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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 610, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last 10 years, there have been over 3300 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Almost every GWAS study provides a Manhattan plot either as a main figure or in the supplement. Several software packages can generate a Manhattan plot, but they are all limited in the extent to which they can annotate gene-names, allele frequencies, and variants having high impact on gene function or provide any other added information or flexibility. Furthermore, in a conventional Manhattan plot, there is no way of distinguishing a locus identified due to a single variant with very significant p-value from a locus with multiple variants which appear to be in a haplotype block having very similar p-values. RESULTS: Here we present a software tool written in R, which generates a transposed Manhattan plot along with additional features like variant consequence and minor allele frequency to annotate the plot and addresses these limitations. The software also gives flexibility on how and where the user wants to display the annotations. The software can be downloaded from CRAN repository and also from the GitHub project page. CONCLUSIONS: We present a major step up to the existing conventional Manhattan plot generation tools. We hope this form of display along with the added annotations will bring more insight to the reader from this new Manhattan++ plot.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(19): 2333-2345, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HCMR (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, prospective registry of 2,755 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) recruited from 44 sites in 6 countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to improve risk prediction in HCM by incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), genetic, and biomarker data. METHODS: Demographic and echocardiographic data were collected. Patients underwent CMR including cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) (replacement fibrosis), and T1 mapping for measurement of extracellular volume as a measure of interstitial fibrosis. Blood was drawn for the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and genetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,755 patients were studied. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, 71% were male, and 17% non-white. Mean ESC (European Society of Cardiology) risk score was 2.48 ± 0.56. Eighteen percent had a resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient ≥30 mm Hg. Thirty-six percent had a sarcomere mutation identified, and 50% had any LGE. Sarcomere mutation-positive patients were more likely to have reverse septal curvature morphology, LGE, and no significant resting LVOT obstruction. Those that were sarcomere mutation negative were more likely to have isolated basal septal hypertrophy, less LGE, and more LVOT obstruction. Interstitial fibrosis was present in segments both with and without LGE. Serum NT-proBNP and cTnT levels correlated with increasing LGE and extracellular volume in a graded fashion. CONCLUSIONS: The HCMR population has characteristics of low-risk HCM. Ninety-three percent had no or only mild functional limitation. Baseline data separated patients broadly into 2 categories. One group was sarcomere mutation positive and more likely had reverse septal curvature morphology, more fibrosis, but less resting obstruction, whereas the other was sarcomere mutation negative and more likely had isolated basal septal hypertrophy with obstruction, but less fibrosis. Further follow-up will allow better understanding of these subgroups and development of an improved risk prediction model incorporating all these markers.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genome Wide Association studies have consistently identified an association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and a locus on chromosome 10 containing a single gene, JCAD (formerly KIAA1462). However, little is known about the mechanism by which JCAD could influence the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular function was quantified in subjects with CAD by flow mediated dilatation [FMD] and vasorelaxation responses in isolated blood vessel segments. The JCAD risk allele identified by GWAS was associated with reduced FMD and reduced endothelial-dependent relaxations. To study the impact of loss of Jcad on atherosclerosis, Jcad-/- mice were crossed to an ApoE-/- background and fed a high fat diet from 6 to16 weeks of age. Loss of Jcad did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. However, Jcad-/-ApoE-/- mice developed significantly less atherosclerosis in the aortic root and the inner curvature of the aortic arch. En-face analysis revealed a striking reduction in pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules at sites of disturbed flow on the endothelial cell layer of Jcad-/- mice. Loss of Jcad lead to a reduced recovery perfusion in response to hind limb ischemia, a model of altered in vivo flow. Knock down of JCAD using siRNA in primary human aortic endothelial cells significantly reduced the response to acute onset of flow, as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation of NF-КB, eNOS and Akt. CONCLUSION: The novel CAD gene JCAD promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation via a role in the endothelial cell shear stress mechanotransduction pathway. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: We reveal that JCAD is a novel coronary artery disease susceptibility gene which determines atherosclerosis progression via a role in the endothelial cell shear stress mechanotransduction pathway. Identifying this new role for JCAD in atherosclerotic plaque progression highlights the importance of new coronary artery disease genes that mediate blood flow mechanotransduction in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. These genes are potential novel targets for treatments to reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation, independent of established risk factors and biological mechanisms.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13556, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537879

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a strong risk factor for heart failure and cardiovascular death. ECG measures of LV mass are estimated as heritable in twin and family-based analyses and heritability estimates of LV mass measured by echocardiography are lower. We hypothesised that CMR-derived measurements, being more precise than echocardiographic measurements, would advance our understanding of heritable LV traits. We phenotyped 116 British families (427 individuals) by CMR and ECG, and undertook heritability analyses using variance-components (QTDT) and GWAS SNP-based (GCTA-GREML) methods. ECG-based traits such as LV mass and Sokolow-Lyon duration showed substantial estimates of heritability (60%), whereas CMR-derived LV mass was only modestly heritable (20%). However, the ECG LV mass was positively correlated with the lateral diameter of the chest (rho = 0.67), and adjustment for this attenuated the heritability estimate (42%). Finally, CMR-derived right ventricular mass showed considerable heritability (44%). Heritability estimates of LV phenotypes show substantial variation depending on the modality of measurement, being greater when measured by ECG than CMR. This may reflect the differences between electrophysiological as opposed to anatomical hypertrophy. However, ECG LV hypertrophy traits are likely to be influenced by genetic association with anthropometric measures, inflating their overall measured heritability.

6.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 46, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-disciplinary approach to promote engagement, inform decision-making and support clinicians and patients is increasingly advocated to realise the potential of genome-scale sequencing in the clinic for patient benefit. Here we describe the results of establishing a genomic medicine multi-disciplinary team (GM-MDT) for case selection, processing, interpretation and return of results. METHODS: We report a consecutive case series of 132 patients (involving 10 medical specialties with 43.2% cases having a neurological disorder) undergoing exome sequencing over a 10-month period following the establishment of the GM-MDT in a UK NHS tertiary referral hospital. The costs of running the MDT are also reported. RESULTS: In total 76 cases underwent exome sequencing following triage by the GM-MDT with a clinically reportable molecular diagnosis in 24 (31.6%). GM-MDT composition, operation and rationale for whether to proceed to sequencing are described, together with the health economics (cost per case for the GM-MDT was £399.61), the utility and informativeness of exome sequencing for molecular diagnosis in a range of traits, the impact of choice of sequencing strategy on molecular diagnostic rates and challenge of defining pathogenic variants. In 5 cases (6.6%), an alternative clinical diagnosis was indicated by sequencing results. Examples were also found where findings from initial genetic testing were reconsidered in the light of exome sequencing including TP63 and PRKAG2 (detection of a partial exon deletion and a mosaic missense pathogenic variant respectively); together with tissue-specific mosaicism involving a cytogenetic abnormality following a normal prenatal array comparative genomic hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: This consecutive case series describes the results and experience of a multidisciplinary team format that was found to promote engagement across specialties and facilitate return of results to the responsible clinicians.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1639-1648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186546

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are moving from research into clinical practice. However, the optimal NGS approach in well-defined adult-onset familial diseases, such as inherited cardiovascular disease, remains unclear. We aimed to determine which attributes encouraged or discouraged the uptake of genomic tests in this context, and whether this differed by test type. We conducted a web-based discrete choice experiment in health professionals in the UK who order NGS tests for inherited cardiovascular disease. Respondents completed 12 hypothetical choice tasks in which they selected a preferred test from four alternatives: whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, panel testing and genetic testing not indicated. Tests were specified in terms of five attributes: diagnostic yield, detection rate for variants of unknown significance, cost, quantity of counselling received and disclosure of secondary findings. Mixed logit regression analysis was used to analyse the choice data. We found that uptake of NGS increases if tests identify more pathogenic mutations, identify fewer variants of unknown significance, or cost less. Respondents were willing to pay £117 for every 1% increase in diagnostic yield. Considerable heterogeneity was observed around preferences for several test attributes. Overall, panel testing had the highest predicted uptake rate. Our results indicate that NGS tests are valued by health professionals for well-defined adult-onset familial diseases, however, these professionals have strong preferences for panel testing rather than whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing. This finding suggests that different uptake rates should be explicitly modelled when designing and evaluating future genomic testing services.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2413-2420, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2932-2942, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on coronary artery disease (CAD) and investigated the genetic relationship to CV and non-CV diseases with reported CAD comorbidity. METHODS: This study examined 425,196 UK Biobank participants to determine a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 300 CAD associated variants (CAD-GRS). This score was associated with 22 traits, including risk factors, diseases secondary to CAD, as well as comorbid and non-CV conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed in individuals free from CAD or stable angina diagnosis. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.29) and hypertension (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.12) were strongly associated with the CAD-GRS, which indicated that the score contained variants predisposing to these conditions. However, the CAD-GRS was also significant in patients with CAD who were free of CAD risk factors (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.44). The study observed significant associations between the CAD-GRS and peripheral arterial disease (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.32), abdominal aortic aneurysms (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.37), and stroke (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), which remained significant in sensitivity analyses that suggested shared genetic predisposition. The score was also associated with heart failure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.29), atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), and premature death (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06). These associations were abolished in sensitivity analyses that indicated that they were secondary to prevalent CAD. Finally, an inverse association was observed between the score and migraine headaches (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A wide spectrum of CV conditions, including premature death, might develop consecutively or in parallel with CAD for the same genetic roots. In conditions like heart failure, the study found evidence that the CAD-GRS could be used to stratify patients with no or limited genetic overlap with CAD risk. Increased genetic predisposition to CAD was inversely associated with migraine headaches.

10.
Science ; 364(6442)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123110

RESUMO

Approximately 2.4% of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome exhibits common homoplasmic genetic variation. We analyzed 12,975 whole-genome sequences to show that 45.1% of individuals from 1526 mother-offspring pairs harbor a mixed population of mtDNA (heteroplasmy), but the propensity for maternal transmission differs across the mitochondrial genome. Over one generation, we observed selection both for and against variants in specific genomic regions; known variants were more likely to be transmitted than previously unknown variants. However, new heteroplasmies were more likely to match the nuclear genetic ancestry as opposed to the ancestry of the mitochondrial genome on which the mutations occurred, validating our findings in 40,325 individuals. Thus, human mtDNA at the population level is shaped by selective forces within the female germ line under nuclear genetic control, which ensures consistency between the two independent genetic lineages.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7339, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089183

RESUMO

CADM2 has been associated with a range of behavioural and metabolic traits, including physical activity, risk-taking, educational attainment, alcohol and cannabis use and obesity. Here, we set out to determine whether CADM2 contributes to mechanisms shared between mental and physical health disorders. We assessed genetic variants in the CADM2 locus for association with phenotypes in the UK Biobank, IMPROVE, PROCARDIS and SCARFSHEEP studies, before performing meta-analyses. A wide range of metabolic phenotypes were meta-analysed. Psychological phenotypes analysed in UK Biobank only were major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, neuroticism, mood instability and risk-taking behaviour. In UK Biobank, four, 88 and 172 genetic variants were significantly (p < 1 × 10-5) associated with neuroticism, mood instability and risk-taking respectively. In meta-analyses of 4 cohorts, we identified 362, 63 and 11 genetic variants significantly (p < 1 × 10-5) associated with BMI, SBP and CRP respectively. Genetic effects on BMI, CRP and risk-taking were all positively correlated, and were consistently inversely correlated with genetic effects on SBP, mood instability and neuroticism. Conditional analyses suggested an overlap in the signals for physical and psychological traits. Many significant variants had genotype-specific effects on CADM2 expression levels in adult brain and adipose tissues. CADM2 variants influence a wide range of both psychological and metabolic traits, suggesting common biological mechanisms across phenotypes via regulation of CADM2 expression levels in adipose tissue. Functional studies of CADM2 are required to fully understand mechanisms connecting mental and physical health conditions.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(20): 2493-2502, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial disarray is a likely focus for fatal arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This microstructural abnormality can be inferred by mapping the preferential diffusion of water along cardiac muscle fibers using diffusion tensor cardiac magnetic resonance (DT-CMR) imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) quantifies directionality of diffusion in 3 dimensions. The authors hypothesized that FA would be reduced in HCM due to disarray and fibrosis that may represent the anatomic substrate for ventricular arrhythmia. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess FA as a noninvasive in vivo biomarker of HCM myoarchitecture and its association with ventricular arrhythmia. METHODS: A total of 50 HCM patients (47 ± 15 years of age, 77% male) and 30 healthy control subjects (46 ± 16 years of age, 70% male) underwent DT-CMR in diastole, cine, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and extracellular volume (ECV) imaging at 3-T. RESULTS: Diastolic FA was reduced in HCM compared with control subjects (0.49 ± 0.05 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03; p = 0.0005). Control subjects had a mid-wall ring of high FA. In HCM, this ring was disrupted by reduced FA, consistent with published histology demonstrating that disarray and fibrosis invade circumferentially aligned mid-wall myocytes. LGE and ECV were significant predictors of FA, in line with fibrosis contributing to low FA. Yet FA adjusted for LGE and ECV remained reduced in HCM (p = 0.028). FA in the hypertrophied segment was reduced in HCM patients with ventricular arrhythmia compared to patients without (n = 15; 0.41 ± 0.03 vs. 0.46 ± 0.06; p = 0.007). A decrease in FA of 0.05 increased odds of ventricular arrhythmia by 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 5.3; p = 0.015) in HCM and remained significant even after correcting for LGE, ECV, and wall thickness (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: DT-CMR assessment of left ventricular myoarchitecture matched patterns reported previously on histology. Low diastolic FA in HCM was associated with ventricular arrhythmia and is likely to represent disarray after accounting for fibrosis. The authors propose that diastolic FA could be the first in vivo marker of disarray in HCM and a potential independent risk factor.

13.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav8421, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131323

RESUMO

Mechanical force-induced conformational changes in proteins underpin a variety of physiological functions, typified in muscle contractile machinery. Mutations in the actin-binding protein filamin C (FLNC) are linked to musculoskeletal pathologies characterized by altered biomechanical properties and sometimes aggregates. HspB1, an abundant molecular chaperone, is prevalent in striated muscle where it is phosphorylated in response to cues including mechanical stress. We report the interaction and up-regulation of both proteins in three mouse models of biomechanical stress, with HspB1 being phosphorylated and FLNC being localized to load-bearing sites. We show how phosphorylation leads to increased exposure of the residues surrounding the HspB1 phosphosite, facilitating their binding to a compact multidomain region of FLNC proposed to have mechanosensing functions. Steered unfolding of FLNC reveals that its extension trajectory is modulated by the phosphorylated region of HspB1. This may represent a posttranslationally regulated chaperone-client protection mechanism targeting over-extension during mechanical stress.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

15.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 19, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-CMRS) is a powerful tool for probing energetics in the human heart, through quantification of phosphocreatine (PCr) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. In principle, 31P-CMRS can also measure cardiac intracellular pH (pHi) and the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP). However, these require determination of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) signal frequency and amplitude that are currently not robustly accessible because blood signals often obscure the Pi resonance. Typical cardiac 31P-CMRS protocols use low (e.g. 30°) flip-angles and short repetition time (TR) to maximise signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) within hardware limits. Unfortunately, this causes saturation of Pi with negligible saturation of the flowing blood pool. We aimed to show that an adiabatic 90° excitation, long-TR, 7T 31P-CMRS protocol will reverse this balance, allowing robust cardiac pHi measurements in healthy subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: The cardiac Pi T1 was first measured by the dual TR technique in seven healthy subjects. Next, ten healthy subjects and three HCM patients were scanned with 7T 31P-MRS using long (6 s) TR protocol and adiabatic excitation. Spectra were fitted for cardiac metabolites including Pi. RESULTS: The measured Pi T1 was 5.0 ± 0.3 s in myocardium and 6.4 ± 0.6 s in skeletal muscle. Myocardial pH was 7.12 ± 0.04 and Pi/PCr ratio was 0.11 ± 0.02. The coefficients of repeatability were 0.052 for pH and 0.027 for Pi/PCr quantification. The pH in HCM patients did not differ (p = 0.508) from volunteers. However, Pi/PCr was higher (0.24 ± 0.09 vs. 0.11 ± 0.02; p = 0.001); Pi/ATP was higher (0.44 ± 0.14 vs. 0.24 ± 0.05; p = 0.002); and PCr/ATP was lower (1.78 ± 0.07 vs. 2.10 ± 0.20; p = 0.020), in HCM patients, which is in agreement with previous reports. CONCLUSION: A 7T 31P-CMRS protocol with adiabatic 90° excitation and long (6 s) TR gives sufficient SNR for Pi and low enough blood signal to permit robust quantification of cardiac Pi and hence pHi. Pi was detectable in every subject scanned for this study, both in healthy subjects and HCM patients. Cardiac pHi was unchanged in HCM patients, but both Pi/PCr and Pi/ATP increased that indicate an energetic impairment in HCM. This work provides a robust technique to quantify cardiac Pi and pHi.

16.
Circ Res ; 124(8): 1228-1239, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732532

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Subcellular Ca2+ indicators have yet to be developed for the myofilament where disease mutation or small molecules may alter contractility through myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Here, we develop and characterize genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators restricted to the myofilament to directly visualize Ca2+ changes in the sarcomere. OBJECTIVE: To produce and validate myofilament-restricted Ca2+ imaging probes in an adenoviral transduction adult cardiomyocyte model using drugs that alter myofilament function (MYK-461, omecamtiv mecarbil, and levosimendan) or following cotransduction of 2 established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy disease-causing mutants (cTnT [Troponin T] R92Q and cTnI [Troponin I] R145G) that alter myofilament Ca2+ handling. METHODS AND RESULTS: When expressed in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes RGECO-TnT (Troponin T)/TnI (Troponin I) sensors localize correctly to the sarcomere without contractile impairment. Both sensors report cyclical changes in fluorescence in paced cardiomyocytes with reduced Ca2+ on and increased Ca2+ off rates compared with unconjugated RGECO. RGECO-TnT/TnI revealed changes to localized Ca2+ handling conferred by MYK-461 and levosimendan, including an increase in Ca2+ binding rates with both levosimendan and MYK-461 not detected by an unrestricted protein sensor. Coadenoviral transduction of RGECO-TnT/TnI with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causing thin filament mutants showed that the mutations increase myofilament [Ca2+] in systole, lengthen time to peak systolic [Ca2+], and delay [Ca2+] release. This contrasts with the effect of the same mutations on cytoplasmic Ca2+, when measured using unrestricted RGECO where changes to peak systolic Ca2+ are inconsistent between the 2 mutations. These data contrast with previous findings using chemical dyes that show no alteration of [Ca2+] transient amplitude or time to peak Ca2+. CONCLUSIONS: RGECO-TnT/TnI are functionally equivalent. They visualize Ca2+ within the myofilament and reveal unrecognized aspects of small molecule and disease-associated mutations in living cells.

17.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 5, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines for variant interpretation in Mendelian disease set stringent criteria to report a variant as (likely) pathogenic, prioritising control of false-positive rate over test sensitivity and diagnostic yield. Genetic testing is also more likely informative in individuals with well-characterised variants from extensively studied European-ancestry populations. Inherited cardiomyopathies are relatively common Mendelian diseases that allow empirical calibration and assessment of this framework. METHODS: We compared rare variants in large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohorts (up to 6179 cases) to reference populations to identify variant classes with high prior likelihoods of pathogenicity, as defined by etiological fraction (EF). We analysed the distribution of variants using a bespoke unsupervised clustering algorithm to identify gene regions in which variants are significantly clustered in cases. RESULTS: Analysis of variant distribution identified regions in which variants are significantly enriched in cases and variant location was a better discriminator of pathogenicity than generic computational functional prediction algorithms. Non-truncating variant classes with an EF ≥ 0.95 were identified in five established HCM genes. Applying this approach leads to an estimated 14-20% increase in cases with actionable HCM variants, i.e. variants classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic that might be used for predictive testing in probands' relatives. CONCLUSIONS: When found in a patient confirmed to have disease, novel variants in some genes and regions are empirically shown to have a sufficiently high probability of pathogenicity to support a "likely pathogenic" classification, even without additional segregation or functional data. This could increase the yield of high confidence actionable variants, consistent with the framework and recommendations of current guidelines. The techniques outlined offer a consistent and unbiased approach to variant interpretation for Mendelian disease genetic testing. We propose adaptations to ACMG/AMP guidelines to incorporate such evidence in a quantitative and transparent manner.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Mutação , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(476)2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674652

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which truncating mutations in MYBPC3 (encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C; cMyBPC) or myosin missense mutations cause hypercontractility and poor relaxation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are incompletely understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we explored how depletion of cMyBPC altered sarcomere function. We demonstrated that stepwise loss of cMyBPC resulted in reciprocal augmentation of myosin contractility. Direct attenuation of myosin function, via a damaging missense variant (F764L) that causes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), normalized the increased contractility from cMyBPC depletion. Depletion of cMyBPC also altered dynamic myosin conformations during relaxation, enhancing the myosin state that enables ATP hydrolysis and thin filament interactions while reducing the super relaxed conformation associated with energy conservation. MYK-461, a pharmacologic inhibitor of myosin ATPase, rescued relaxation deficits and restored normal contractility in mouse and human cardiomyocytes with MYBPC3 mutations. These data define dosage-dependent effects of cMyBPC on myosin that occur across the cardiac cycle as the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which MYBPC3 truncations cause HCM. Therapeutic strategies to attenuate cMyBPC activity may rescue depressed cardiac contractility in patients with DCM, whereas inhibiting myosin by MYK-461 should benefit the substantial proportion of patients with HCM with MYBPC3 mutations.

19.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1576-1584, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing numbers of genes are being implicated in Mendelian disorders and incorporated into clinical test panels. However, lack of evidence supporting the gene-disease relationship can hinder interpretation. We explored the utility of testing 51 additional genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most commonly tested Mendelian disorders. METHODS: Using genome sequencing data from 240 sarcomere gene negative HCM cases and 6229 controls, we undertook case-control and individual variant analyses to assess 51 genes that have been proposed for HCM testing. RESULTS: We found no evidence to suggest that rare variants in these genes are prevalent causes of HCM. One variant, in a single case, was categorized as likely to be pathogenic. Over 99% of variants were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and 54% of cases had one or more VUS. CONCLUSION: For almost all genes, the gene-disease relationship could not be validated and lack of evidence precluded variant interpretation. Thus, the incremental diagnostic yield of extending testing was negligible, and would, we propose, be outweighed by problems that arise with a high rate of uninterpretable findings. These findings highlight the need for rigorous, evidence-based selection of genes for clinical test panels.

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