that HLA-C*07:02 (P = 2.61 × 10-5), HLA-B*07:02 (P = 4.97 × 10-10), HLA-DRB1*01:01 (P = 1.15 × 10-9) and HLA-DQB1*05:01 (P = 2.30 × 10-9) were associated with disease risk, while HLA-B*40:06 (P = 3.03 × 10-5), HLA-DRB1*15:01 (P = 1.06 × 10-5) and HLA-DQB1*06:02 (P = 1.78 × 10-6) worked protectively. Logistic regression analysis identified amino acid position 7 in the G-BETA domain of HLA-DRB1 as strongly associated with HAM/TSP (P = 9.52 × 10-10); individuals homozygous for leucine had an associated increased risk of HAM/TSP (odds ratio, 9.57), and proline was protective (odds ratio, 0.65). Both associations were independent of the known risk associated with proviral load. DRB1-GB-7-Leu was not significantly associated with proviral load. We have identified DRB1-GB-7-Leu as a genetic risk factor for HAM/TSP development independent of proviral load. This suggests that the amino acid residue may serve as a specific marker to identify the risk of HAM/TSP even without knowledge of proviral load. In light of its allele frequency worldwide, this biomarker will likely prove useful in HTLV-1 endemic areas across the globe.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Japão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Carga Viral
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4114, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603066

RESUMO

Wnt5a is a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in cell differentiation, motility, and inflammatory response. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is one of the most aggressive T-cell malignancies caused by infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type1 (HTLV-1). Among subtypes of ATL, acute-type ATL cells are particularly resistant to current multidrug chemotherapies and show remarkably high cell-proliferative and invasive phenotypes. Here we show a dramatic increase of WNT5A gene expression in acute-type ATL cells compared with those of indolent-type ATL cells. Treatment with IWP-2 or Wnt5a-specific knockdown significantly suppressed cell growth of ATL-derived T-cell lines. We demonstrated that the overexpression of c-Myb and FoxM1 was responsible for the synergistic activation of the WNT5A promoter. Also, a WNT5A transcript variant without the exon4 (the ΔE4-WNT5A mRNA), encoding ΔC-Wnt5 (1-136aa of 380aa), is overexpressed in acute-type ATL cells. The ΔC-Wnt5a is secreted extracellularly and enhances cellular migration/invasion to a greater extent compared with wildtype (WT)-Wnt5a. Moreover, the ΔC-Wnt5a secretion was not suppressed by IWP-2, indicating that this mutant Wnt5a is secreted via a different pathway from the WT-Wnt5a. Taken together, synergistic overexpression of the ΔC-Wnt5a by c-Myb and FoxM1 may be responsible for the malignant phenotype of acute-type ATL cells.

10.
Haematologica ; 106(2): 532-542, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054656

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia/leukemia (ATLL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell malignancy, caused by infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We have recently shown that cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is specifically and consistently overexpressed in ATLL cells, and functions as a novel cell surface marker. In this study, we first show that a soluble form of CADM1 (sCADM1) is secreted from ATLL cells by mainly alternative splicing. After developing the Alpha linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA) for sCADM1, we showed that plasma sCADM1 concentrations gradually increased during disease progression from indolent to aggressive ATLL. Although other known biomarkers of tumor burden such as soluble interleukin-2 receptor α (sIL-2Rα) also increased with sCADM1 during ATLL progression, multivariate statistical analysis of biomarkers revealed that only plasma sCADM1 was selected as a specific biomarker for aggressive ATLL, suggesting that plasma sCADM1 may be a potential risk factor for aggressive ATLL. In addition, plasma sCADM1 is a useful marker for monitoring response to chemotherapy as well as for predicting relapse of ATLL. Furthermore, the change in sCADM1 concentration between indolent and aggressive type ATLL was more prominent than the change in the percentage of CD4+CADM1+ ATLL cells. As plasma sCADM1 values fell within normal ranges in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients with higher levels of serum sIL-2Rα, a measurement of sCADM1 may become a useful tool to discriminate between ATLL and other inflammatory diseases, including HAM/TSP.


Assuntos
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto , Linfoma , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Molécula 1 de Adesão Celular/genética , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/diagnóstico
11.
No Shinkei Geka ; 48(11): 1059-1065, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199664

RESUMO

Intracranial arachnoid cysts(ACs)are thought to develop during infancy and remain clinically asymptomatic in most cases. AC is often diagnosed incidentally during imaging studies. The prognosis for the recovery of newly developed symptoms is usually favorable. However, the prognosis following surgery for chronic symptoms is still unclear. Herein, we report the case of an adult patient with right convexity AC whose chronic symptoms improved after surgery. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who had an AC in her right temporal convexity since the age of 59, without any symptoms, which was incidentally diagnosed on MRI. At 61 years of age, she visited a hospital complaining of slight weakness in her left upper limb. No changes were found on the MRI scan, but her visual field indicated the presence of a left homonymous hemianopia, and her cognitive function had decreased slightly. Two years later, she developed modest left hemiparesis;therefore, she underwent cystoventriculostomy to improve the symptoms of hemiparesis. After the surgery, the left hemiparesis recovered fully, and a remarkable improvement was noted in the left homonymous hemianopia and the degenerated cognitive functions. There are no clear guidelines regarding the surgical indications for AC in adults. Many reports suggest that new symptoms related to AC can be improved with surgery. However, amelioration of chronic symptoms has rarely been reported. The present case indicates that it is possible to improve the chronic symptoms of AC in adults with surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Cistos Aracnóideos , Adulto , Cistos Aracnóideos/complicações , Cistos Aracnóideos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos Aracnóideos/cirurgia , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia
12.
ACS Omega ; 5(40): 26287-26294, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073156

RESUMO

All-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic sulfide solid electrolytes have good safety properties and high rate capabilities as expected for a next-generation battery. Presently, conventional preparation methods such as mechanical milling and/or solid-phase synthesis need a long time to provide a small amount of the product, and they have difficult in supplying a sufficient amount to meet the demand. Hence, liquid-phase synthesis methods have been developed for large-scale synthesis. However, the ionic conductivity of sulfide solid electrolytes prepared via liquid-phase synthesis is typically lower than that prepared via solid-phase synthesis. In this study, we have controlled three factors: (1) shaking time, (2) annealing temperature, and (3) annealing time. The factors influencing lithium ionic conductivity of Li3PS4 prepared via liquid-phase synthesis were quantitatively evaluated using high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement coupled with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. It was revealed from PDF analysis that the amount of Li2S that cannot be detected by Raman spectroscopy or XRD decreased the ionic conductivity. Furthermore, it was revealed that the ionic conductivity of Li3PS4 is dominated by other parameters, such as remaining solvent in the sample and high crystallinity of the sample.

13.
Cancer Sci ; 111(12): 4567-4580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976684

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm and is classified into four subtypes (acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering) according to the Shimoyama classification, established in 1991 through several nationwide surveys based on the clinical diversity of patients diagnosed in 1983-1987 in Japan. Thereafter, no such studies have been conducted. Recently, we conducted a nationwide hospital survey using the method of the 1980s studies, collected baseline data on 996 ATL patients diagnosed in 2010-2011 from 126 hospitals, and reported their unique epidemiological characteristics. Here, we report the follow-up results of registered ATL patients with the goal of evaluating current prognoses and treatment modalities as of 2016-2017. Of 770 evaluable patients, 391 (50.8%) had acute-type, 192 (24.9%) had lymphoma-type, 106 (13.8%) had chronic-type, and 81 (10.5%) had smoldering-type ATL. The initial therapy regimens used for acute/lymphoma-type ATL were vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone, followed by doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisone and then by vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisone (VCAP-AMP-VECP)-like in 38.5/41.7% and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-like in 14.6/13.7% of patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was used to treat 15.9/10.4% of acute/lymphoma-type ATL patients. The 4-year survival rates (the median survival time, days) for acute-, lymphoma-, unfavorable chronic-, favorable chronic-, and smoldering-type ATL were 16.8% (252), 19.6% (305), 26.6% (572), 62.1% (1937), and 59.8% (1851), respectively. The 4-year survival rates for acute- and lymphoma-type ATL improved compared with those reported in 1991, but those for chronic- and smoldering-type ATL were not. Further efforts are warranted to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of ATL in Japan.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Causas de Morte , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Nitrosoureia/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vindesina/administração & dosagem
14.
Retrovirology ; 17(1): 26, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reliable diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is important, particularly as it can be vertically transmitted by breast feeding mothers to their infants. However, current diagnosis in Japan requires a confirmatory western blot (WB) test after screening/primary testing for HTLV-1 antibodies, but this test often gives indeterminate results. Thus, this collaborative study evaluated the reliability of diagnostic assays for HTLV-1 infection, including a WB-based one, along with line immunoassay (LIA) as an alternative to WB for confirmatory testing. RESULTS: Using peripheral blood samples from blood donors and pregnant women previously serologically screened and subjected to WB analysis, we analyzed the performances of 10 HTLV-1 antibody assay kits commercially available in Japan. No marked differences in the performances of eight of the screening kits were apparent. However, LIA determined most of the WB-indeterminate samples to be conclusively positive or negative (an 88.0% detection rate). When we also compared the sensitivity to HTLV-1 envelope gp21 with that of other antigens by LIA, the sensitivity to gp21 was the strongest. When we also compared the sensitivity to envelope gp46 by LIA with that of WB, LIA showed stronger sensitivity to gp46 than WB did. These findings indicate that LIA is an alternative confirmatory test to WB analysis without gp21. Therefore, we established a novel diagnostic test algorithm for HTLV-1 infection in Japan, including both the performance of a confirmatory test where LIA replaced WB on primary test-reactive samples and an additional decision based on a standardized nucleic acid detection step (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) on the confirmatory test-indeterminate samples. The final assessment of the clinical usefulness of this algorithm involved performing WB analysis, LIA, and/or PCR in parallel for confirmatory testing of known reactive samples serologically screened at clinical laboratories. Consequently, LIA followed by PCR (LIA/PCR), but neither WB/PCR nor PCR/LIA, was found to be the most reliable diagnostic algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: Because the above results show that our novel algorithm is clinically useful, we propose that it is recommended for solving the aforementioned WB-associated reliability issues and for providing a more rapid and precise diagnosis of HTLV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Western Blotting , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Antígenos HTLV-I/imunologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Japão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Provírus/genética , Provírus/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Data Brief ; 31: 105894, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642513

RESUMO

Crack initiation and propagation in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) was observed in situ under the application of an opening load using nanoscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography (nanoscopic SR X-CT) at a high spatial resolution of ∼50 nm. Two datasets of reconstructed and segmented images were produced in typical regions, namely in the thin and thick epoxy regions where the resin thickness between the adjacent carbon fibers was small and large, respectively. This novel study presents the first non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of resin deformation behavior around crack tips, and provides a valuable and unique insight for the future design of CFRPs.

16.
Int J Hematol ; 112(3): 300-306, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725607

RESUMO

Approximately 10-20 million of Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-infected carriers have been previously reported, and approximately 5% of these carriers develop adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) with a characteristic poor prognosis. In Japan, Southern blotting has long been routinely performed for detection of clonally expanded ATL cells in vivo, and as a confirmatory diagnostic test for ATL. However, alternative methods to Southern blotting, such as sensitive, quantitative, and rapid analytical methods, are currently required in clinical practice. In this study, we developed a high-throughput method called rapid amplification of integration site (RAIS) that could amplify HTLV-1-integrated fragments within 4 h and detect the integration sites in > 0.16% of infected cells. Furthermore, we established a novel quantification method for HTLV-1 clonality using Sanger sequencing with RAIS products, and the validity of the quantification method was confirmed by comparing it with next-generation sequencing in terms of the clonality. Thus, we believe that RAIS has a high potential for use as an alternative routine molecular confirmatory test for the clonality analysis of HTLV-1-infected cells.


Assuntos
Células Clonais , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Humanos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10391, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587329

RESUMO

MYC-associated factor X (MAX) is a protein in the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, which is ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in various normal tissues and tumors. MAX protein mediates various cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through the MYC-MAX protein complex. Recently, it has been reported that MYC regulates the proliferation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. However, the expression and function of MAX in anaplastic large cell lymphoma remain to be elucidated. We herein investigated MAX expression in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) and found 11 of 37 patients (30%) with ALCL lacked MAX expression, whereas 15 of 15 patients (100%) with PTCL-NOS expressed MAX protein. ALCL patients lacking MAX expression had a significantly inferior prognosis compared with patients having MAX expression. Moreover, patients without MAX expression significantly had histological non-common variants, which were mainly detected in aggressive ALCL cases. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MAX expression was related to the expression of MYC and cytotoxic molecules. These findings demonstrate that lack of MAX expression is a potential poor prognostic biomarker in ALCL and a candidate marker for differential diagnosis of ALCL and PTCL-NOS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/patologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547515

RESUMO

Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic infection with the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) retrovirus. ATL carries a dismal prognosis. ATL classifies into four subtypes (acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering) which display different clinical features, prognosis and response to therapy, hence requiring different clinical management. Smoldering and chronic subtypes respond well to antiretroviral therapy using the combination of zidovudine (AZT) and interferon-alpha (IFN) with a significant prolongation of survival. Conversely, the watch and wait strategy or chemotherapy for these indolent subtypes allies with a poor long-term outcome. Acute ATL is associated with chemo-resistance and dismal prognosis. Lymphoma subtypes respond better to intensive chemotherapy but survival remains poor. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) results in long-term survival in roughly one third of transplanted patients but only a small percentage of patients can make it to transplant. Overall, current treatments of aggressive ATL are not satisfactory. Prognosis of refractory or relapsed patients is dismal with some encouraging results when using lenalidomide or mogamulizumab. To overcome resistance and prevent relapse, preclinical or pilot clinical studies using targeted therapies such as arsenic/IFN, monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic therapies are promising but warrant further clinical investigation. Anti-ATL vaccines including Tax peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, induced Tax-specific CTL responses in ATL patients. Finally, based on the progress in understanding the pathophysiology of ATL, and the risk-adapted treatment approaches to different ATL subtypes, treatment strategies of ATL should take into account the host immune responses and the host microenvironment including HTLV-1 infected non-malignant cells. Herein, we will provide a summary of novel treatments of ATL in vitro, in vivo, and in early clinical trials.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11685-11691, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393644

RESUMO

Human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) causes the functionally debilitating disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) as well as adult T cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). Although there were concerns that the mortality of HAM/TSP could be affected by the development of ATLL, prospective evidence was lacking in this area. In this 5-y prospective cohort study, we determined the mortality, prevalence, and incidence of ATLL in 527 HAM/TSP patients. The standard mortality ratio of HAM/TSP patients was 2.25, and ATLL was one of the major causes of death (5/33 deaths). ATLL prevalence and incidence in these patients were 3.0% and 3.81 per 1,000 person-y, respectively. To identify patients at a high risk of developing ATLL, flow cytometry, Southern blotting, and targeted sequencing data were analyzed in a separate cohort of 218 HAM/TSP patients. In 17% of the HAM/TSP patients, we identified an increase in T cells positive for cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), a marker for ATLL and HTLV-1-infected cells. Genomic analysis revealed that somatic mutations of HTLV-1-infected cells were seen in 90% of these cases and 11% of them had dominant clone and developed ATLL in the longitudinal observation. In this study, we were able to demonstrate the increased mortality in patients with HAM/TSP and a significant effect of ATLL on their prognosis. Having dominant clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells with ATLL-associated somatic mutations may be important characteristics of patients with HAM/TSP who are at an increased risk of developing ATLL.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Masculino , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/diagnóstico , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/epidemiologia , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/mortalidade , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328047

RESUMO

Japan has been running a nationwide antenatal human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibody screening program since 2010 for the prevention of HTLV-1 mother-to-child transmission. As part of the program, pregnant women are invited to take an HTLV-1 antibody screening test, usually within the first 30 weeks of gestation, during regular pregnancy checkups. Pregnant women tested positive on the antibody screening test undergo a confirmatory test, either western blotting or line immunoassay. In indeterminate case, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used as a final test to diagnose infection. Pregnant women tested positive on a confirmatory or PCR test are identified as HTLV-1 carriers. As breastfeeding is a predominant route of postnatal HTLV-1 mother-to-child transmission, exclusive formula feeding is widely used as a postnatal preventive measure. Although there is insufficient evidence that short-term breastfeeding during ≤3 months does not increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission compared to exclusive formula feeding, this feeding method is considered if the mother is eager to breastfeed her child. However, it is important that mothers and family members fully understand that there is an increase in the risk of mother-to-child transmission when breastfeeding would be prolonged. As there are only a few clinical studies on the protective effect of frozen-thawed breastmilk feeding on mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-1, there is little evidence to recommend this feeding method. Further study on the protective effects of these feeding methods are needed. It is assumed that the risk of anxiety or depression may increase in the mothers who selected exclusive formula feeding or short-term breastfeeding. Thus, an adequate support and counseling for these mothers should be provided. In addition to raising public awareness of HTLV-1 infection, epidemiological data from the nationwide program needs to be collected and analyzed. In most cases, infected children are asymptomatic, and it is necessary to clarify how these children should be followed medically.

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