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1.
Anaesthesia ; 78(1): 127, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130831
2.
Nat Protoc ; 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411351

RESUMO

Genetic engineering and implantable bioelectronics have transformed investigations of cardiovascular physiology and disease. However, the two approaches have been difficult to combine in the same species: genetic engineering is applied primarily in rodents, and implantable devices generally require larger animal models. We recently developed several miniature cardiac bioelectronic devices suitable for mice and rats to enable the advantages of molecular tools and implantable devices to be combined. Successful implementation of these device-enabled studies requires microsurgery approaches that reliably interface bioelectronics to the beating heart with minimal disruption to native physiology. Here we describe how to perform an open thoracic surgical technique for epicardial implantation of wireless cardiac pacemakers in adult rats that has lower mortality than transvenous implantation approaches. In addition, we provide the methodology for a full biocompatibility assessment of the physiological response to the implanted device. The surgical implantation procedure takes ~40 min for operators experienced in microsurgery to complete, and six to eight surgeries can be completed in 1 d. Implanted pacemakers provide programmed electrical stimulation for over 1 month. This protocol has broad applications to harness implantable bioelectronics to enable fully conscious in vivo studies of cardiovascular physiology in transgenic rodent disease models.

3.
Anim Genet ; 52(3): 263-274, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780561

RESUMO

Genomic tools have improved the ability to manage bison populations and enhanced efforts to conserve this iconic species. These tools have been particularly useful for detecting introgression of cattle genome within bison herds but are limited by the need to use the cattle genome as a surrogate for mapping reads. This complicates efforts to distinguish the species of origin of chromosomal segments in individual bison at the genomic level. An assembly (Bison_UMD1.0) based on 75X genome coverage by Illumina and 454 reads was generated using the MaSuRCA assembler, generating a 2.81 Gigbases de novo reference genome from American bison. Comparison of bison and domestic cattle references identified 28 443 364 single nucleotide variants and 2 627 645 insertions/deletions distinguishing the species. Sequence alignment of an additional 12 modern bison samples and two historic bison samples to domestic cattle and bison references provides a dataset of genomic variants defining the different species and within-species variation. This first annotated draft assembly represents a resource for the management and conservation of bison, as well as a means to study the effects on the genome of interspecies hybridization. The comparisons of historical bison sequences with the new bison reference identified genomic differences between modern and pre-population bottleneck bison. The results support the application of genomics to enhance future research on disease, the establishment of satellite conservation herds and insight into bison and cattle speciation. The first genome assembly for bison and dataset provides a foundation that can be built upon as genetic technologies improve over the years.


Assuntos
Bison/genética , Genoma , Animais , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Hibridização Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
4.
Community Dent Health ; 34(4): 248-253, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136362

RESUMO

AIM: to compare two methods of in vitro examiner calibration in populations and settings where clinical (in vivo) calibration is not practical. METHODS: Study design was cross-sectional and fully-crossed. The units of analysis were 880 tooth surfaces, from ten children ages 3 to 4 years. The study had three data components: (1) Examiner training and calibration using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) e-Learning programme (2) In vivo community-based visual examination and (3) Intra-oral digital photographs of the same tooth surfaces from the in vivo visual examination. Kappa and weighted kappa scores were used to study reliability estimates. Systematic differences in caries assessments were determined using the Stuart Maxwell test. Data were analysed using STATA 13.1 and SAS 9.2. RESULTS: Weighted kappa scores for the in vivo component ranged from 0.50 to 0.66 and from 0.64-0.74, for inter- and intraexaminer reliability, respectively. Caries lesions detected in vivo were also detected on photographs, albeit with more false positives when using photographs. For example, of 46 tooth surfaces assessed as being sound in the in vivo examination, 22 (48%) of these were assessed as having caries when photographs were used as the diagnostic method. CONCLUSIONS: From this research it appears that good quality photographs alone may be used for training and calibration among challenging populations or settings without adversely affecting data quality.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Calibragem , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Fotografia Dentária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Haemophilia ; 23(6): 941-947, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750471

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The thrombomodulin (TM)/activated protein C (APC) system is a key regulator of haemostasis, limiting amplification and propagation of the formed blood clot to the injury site. Dampening APC's inhibition of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) may be a future strategy in developing next-generation therapeutic targets for haemophilia treatment. AIMS: To determine ex vivo the respective concentration-dependent effects of TM and a FV-stabilizing Fab on the APC regulatory pathway in severe FVIII-deficient blood and plasma. METHODS: Ten severe haemophilia A subjects and one healthy control were enrolled. Blood was spiked with TM (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20.0 nmol/L) and FV-stabilizing Fab (0, 3, 15, 65, 300 nmol/L). The respective effects were compared to FVIII concentrations of 3- and 10% using rotational thromboelastometry clotting time (CT) and thrombin generation analysis (TGA). RESULTS: With 1 and 2.5 nmol/L TM, 5% FVIII resulted in CT similar to the absence of TM, suggesting it completely reversed the effect of APC. Increasing TM concentrations also reduced peak thrombin generation and ETP. The addition of 300 nmol/L FV-stabilizing Fab returned CT to nearly baseline, but for most subjects was less than the effects of 3- or 10% FVIII. The FV-stabilizing Fab produced similar or greater thrombin generation compared to samples with 3- or 10% FVIII. CONCLUSIONS: The FV-stabilizing Fab resulted in enhanced CT and TGA parameters consistent with FVIII levels of 3- and 10%. Additional studies need to further characterize how modulating the APC pathway may prove beneficial in developing new haemophilia drug targets.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/sangue , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Proteína C/metabolismo , Trombomodulina/administração & dosagem , Fator V/imunologia , Fator V/metabolismo , Fator VIII/administração & dosagem , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Hemofilia A/patologia , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboelastografia , Trombina/metabolismo
6.
Haemophilia ; 23(5): 769-776, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594458

RESUMO

AIMS: Concizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), is being developed as a subcutaneously (s.c.) administered treatment for haemophilia. It demonstrated a concentration-dependent procoagulant effect in functional TFPI assays; however, global haemostatic assays, such as the thrombin generation assay (TGA), offer a more complete picture of coagulation. We investigated how concizumab affects thrombin generation following ex vivo spiking in plasma from haemophilia patients using the TGA, and if the assay can detect the effect of multiple s.c. concizumab doses in healthy subjects. METHODS: For the ex vivo spiking study, platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from 18 patients with severe haemophilia was spiked with 0.001-500 nm concizumab. For the multiple-dosing study, four healthy males received concizumab 250 µg kg-1 s.c. every other day for eight doses; blood was collected before and after dosing and processed into PPP. In both studies, thrombin generation was measured using a Calibrated Automated Thrombogram® system with 1 pm tissue factor. RESULTS: In spiked samples from haemophilia patients, peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) increased concentration dependently, reaching near-normal levels at concizumab concentrations >10 nm. Repeated s.c. doses of concizumab in healthy subjects increased both peak thrombin and ETP; these effects were sustained throughout the dosing interval. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombin generation assay demonstrated increased thrombin generation with concizumab after ex vivo spiking of haemophilia plasma and multiple s.c. doses in healthy subjects, supporting both the utility of the TGA in evaluating concizumab treatment and the potential of s.c. concizumab as a novel haemophilia therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Hemofilia A/sangue , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Trombina/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Hemofilia A/diagnóstico , Hemofilia B/sangue , Hemofilia B/diagnóstico , Hemofilia B/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Trombina , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 41(7): 1080-1090, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Health-Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative, which comprised community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. METHODS: A mixed method and multilevel quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data. The evaluation involved both cross-sectional (children and adolescents) and longitudinal designs (adults) with data collected pre- and post-intervention in intervention (n=2408 children and adolescents from 18 schools, n=501 adults from 22 workplaces) and comparison groups (n=3163 children and adolescents from 33 schools, n=318 adults from seven workplaces). Anthropometry, obesity-related behavioural and environmental data, information regarding community context and implementation factors were collected. The primary outcomes were differences in anthropometry (weight, waist, body mass index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI z-score)) over time compared with comparison communities. Baseline data was collected 2008/2009 and post-intervention collected in 2010 with an average intervention time frame of approximately 12 months. RESULTS: The strategies most commonly implemented were related to social marketing, stakeholder engagement, network and partnership development, community-directed needs assessment and capacity building. Analysis of post-intervention data showed gains in community capacity, but few impacts on environments, policy or individual knowledge, skills, beliefs and perceptions. Relative to the comparison group, one community achieved a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity, lower weight, waist circumference and BMI (P<0.005). One community achieved a higher level of healthy eating policy implementation in schools; two communities achieved improved healthy eating-related behaviours (P<0.03); one community achieved lower sedentary behaviours; and one community achieved higher levels of physical activity in schools (P<0.05). All effect sizes were in the small-to-moderate range. CONCLUSIONS: This was a complex and ambitious initiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall, project success was quite inconsistent, and some significant differences were in the unanticipated direction. However, there are many important learnings that should inform future health-promotion activities. The heterogeneity of outcomes of HPC:BAEW communities reflects the reality of life whereby effectiveness of intervention strategies is dependent on individual and community factors. Future health promotion should consider a systems approach whereby existing systems are modified rather than relying heavily on the addition of new activities, with longer time frames for implementation.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Dieta Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , População Urbana , Vitória
8.
J Anim Sci ; 95(11): 4820-4834, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293723

RESUMO

Although vaccination is an effective measure in reducing the risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle, BRDC losses remain significant. Increasing the efficacy of vaccination depends on elucidating the protective immune response to different antigens included in vaccines, determining the best timing for vaccination, and understanding the impact of the age of the calf on vaccination. This study measured the serum antibodies present in calves following vaccination against 4 viruses commonly associated with BRDC: bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1). Serum antibody titers were measured in more than 1,600 calves at 3-wk intervals starting at the time of the first vaccination. This first vaccination occurred at weaning for approximately half of the individuals and 3 wk before weaning for the other half. Dam age (years), time of weaning (initial vaccination or booster vaccination), and age of calf within year-season (days within year-season) classification all were found to have a significant effect on measured traits such as the initial titer and overall response. An increased initial titer was negatively correlated with each response trait (initial, booster, and overall response). Calves that were weaned at initial vaccination had greater overall antibody response to BVDV1 and BVDV2 compared with calves weaned 3 wk before initial vaccination. In contrast, calves given their initial vaccination 3 wk before weaning had greater overall antibody response to BRSV and BHV1 compared with calves that were vaccinated at weaning. Furthermore, the circulating antibody titer at which each virus needed to be below for an individual calf to positively respond to vaccination was determined (log titer of 0.38 for BVDV1, 1.5 for BVDV2, 3.88 for BRSV, and 1.5 for BHV1). This information can be used to improve vaccination protocols to allow for a greater response rate of individuals to vaccination and, hopefully, improved protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Pestivirus/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/imunologia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/virologia , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Desmame
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 94(4): 373-380, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All health workers should take responsibility for infection prevention and control (IPC). Recent reduction in key reported healthcare-associated infections in the UK is impressive, but the determinants of success are unknown. It is imperative to understand how IPC strategies operate as new challenges arise and threats of antimicrobial resistance increase. METHODS: The authors undertook a retrospective, independent evaluation of an action plan to enhance IPC and 'ownership' (individual accountability) for IPC introduced throughout a healthcare organization. Twenty purposively selected informants were interviewed. Data were analysed inductively. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) was applied to interpret the findings and explain how the action plan was operating. FINDINGS: Six themes emerged through inductive analysis. Theme 1: 'Ability to make sense of ownership' provided evidence of the first element of NPT (coherence). Regardless of occupational group or seniority, informants understood the importance of IPC ownership and described what it entailed. They identified three prerequisites: 'Always being vigilant' (Theme 2), 'Importance of access to information' (Theme 3) and 'Being able to learn together in a no-blame culture' (Theme 4). Data relating to each theme provided evidence of the other elements of NPT that are required to embed change: planning implementation (cognitive participation), undertaking the work necessary to achieve change (collective action), and reflection on what else is needed to promote change as part of continuous quality improvement (reflexive monitoring). Informants identified barriers (e.g. workload) and facilitators (clear lines of communication and expectations for IPC). CONCLUSION: Eighteen months after implementing the action plan incorporating IPC ownership, there was evidence of continuous service improvement and significant reduction in infection rates. Applying a theory that identifies factors that promote/inhibit routine incorporation ('normalization') of IPC into everyday health care can help explain the success of IPC initiatives and inform implementation.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Responsabilidade Social , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 891, 2016 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content. RESULTS: Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with EpiSNPmpi. False discovery rate (FDR) was controlled at 5 % and was limited to well-represented genotypic combinations. Epistatic interactions were detected for 37 triacylglyceride (TAG), 36 phospholipid (PL) fatty acid traits, and three weight traits. A total of 6,181, 7,168, and 0 significant epistatic interactions (FDR < 0.05, 50-animals per genotype combination) were associated with Triacylglyceride fatty acids, Phospholipid fatty acids, and weight traits respectively and most were additive-by-additive interactions. A large number of interactions occurred in potential regions of regulatory control along the chromosomes where genes related to fatty acid metabolism reside. CONCLUSIONS: Many fatty acids were associated with epistatic interactions. Despite a large number of significant interactions, there are a limited number of genomic locations that harbored these interactions. While larger population sizes are needed to accurately validate and quantify these epistatic interactions, the current findings point towards additional genetic variance that can be accounted for within these fatty acid traits.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
11.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 812, 2016 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analyses of sequence variants of two distinct and highly inbred chicken lines allowed characterization of genomic variation that may be associated with phenotypic differences between breeds. These lines were the Leghorn, the major contributing breed to commercial white-egg production lines, and the Fayoumi, representative of an outbred indigenous and robust breed. Unique within- and between-line genetic diversity was used to define the genetic differences of the two breeds through the use of variant discovery and functional annotation. RESULTS: Downstream fixation test (F ST ) analysis and subsequent gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis elucidated major differences between the two lines. The genes with high F ST values for both breeds were used to identify enriched gene ontology terms. Over-enriched GO annotations were uncovered for functions indicative of breed-related traits of pathogen resistance and reproductive ability for Fayoumi and Leghorn, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Variant analysis elucidated GO functions indicative of breed-predominant phenotypes related to genomic variation in the lines, showing a possible link between the genetic variants and breed traits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Genômica , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Cromossomos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Anim Genet ; 47(6): 658-671, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558209

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine how prenatal and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter white blood cell (leukocyte) DNA methylation of offspring. Fifteen gilts (n = 5 per treatment) were selected from one of three treatments: (i) control diet throughout gestation, lactation and nursery phase (CON); (ii) algal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enriched in EPA and DHA (Gromega™ ) fed throughout gestation, lactation and nursery phase (Cn3); or (iii) Gromega™ supplementation maternally, during gestation and lactation only, and control diet during the nursery phase (Mn3). At 11 weeks of age and after 8 weeks of post-weaning nursery feeding, buffy coat genomic DNA was subjected to methyl CpG binding protein sequencing. The methylation enriched profile mapped to 26% of the porcine genome. On chromosome 4, a 27.7-kb differentially methylated region downstream of RUNX1T1 was hypomethylated in the Mn3 and Cn3 groups by 91.6% and 85.0% respectively compared to CON pigs. Conversely, hypermethylation was detected in intergenic regions of chromosomes 4 and 12. Regulatory impact factor and differential hubbing methods were used to identify pathways that were coordinately regulated by methylation due to feeding EPA and DHA during pregnancy. Despite limited ability to detect differential methylation, we describe methods that allow the identification of coordinated epigenetic regulation that could not otherwise be detected from subtle single locus changes in methylation. These data provide evidence of novel epigenetic regulation by maternal and early life supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids that may have implications to growth and inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Sus scrofa/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , DNA Intergênico/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Lactação , Gravidez , Desmame
13.
Community Dent Health ; 33(2): 100-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352463

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is the most common, preventable disease of childhood. It can affect children's health and wellbeing and children from migrant families may be at greater risk of developing ECC. OBJECTIVE: To describe ECC in children from migrant families, and explore possible influences. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of caries data collected as baseline data for an oral health promotion study. PARTICIPANTS: The analysis sample included 630 1-4 year-old children clustered within 481 Iraqi, Lebanese and Pakistani families in Melbourne, Australia. METHOD: Child participants received a community-based visual dental examination. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, ethnicity, and oral health knowledge, behaviour and attitudes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Child caries experience. Bivariate associations between oral health behaviours and ethnicity were tested for significance using chi-square. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations with ECC, adjusting for demographic variables and accounting for clustering by family. RESULTS: Overall, 34% of children in the sample experienced caries (both non-cavitated and cavitated). For all caries lesions, parent' length of residence in Australia, consumption of sweet drinks and parental education remained as independent predictors of child caries experience. Adding sugar to drinks was an additional risk factor for cavitation. Ethnicity was associated with some individual oral health behaviours suggesting cultural influences on health, however the relationship was not independent of other predictors. CONCLUSION: Culturally competent oral health promotion interventions should aim to support migrant families with young children, and focus on reducing sweet drink consumption.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Cariogênica , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/etnologia , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/etnologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Child Care Health Dev ; 42(3): 359-69, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26935767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examining the experiences of parents making food choices for infants is important because ultimately this influences what infants eat. Infancy is a critical period when food preferences and eating behaviour begin to develop, shaping dietary patterns, growth and health outcomes. There is limited evidence regarding what or why foods are chosen for infants. OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of mothers making food choices for their infant children. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 32 Australian mothers of infants aged four to 15 months from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. An inductive thematic analysis through a process of constant comparison was conducted on transcribed interviews. RESULTS: Mothers described many ideas and circumstances which influenced food choices they made for infants. Themes were developed which encapsulate how the wider environment and individual circumstances combine to result in the food choices made for infants. Beliefs, values, norms and knowledge were a central influence on choices. Cost, quality and availabilities of various foods were also key factors. Related to this, and combined with inherent factors such as perishability and infant acceptability, fresh fruits and vegetables were often singled out as an easy or difficult choice. Influences of time, parents' capacities, social connections and different information sources were clearly apparent. Finally infants' own preferences and how parents helped infants with learning to eat were also key influences on food choices. CONCLUSIONS: Choosing foods for infants is a complex social practice. An ecological framework depicting the multiple influences on what people eat and sociological theory on food choice regarding the role of 'social structure' and 'human agency' are both applicable to the process of choosing foods for infants. Equity issues may be key regarding the degree to which mothers can choose particular foods for infants (e.g. choosing foods which promote health).


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos Infantis , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta , Grão Comestível , Escolaridade , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras , Vitória , Desmame , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aust Dent J ; 61(1): 84-92, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25892487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An important role for parents and caregivers in the prevention of dental caries in children is the early establishment of health promoting behaviours. This study aimed to examine mothers' views on barriers and facilitators to promoting child and family oral health. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of mothers (n = 32) of young children. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Parental knowledge and beliefs, past experiences and child behaviour emerged as major influences on children's oral health. Child temperament and parental time pressures were identified as barriers to good oral health with various strategies reported for dealing with uncooperative children at toothbrushing time. Parental oral health knowledge and beliefs emerged as positive influences on child oral health; however, while most mothers were aware of the common causes of dental caries, very few knew of other risk factors such as bedtime feeding. Parents' own oral health experiences were also seen to positively influence child oral health, regardless of whether these were positive or negative experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding parental oral health beliefs is essential to overcoming barriers and promoting enablers for good child oral health. Improving child oral health also requires consideration of child behaviour, family influences, and increasing awareness of lesser-known influencing factors.

17.
Implement Sci ; 10: 146, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26490367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health equity concerns the absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide evidence about the impact of an intervention on health equity for specific disadvantaged populations or in general populations; this is important for equity-focused decision-making. Previous work has identified a lack of adequate reporting guidelines for assessing health equity in RCTs. The objective of this study is to develop guidelines to improve the reporting of health equity considerations in RCTs, as an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). METHODS/DESIGN: A six-phase study using integrated knowledge translation governed by a study executive and advisory board will assemble empirical evidence to inform the CONSORT-equity extension. To create the guideline, the following steps are proposed: (1) develop a conceptual framework for identifying "equity-relevant trials," (2) assess empirical evidence regarding reporting of equity-relevant trials, (3) consult with global methods and content experts on how to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (4) collect broad feedback and prioritize items needed to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (5) establish consensus on the CONSORT-equity extension: the guideline for equity-relevant trials, and (6) broadly disseminate and implement the CONSORT-equity extension. DISCUSSION: This work will be relevant to a broad range of RCTs addressing questions of effectiveness for strategies to improve practice and policy in the areas of social determinants of health, clinical care, health systems, public health, and international development, where health and/or access to health care is a primary outcome. The outcomes include a reporting guideline (CONSORT-equity extension) for equity-relevant RCTs and a knowledge translation strategy to broadly encourage its uptake and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Equidade em Saúde/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Etários , Cultura , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 13(11): 2041-52, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional coagulation factor assays are associated with certain limitations, as they do not always reflect the clinical heterogeneity of bleeding in hemophilic patients or correctly reflect the individual patient response to treatment with bypassing agents or novel factor concentrates. The thrombin generation assay (TGA) is currently being assessed as a possible method for characterizing bleeding phenotypes in individuals with hemophilia. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the robustness and sensitivity of the TGA for measuring the activity of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), recombinant factor IX (rFIX) and their glycoPEGylated derivatives, N8-GP and N9-GP, in vitro. METHODS: Factor-deficient plasma was spiked with 0.13-130 IU dL(-1) rFVIII or N8-GP (hemophilia A [HA] plasma), or rFIX or N9-GP (hemophilia B [HB] plasma). A calibrated automated thrombogram triggered with tissue factor (TF) or activated FXI (FXIa) was used to measure thrombin generation over time. Endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin, velocity index, lag time and time to peak thrombin were analyzed. RESULTS: FXIa-triggered assays were not affected by glycoPEGylation and were sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between spiked samples mimicking severe and moderate HB and HA; TF-triggered assays were not sufficiently sensitive for this distinction in HA. Both FXIa-triggered and TF-triggered assays had an acceptable level of variability (≤ 20%), although TF-triggered assays were associated with greater variability. CONCLUSIONS: FXIa-triggered TGA reactions produced more robust and sensitive results than TF-triggered TGA reactions, and have the potential for use in monitoring patients treated with glycoPEGylated or non-PEGylated coagulation factor concentrates. These promising results merit confirmation with clinical samples to correlate in vitro and in vivo data.


Assuntos
Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Fator IX/análise , Fator VIII/análise , Fator XIa/análise , Hemofilia A/sangue , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Trombina/biossíntese , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fator VIII/farmacologia , Fator XIa/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tromboplastina/farmacologia
19.
Aust Dent J ; 60(2): 200-4, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes and explores factors related to dental service use among migrant children. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Teeth Tales, an exploratory trial implementing a community based child oral health promotion intervention. The sample size and target population was 600 families with 1-4 year old children from Iraqi, Lebanese and Pakistani backgrounds residing in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were recruited into the study using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. RESULTS: Most (88%; 550/625) children had never visited the dentist (mean (SD) age 3.06 years (1.11)). In the fully adjusted model the variable most significantly associated with child dental visiting was parent reported 'no reason for child to visit the dentist' (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Of those children whose parents reported their child had no reason to visit the dentist, 22% (37/165) experienced dental caries with 8% (13/165) at the level of cavitation. CONCLUSIONS: Dental service use by migrant preschool children was very low. The relationship between perceived dental need and dental service use is currently not aligned. One in 10 children of select migrant background had visited a dentist, which is in the context of 1 in 3 with dental caries. To improve utilization, health services should consider organizational cultural competence, outreach and increased engagement with the migrant community.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/etnologia , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/etnologia , Odontopediatria , População Urbana , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 28(4): 375-83, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25891532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current literature regarding the transition from milks to solid foods across the first 2 years of life is limited despite the important influence of early dietary intake on children's growth and development. The present study describes dietary intake from birth to 2 years across four developmental relevant time-points within an Australian birth cohort. METHODS: Dietary data from 466 infants was collected at four time-points in the first 2 years of life via parent-reported questionnaire, including a 45-item food and beverage frequency questionnaire. Subsample analyses of children who were aged 1-3, 6-8, 12-14 and 18-20 months at the time of data collection were conducted. RESULTS: Infant formula remained consistently consumed by over 75% of children from the 6-8- to 18-20 months old age groups. Mean (SD) age of introduction to solid foods was 5.2 (1.3) months. Almost 20% and 10% of children were introduced before 16 and after 32 weeks, respectively. The highest consumption of core foods, recommended for a healthy diet, daily was seen in the 12-14 months old age group with lower proportions in the 18-20 months old age group coinciding with an increased proportion of children eating discretionary choice foods, not recommended for a healthy diet. Discretionary choice foods/beverages presented in children's diets as early as in the 6-8 months old age group. By 18-20 months, at least 20% of children were consuming savoury biscuits, sweet biscuits, muesli bars and luncheon meats at least twice a week. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a number of findings outside the recommendations of the Australian Dietary and Infant Feeding Guidelines. Further work is warranted to explore these outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos Infantis , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano , Política Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Animais , Austrália , Bebidas , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desmame
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