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1.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132551, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655645

RESUMO

Biochar has widely been utilized as an agricultural soil amendment owing to its enhanced surface properties and cost-effectiveness. In the present work, the influence of tea waste biochar (TWBC) upon acid modification on Allium cepa L. (red onion) growth has been studied. Its effect as a soil amendment has also been studied by assessing the nutrient retention, microbial population growth and immobilization of potentially toxic metal ions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out by applying different biochar (BC) ratios (2% and 5% w/w) to soil as the growth media for onion plants. A 2.4 times (2.4 × ) reduction of phosphate from leaching was observed upon BC application at a ratio of 2% than that of 5%. Moreover, red onion plants that grew in the BC-fertilizer amended soil at a 2% ratio showed higher growth compared to that of 5%. A ∼1.3 × and ∼1.2 × increment of total dry weight was observed upon amendment of soil fertilizer system with nitric and sulfuric acid-modified TWBC, respectively. An analysis of the potentially toxic metal ion uptake by the respective plant parts showed that lead uptake by the roots of red onion was ∼8.3 × less in BC amended soil compared to that in contaminated soil. Thus, acid-modified TWBC can be considered a potential soil amendment for an enhanced red onion growth. Employing TWBC as a soil amendment in tropical countries, where tea-waste is in abundance, will boost sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Chá , Carvão Vegetal
2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124788, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521935

RESUMO

Digestion of biomass derived carbonaceous materials such as biochar (BC) can be challenging due to their high chemical recalcitrance and vast variations in composition. Reports on the development of specific sample digestion methods for such materials remain inadequate and thus require considerable attention. Nine different carbonaceous materials; slow-pyrolyzed tea-waste and king coconut BC produced at 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C, sludge waste BC produced at 700 °C, wet fast-pyrolyzed Douglas-Fir BC and steam activated coconut shell BC have been tested to evaluate a relatively fast and convenient open-vessel digestion method using seven digestion reagents including nitric acid (NA), fuming nitric acid (FNA), sulfuric acid (SA), NA/SA, FNA/SA, NA/H2O2 and SA/H2O2 mixtures. From the tested digestion reagents, SA/H2O2 mixture dissolved low temperature produced BC (LTBC) within 2 h with occasional shaking and no external heating. Except peroxide mixtures, the other reagents were used to evaluate microwave digestion (MWD) efficiency. Nitric acid mixture was capable of only completely digesting LTBC in the MWD procedure whereas FNA, NA/SA and FNA/SA mixtures resulted in the successful dissolution of all tested carbonaceous materials. Amongst them, FNA provided the least matrix effect in the quantification of the four metals tested using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Tested recoveries for FNA were satisfactory as well. It was concluded that FNA is a preferable reagent for microwave digestion of BC.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Resíduos , Cocos , Indústria de Laticínios , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Ácido Nítrico/química , Pirólise , Esgotos , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química
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