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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6738, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795259

RESUMO

FOLFIRINOX, a combination of chemotherapy drugs (Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan -FOI), provides the best clinical benefit in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. In this study we explore the role of miRNAs (MIR) as modulators of chemosensitivity to identify potential biomarkers of response. We find that 41 and 84 microRNA inhibitors enhance the sensitivity of Capan1 and MiaPaCa2 PDAC cells respectively. These include a MIR1307-inhibitor that we validate in further PDAC cell lines. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and DNA damage accumulation are higher in MIR1307 knock-out (MIR1307KO) versus control PDAC cells, while re-expression of MIR1307 in MIR1307KO cells rescues these effects. We identify binding of MIR1307 to CLIC5 mRNA through covalent ligation of endogenous Argonaute-bound RNAs cross-linking immunoprecipitation assay. We validate these findings in an in vivo model with MIR1307 disruption. In a pilot cohort of PDAC patients undergoing FOLFIRONX chemotherapy, circulating MIR1307 correlates with clinical outcome.

2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625984

RESUMO

Methionine synthase deficiency (cblG complementation group) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting the homocysteine re-methylation pathway. It leads to a biochemical phenotype of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia. The clinical presentation of cblG is variable, ranging from seizures, encephalopathy, macrocytic anemia, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties in the neonatal period to onset of psychiatric symptoms or acute neurologic changes in adolescence or adulthood. Given the variable and nonspecific symptoms seen in cblG, the diagnosis of affected patients is often delayed. Medical management of cblG includes the use of hydroxocobalamin, betaine, folinic acid, and in some cases methionine supplementation. Treatment has been shown to lead to improvement in the biochemical profile of affected patients, with lowering of total homocysteine levels and increasing methionine levels. However, the published literature contains differing conclusions on whether treatment is effective in changing the natural history of the disease. Herein, we present five patients with cblG who have shown substantial clinical benefit from treatment with objective improvement in their neurologic outcomes. We demonstrate more favorable outcomes in our patients who were treated early in life, especially those who were treated before neurologic symptoms manifested. Given improved outcomes from treatment of presymptomatic patients, cblG warrants inclusion in newborn screening.

3.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 626-639, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593586

RESUMO

Health sector priorities and interventions to prevent and manage noncommunicable diseases and injuries (NCDIs) in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) have primarily adopted elements of the World Health Organization Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013-2020. However, there have been limited efforts in LLMICs to prioritize among conditions and health-sector interventions for NCDIs based on local epidemiology and contextually relevant risk factors or that incorporate the equitable distribution of health outcomes. The Lancet Commission on Reframing Noncommunicable Diseases and Injuries for the Poorest Billion supported national NCDI Poverty Commissions to define local NCDI epidemiology, determine an expanded set of priority NCDI conditions, and recommend cost-effective, equitable health-sector interventions. Fifteen national commissions and 1 state-level commission were established from 2016-2019. Six commissions completed the prioritization exercise and selected an average of 25 NCDI conditions; 15 conditions were selected by all commissions, including asthma, breast cancer, cervical cancer, diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, epilepsy, hypertensive heart disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, major depressive disorder, motor vehicle road injuries, rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disorders, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The commissions prioritized an average of 35 health-sector interventions based on cost-effectiveness, financial risk protection, and equity-enhancing rankings. The prioritized interventions were estimated to cost an additional US$4.70-US$13.70 per capita or approximately 9.7%-35.6% of current total health expenditure (0.6%-4.0% of current gross domestic product). Semistructured surveys and qualitative interviews of commission representatives demonstrated positive outcomes in several thematic areas, including understanding NCDIs of poverty, informing national planning and implementation of NCDI health-sector interventions, and improving governance and coordination for NCDIs. Overall, national NCDI Poverty Commissions provided a platform for evidence-based, locally driven determination of priorities within NCDIs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pobreza
4.
Health Econ ; 30(12): 3236-3247, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626032

RESUMO

Policymakers face difficult choices over which health interventions to publicly finance. We developed an approach to health benefits package design that accommodates explicit tradeoffs between improvements in health and provision of financial risk protection (FRP). We designed a mathematical optimization model to balance gains in health and FRP across candidate interventions when publicly financed. The optimal subset of interventions selected for inclusion was determined with bi-criterion integer programming conditional on a budget constraint. The optimal set of interventions to publicly finance in a health benefits package varied according to whether the objective for optimization was population health benefits or FRP. When both objectives were considered jointly, the resulting optimal essential benefits package depended on the weights placed on the two objectives. In the Sustainable Development Goals era, smart spending toward universal health coverage is essential. Mathematical optimization provides a quantitative framework for policymakers to design health policies and select interventions that jointly prioritize multiple objectives with explicit financial constraints.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 636280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395548

RESUMO

Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has declined dramatically in wealthier countries in the past three decades, but it remains endemic in many lower-resourced regions and can have significant costs to households. The objective of this study was to quantify the economic burden of RHD among Ugandans affected by RHD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cost-of-illness study that randomly sampled 87 participants and their households from the Uganda National RHD registry between December 2018 and February 2020. Using a standardized survey instrument, we asked participants and household members about outpatient and inpatient RHD costs and financial coping mechanisms incurred over the past 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to analyze levels and distributions of costs and the frequency of coping strategies. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to assess relationships between socioeconomic characteristics and utilization of financial coping mechanisms. Results: Most participants were young or women, demonstrating a wide variation in socioeconomic status. Outpatient and inpatient costs were primarily driven by transportation, medications, and laboratory tests, with overall RHD direct and indirect costs of $78 per person-year. Between 20 and 35 percent of households experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure, with participants in the Northern and Western Regions 5-10 times more likely to experience such hardship and utilize financial coping mechanisms than counterparts in the Central Region, a wealthier area. Increases in total RHD costs were positively correlated with increasing use of coping behaviors. Conclusion: Ugandan households affected by RHD, particularly in lower-income areas, incur out-of-pocket costs that are very high relative to income, exacerbating the poverty trap. Universal health coverage policy reforms in Uganda should include mechanisms to reduce or eliminate out-of-pocket expenditures for RHD and other chronic diseases.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(10): e1423-e1430, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever is infrequently diagnosed in sub-Saharan African countries despite the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease. We aimed to determine the incidence of acute rheumatic fever in northern and western Uganda. METHODS: For our prospective epidemiological study, we established acute rheumatic fever clinics at two regional hospitals in the north (Lira district) and west (Mbarara district) of Uganda and instituted a comprehensive acute rheumatic fever health messaging campaign. Communities and health-care workers were encouraged to refer children aged 3-17 years, with suspected acute rheumatic fever, for a definitive diagnosis using the Jones Criteria. Children were referred if they presented with any of the following: (1) history of fever within the past 48 h in combination with any joint complaint, (2) suspicion of acute rheumatic carditis, or (3) suspicion of chorea. We excluded children with a confirmed alternative diagnosis. We estimated incidence rates among children aged 5-14 years and characterised clinical features of definite and possible acute rheumatic fever cases. FINDINGS: Data were collected between Jan 17, 2018, and Dec 30, 2018, in Lira district and between June 5, 2019, and Feb 28, 2020, in Mbarara district. Of 1075 children referred for evaluation, 410 (38%) met the inclusion criteria; of these, 90 (22%) had definite acute rheumatic fever, 82 (20·0%) had possible acute rheumatic fever, and 24 (6%) had rheumatic heart disease without evidence of acute rheumatic fever. Additionally, 108 (26%) children had confirmed alternative diagnoses and 106 (26%) had an unknown alternative diagnosis. We estimated the incidence of definite acute rheumatic fever among children aged 5-14 years as 25 cases (95% CI 13·7-30·3) per 100 000 person-years in Lira district (north) and 13 cases (7·1-21·0) per 100 000 person-years in Mbarara district (west). INTERPRETATION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to estimate the incidence of acute rheumatic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the known rheumatic heart disease burden, it is likely that only a proportion of children with acute rheumatic fever were diagnosed. These data dispel the long-held hypothesis that the condition does not exist in sub-Saharan Africa and compel investment in improving prevention, recognition, and diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. FUNDING: American Heart Association Children's Strategically Focused Research Network Grant, THRiVE-2, General Electric, and Cincinnati Children's Heart Institute Research Core.


Assuntos
Febre Reumática , Cardiopatia Reumática , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Febre Reumática/diagnóstico , Febre Reumática/epidemiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1303, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a disease of poverty that is neglected in developing countries, including South Africa. Lack of adequate evidence regarding the cost of RHD care has hindered national and international actions to prevent RHD related deaths. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of RHD-related health services in a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS: The primary data on service utilisation were collected from a randomly selected sample of 100 patient medical records from the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study) - a registry of individuals living with RHD. Patient-level clinical data, including, prices and quantities of medications and laboratory tests, were collected from the main tertiary hospital providing RHD care. All annual costs from a health system perspective were estimated in 2017 (base year) in South African Rand (ZAR) using a combination of ingredients and step-down costing approaches and later converted to United States dollars (USD). Step-down costing was used to estimate provider time costs and all other facility costs such as overheads. A 3% discount rate was also employed in order to allow depreciation and opportunity cost. We aggregated data to estimate the total annual costs and the average annual per-patient cost of RHD and conducted a one-way sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The estimated total cost of RHD care at the tertiary hospital was USD 2 million (in 2017 USD) for the year 2017, with surgery costs accounting for 65%. Per-patient, average annual costs were USD 3900. For the subset of costs estimated using the ingredients approach, outpatient medications, and consumables related to cardiac catheterisation and heart valve surgery were the main cost drivers. CONCLUSIONS: RHD-related healthcare consumes significant tertiary hospital resources in South Africa, with annual per-patient costs higher than many other non-communicable and infectious diseases. This analysis supports the scaling up of primary and secondary prevention programmes at primary health centers in order to reduce future tertiary care costs. The study could also inform resource allocation efforts and provide cost estimates for future studies of intervention cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/terapia , Prevenção Secundária , África do Sul
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(7): 1283-1300, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214447

RESUMO

Most rare clinical missense variants cannot currently be classified as pathogenic or benign. Deficiency in human 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the most common inherited disorder of folate metabolism, is caused primarily by rare missense variants. Further complicating variant interpretation, variant impacts often depend on environment. An important example of this phenomenon is the MTHFR variant p.Ala222Val (c.665C>T), which is carried by half of all humans and has a phenotypic impact that depends on dietary folate. Here we describe the results of 98,336 variant functional-impact assays, covering nearly all possible MTHFR amino acid substitutions in four folinate environments, each in the presence and absence of p.Ala222Val. The resulting atlas of MTHFR variant effects reveals many complex dependencies on both folinate and p.Ala222Val. MTHFR atlas scores can distinguish pathogenic from benign variants and, among individuals with severe MTHFR deficiency, correlate with age of disease onset. Providing a powerful tool for understanding structure-function relationships, the atlas suggests a role for a disordered loop in retaining cofactor at the active site and identifies variants that enable escape of inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, a model based on eight MTHFR variant effect maps illustrates how shifting landscapes of environment- and genetic-background-dependent missense variation can inform our clinical, structural, and functional understanding of MTHFR deficiency.


Assuntos
Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diploide , Biblioteca Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/deficiência , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e957-e966, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU). METHODS: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. With this model, we estimated the impact of scaling up interventions using estimates of effect sizes from published studies. We estimated the cost to scale up coverage of interventions and summarised the benefits by monetising health gains estimated in the model using a full income approach. Costs and benefits were compared using the benefit-cost ratio and the net benefits with discounted costs and benefits. FINDINGS: Operationally achievable levels of scale-up of interventions along the disease spectrum, including primary prevention, secondary prevention, platforms for management of heart failure, and heart valve surgery could avert 74 000 (UI 50 000-104 000) deaths from RHD and ARF from 2021 to 2030 in the AU, reaching a 30·7% (21·6-39·0) reduction in the age-standardised death rate from RHD in 2030, compared with no increase in coverage of interventions. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for plausible scale-up of secondary prevention and secondary and tertiary care interventions was 4·7 (2·9-6·3) with a net benefit of $2·8 billion (1·6-3·9; 2019 US$) through 2030. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for primary prevention scale-up was low to 2030 (0·2, <0·1-0·4), increasing with delayed benefits accrued to 2090. The benefit-cost dynamics of primary prevention were sensitive to the costs of different delivery approaches, uncertain epidemiological parameters regarding group A streptococcal pharyngitis and ARF, assumptions about long-term demographic and economic trends, and discounting. INTERPRETATION: Increased coverage of interventions to control and manage RHD could accelerate progress towards eradication in AU member states. Gaps in local epidemiological data and particular components of the disease process create uncertainty around the level of benefits. In the short term, costs of secondary prevention and secondary and tertiary care for RHD are lower than for primary prevention, and benefits accrue earlier. FUNDING: World Heart Federation, Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust, and American Heart Association.


Assuntos
União Africana/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Cardiopatia Reumática/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevenção Primária , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Prevenção Secundária
12.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(7): 1024-1032, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017094

RESUMO

Anti-EGFR antibodies such as cetuximab are active against KRAS/NRAS wild-type colorectal cancers (CRCs), but acquired resistance invariably evolves. It is unknown which mutational mechanisms enable resistance evolution and whether adaptive mutagenesis (a transient cetuximab-induced increase in mutation generation) contributes in patients. Here, we investigate these questions in exome sequencing data from 42 baseline and progression biopsies from cetuximab-treated CRCs. Mutation loads did not increase from baseline to progression, and evidence for a contribution of adaptive mutagenesis was limited. However, the chemotherapy-induced mutational signature SBS17b was the main contributor of specific KRAS/NRAS and EGFR driver mutations that are enriched at acquired resistance. Detectable SBS17b activity before treatment predicted shorter progression-free survival and the evolution of these specific mutations during subsequent cetuximab treatment. This result suggests that chemotherapy mutagenesis can accelerate resistance evolution. Mutational signatures may be a new class of cancer evolution predictor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Mutação
13.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0033021, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910957

RESUMO

A prophylactic vaccine that confers durable protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) would provide a valuable tool to prevent new HIV/AIDS cases. As herpesviruses establish lifelong infections that remain largely subclinical, the use of persistent herpesvirus vectors to deliver HIV antigens may facilitate the induction of long-term anti-HIV immunity. We previously developed recombinant (r) forms of the gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rRRV) expressing a replication-incompetent, near-full-length simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVnfl) genome. We recently showed that 8/16 rhesus macaques (RMs) vaccinated with a rDNA/rRRV-SIVnfl regimen were significantly protected against intrarectal (i.r.) challenge with SIVmac239. Here we investigated the longevity of this vaccine-mediated protection. Despite receiving no additional booster immunizations, the protected rDNA/rRRV-SIVnfl vaccinees maintained detectable cellular and humoral anti-SIV immune responses for more than 1.5 years after the rRRV boost. To assess if these responses were still protective, the rDNA/rRRV-SIVnfl vaccinees were subjected to a second round of marginal-dose i.r. SIVmac239 challenges, with eight SIV-naive RMs serving as concurrent controls. After three SIV exposures, 8/8 control animals became infected, compared to 3/8 vaccinees. This difference in SIV acquisition was statistically significant (P = 0.0035). The three vaccinated monkeys that became infected exhibited significantly lower viral loads than those in unvaccinated controls. Collectively, these data illustrate the ability of rDNA/rRRV-SIVnfl vaccination to provide long-term immunity against stringent mucosal challenges with SIVmac239. Future work is needed to identify the critical components of this vaccine-mediated protection and the extent to which it can tolerate sequence mismatches in the challenge virus. IMPORTANCE We report on the long-term follow-up of a group of rhesus macaques (RMs) that received an AIDS vaccine regimen and were subsequently protected against rectal acquisition of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. The vaccination regimen employed included a live recombinant herpesvirus vector that establishes persistent infection in RMs. Consistent with the recurrent SIV antigen expression afforded by this herpesvirus vector, vaccinees maintained detectable SIV-specific immune responses for more than 1.5 years after the last vaccination. Importantly, these vaccinated RMs were significantly protected against a second round of rectal SIV exposures performed 1 year after the first SIV challenge phase. These results are relevant for HIV vaccine development because they show the potential of herpesvirus-based vectors to maintain functional antiretroviral immunity without the need for repeated boosting.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Rhadinovirus/genética , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Memória Imunológica , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Rhadinovirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 657424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796119

RESUMO

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with vif, rev, tat, nef, and env, as part of a previous study conducted by our group. These animals manifested rapid and durable control of viral replication to below detection limits shortly after SIVmac239 infection. Although these animals had no serological neutralizing activity against SIVmac239 prior to infection, their pre-challenge titers of Env-binding antibodies correlated with control of viral replication. To assess the contribution of anti-Env humoral immune responses to virologic control in two of these animals, we transiently depleted their circulating antibodies via extracorporeal plasma immunoadsorption and inhibition of IgG recycling through antibody-mediated blockade of the neonatal Fc receptor. These procedures reduced Ig serum concentrations by up to 80% and temporarily induced SIVmac239 replication in these animals. Next, we transferred purified total Ig from the rapid controllers into six vaccinated RMs one day before intrarectal challenge with SIVmac239. Although recipients of the hyperimmune anti-SIV Ig fraction were not protected from infection, their peak and chronic phase viral loads were significantly lower than those in concurrent unvaccinated control animals. Together, our results suggest that non-neutralizing Abs may play a role in the suppression of SIVmac239 viremia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Viremia/imunologia , Viremia/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Biomarcadores , Genótipo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Receptores Fc , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Carga Viral
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009164, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the World Health Assembly mandated Member States to take action on rheumatic heart disease (RHD), which persists in countries with weak health systems. We conducted an assessment of the current state of RHD-related healthcare in Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a mixed-methods, deductive simultaneous design study conducted in four districts of Uganda. Using census sampling, we surveyed health facilities in each district using an RHD survey instrument that was modeled after the WHO SARA tool. We interviewed health workers with experience managing RHD, purposively sampling to ensure a range of qualification and geographic variation. Our final sample included 402 facilities and 36 health workers. We found major gaps in knowledge of clinical guidelines and availability of diagnostic tests. Antibiotics used in RHD prevention were widely available, but cardiovascular medications were scarce. Higher levels of service readiness were found among facilities in the western region (Mbarara district) and private facilities. Level III health centers were the most prepared for delivering secondary prevention. Health worker interviews revealed that limited awareness of RHD at the district level, lack of diagnostic tests and case management registries, and absence of clearly articulated RHD policies and budget prioritization were the main barriers to providing RHD-related healthcare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Uganda's readiness to implement the World Health Assembly RHD Resolution is low. The forthcoming national RHD strategy must focus on decentralizing RHD diagnosis and prevention to the district level, emphasizing specialized training of the primary healthcare workforce and strengthening supply chains of diagnostics and essential medicines.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/normas , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/provisão & distribuição , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/provisão & distribuição , Administração de Caso/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Cardiopatia Reumática/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda
16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 132(3): 155-161, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487542

RESUMO

Methionine dependence of tumor cell lines, the inability to grow in tissue culture media lacking methionine but supplemented with homocysteine, has been known for decades, but an understanding of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains incomplete. Methionine dependence of certain glioma and melanoma cell lines has been linked to alterations in the metabolism of cobalamin (vitamin B12). In the MeWo LC1 melanoma line, complementation analysis demonstrated that the genetic defect affected the same locus mutated in the cblC inborn error of cobalamin metabolism; hypermethylation of the MMACHC promoter was subsequently demonstrated. Analysis of data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia showed increased MMACHC methylation levels in melanoma lines compared to other types of cancer. RNA sequencing data from isolated tumors, tabulated at the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics website, showed decreased MMACHC expression compared to other tumors; and methylation data tabulated at the TGGA Wanderer website demonstrated increased MMACHC methylation. These data suggest that disruptions in cobalamin metabolism might play a more general role in methionine dependence, and potentially in the pathogenesis of melanoma cell lines and primary tumors.


Assuntos
Genômica , Neoplasias/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metionina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435284

RESUMO

1. BACKGROUND: The application of massively parallel sequencing has led to the identification of aberrant druggable pathways and somatic mutations within therapeutically relevant genes in gastro-oesophageal cancer. Given the widespread use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in the study of this disease, it would be beneficial, especially for the purposes of biomarker evaluation, to assess the concordance between comprehensive exome-wide sequencing data from archival FFPE samples originating from a prospective clinical study and those derived from fresh-frozen material. 2. METHODS: We analysed whole-exome sequencing data to define the mutational concordance of 16 matched fresh-frozen and FFPE gastro-oesophageal tumours (N = 32) from a prospective clinical study. We assessed DNA integrity prior to sequencing and then identified coding mutations in genes that have previously been implicated in other cancers. In addition, we calculated the mutant-allele heterogeneity (MATH) for these samples. 3. RESULTS: Although there was increased degradation of DNA in FFPE samples compared with frozen samples, sequencing data from only two FFPE samples failed to reach an adequate mapping quality threshold. Using a filtering threshold of mutant read counts of at least ten and a minimum of 5% variant allele frequency (VAF) we found that there was a high median mutational concordance of 97% (range 80.1-98.68%) between fresh-frozen and FFPE gastro-oesophageal tumour-derived exomes. However, the majority of FFPE tumours had higher mutant-allele heterogeneity (MATH) scores when compared with corresponding frozen tumours (p < 0.001), suggesting that FFPE-based exome sequencing is likely to over-represent tumour heterogeneity in FFPE samples compared to fresh-frozen samples. Furthermore, we identified coding mutations in 120 cancer-related genes, including those associated with chromatin remodelling and Wnt/ß-catenin and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase signalling. 4. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that comprehensive genomic data can be generated from exome sequencing of selected DNA samples extracted from archival FFPE gastro-oesophageal tumour tissues within the context of prospective clinical trials.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 235-241, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains endemic in less-resourced regions and countries and results in high medical and non-medical costs to households, health systems, and society. This scoping review maps out the available evidence on the economic impact of RHD and its antecedents and suggests future research priorities. METHOD: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. We identified articles through systematic electronic database search supplemented by expert knowledge of unpublished literature. Studies were included if they collected empirical RHD-related costing data as a primary or secondary objective and if the data were collected from 2000 onward. Main quantitative findings by intervention, costing perspective, and location were charted, and a standardized quality assessment tool was used to appraise included studies. RESULTS: The index search identified 2519 electronic records and two grey-literature graduate theses. Six full texts were included in the review. Primary prevention costs were modest, while secondary and especially tertiary prevention were more costly. Most estimates were of health sector costs and for tertiary interventions. Only two studies described RHD-related costs in non-high-income countries. Most studies were of adequate methodological quality. CONCLUSION: Research into the costs of RHD has mostly been done in wealthy countries. Costs from the household perspective, which are particularly important in countries with limited public healthcare finance, are lacking. To inform advocacy and guide implementation of the 2018 World Health Assembly resolution on RHD, high-quality, local cost estimates will be needed from a range of representative, RHD-endemic countries.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática , Saúde Global , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Prevenção Primária , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia
19.
Cytometry A ; 99(3): 278-288, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713108

RESUMO

A vaccine to ameliorate cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related pathogenicity in transplantation patients is considered a top priority. A therapeutic vaccine must include components that elicit both neutralizing antibodies, and highly effective CD8 T-cell responses. The most important translational model of vaccine development is the captive-bred rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) of Indian origin. There is a dearth of information on rhesus cytomegalovirus (rhCMV)-specific CD8 T cells due to the absence of well-defined CD8 T-cell epitopes presented by classical MHC-I molecules. In the current study, we defined two CD8 T-cell epitopes restricted by high-frequency Mamu alleles: the Mamu-A1*002:01 restricted VY9 (VTTLGMALY aa291-299) epitope of protein IE-1, and the Mamu-A1*008:01 restricted NP8 (NPTDRPIP aa96-103) epitope of protein phosphoprotein 65-2. We developed tetramers and determined the level, phenotype, and functional capability of the two epitope-specific T-cell populations in circulation and various tissues. We demonstrated the value of these tetramers for in situ tetramer staining. Here, we first provided critical reagents and established a flow cytometric staining strategy to study rhCMV-specific T-cell responses in up to 40% of captive-bred rhesus macaques. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citomegalovirus , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Macaca mulatta
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(3): 1443-1453, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are poorly researched. This study characterised the nature, frequency, severity and treatable causes for GI symptoms prospectively in patients undergoing chemotherapy for GI malignancy. METHODS: Patients receiving chemotherapy for a GI malignancy were assessed pre-chemotherapy, then monthly for 1 year using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, a validated patient-reported outcome measure. Patients with new, troublesome GI symptoms were offered investigations to diagnose the cause(s). Their oncologist was alerted when investigations were abnormal. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients, 60% male, median age 63 years (range 30-88), were enrolled; 122 patients were withdrawn, 93%, because of progressive disease or death. During the study, > 20% patients reported chronic faecal incontinence and > 10% reported moderate or severe problems with taste, dysphagia, belching, heartburn, early satiety, appetite, nausea, abdominal cramps, peri-rectal pain, rectal flatulence, borborygmi, urgency of defecation or tenesmus. Thirty percent reported continuing passage of hard stools and 30% on-going diarrhoea. Moderate or severe fatigue affected 40% participants at its peak and persisted in 15% at 1 year. Toxicity dictated change in chemotherapy for 13-29% patients/month. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events underestimated gastrointestinal morbidity. Pre-chemotherapy screening identified previously undiagnosed pathology: exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (9%), vitamin B12 deficiency (12%) and thyroid dysfunction (20%). Patients often refused investigations to diagnose their chemotherapy-induced symptoms; however, for every three investigations performed, one treatable cause was diagnosed: particularly small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (54%), bile acid malabsorption (43%), previously not described after chemotherapy, and unsuspected urinary tract infection (17%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing chemotherapy for GI malignancy commonly have difficult GI symptoms requiring active management which does not occur routinely. The underlying causes for these symptoms are often treatable or curable. Randomised trials are urgently needed to show whether timely investigation and treatment of symptoms improve quality of life and survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02121626.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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