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1.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual and cisgender peers to smoke cigarettes. Family rejection has been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, few studies have examined whether SGM-specific family rejection is associated with cigarette smoking among SGM adolescents. METHOD: A non-probability sample of 11,005 SGM adolescents (M = 15.58, SD = 1.27) completed an online cross-sectional survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between SGM-specific family rejection, sociodemographic variables, and smoking. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of the sample currently smoked cigarettes. Pansexual, asexual, trans boys, and non-binary assigned female at birth adolescents had the highest SGM family rejection scores. In multivariable regression analyses, SGM-specific family rejection was independently associated with smoking after adjusting for covariates (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28). Family support (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73, 0.88) and experiencing violence (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.49, 1.82) were also associated with smoking in multivariable models. Adolescents who identified as bisexual versus gay/lesbian (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.21, 1.85) and trans boys versus cisgender girls (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.13, 3.71) had an increased odds of smoking. Those who disclosed their sexual orientation identity to most (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.45, 2.63) and all (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.21, 2.11) of their family/parents had increased odds of smoking. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the importance of attending to the role of SGM-specific family rejection and distinctions with SGM adolescents in tobacco prevention and smoking cessation efforts.

2.
LGBT Health ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985327

RESUMO

Purpose: Using representative school-based data and community-level primary data, we investigated how environmental factors (e.g., school and community climate) might be protective against substance use behaviors among a vulnerable population of adolescents. Methods: We analyzed a sample of 2678 sexual minority adolescents using a combination of student-level data (British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey) and primary community-level data (assessing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ]-specific community and school environments). Using multilevel logistic regression models, we examined associations between lifetime substance use (alcohol, illegal drugs, marijuana, nonmedical use of prescription drugs, and smoking) and community-level predictors (community and school LGBTQ supportiveness). Results: Above and beyond student characteristics (e.g., age and years living in Canada), sexual minority adolescents residing in communities with more LGBTQ supports (i.e., more supportive climates) had lower odds of lifetime illegal drug use (for boys and girls), marijuana use (for girls), and smoking (for girls). Specifically, in communities with more frequent LGBTQ events (such as Pride events), the odds of substance use among sexual minority adolescents living in those communities was lower compared with their counterparts living in communities with fewer LGBTQ supports. Conclusions: The availability of LGBTQ community-level organizations, events, and programs may serve as protective factors for substance use among sexual minority adolescents. In particular, LGBTQ-supportive community factors were negatively associated with substance use, which has important implications for our investment in community programs, laws, and organizations that advance the visibility and rights of LGBTQ people.

3.
LGBT Health ; 7(1): 37-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755811

RESUMO

Purpose: We examined how substance use differed as a function of sex assigned at birth and gender identity (cisgender, transgender, or nonbinary/genderqueer) by type of substance. We sought to test whether current gender identity and sex assigned at birth were key factors in substance use among a large contemporary sample that included transgender and nonbinary/genderqueer adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from a large national U.S. sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents (n = 11,129) collected between April and December 2017. Chi-square tests of independence were used to test whether substance use behaviors varied by sex assigned at birth and gender identity. A series of multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of substance use by sex assigned at birth and gender identity, as well as the interaction between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. Results: More than half of our sample reported lifetime alcohol use, and one-fourth of the sample reported lifetime marijuana use. Adolescents assigned male at birth had higher prevalence of substance use compared with adolescents assigned female at birth (AFAB). Multivariate models elucidated greater risk for most substance use outcomes for transgender adolescents compared with cisgender adolescents. We found significant interaction effects between gender identity and sex assigned at birth for recent alcohol use and lifetime and recent cigarette use among adolescents AFAB. Conclusions: These findings have implications for stakeholders who develop nationally representative surveys, researchers who examine substance use disparities among SGM adolescents, and mental health professionals who treat underage substance use among vulnerable populations.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 39-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606770

RESUMO

The HIV epidemic in the United States has disproportionately burdened Black men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in the South. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high demonstrated efficacy, uptake is low among Black MSM. We utilized a sample of 345 HIV-negative or unknown HIV status Black MSM from Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined the effects of sexual orientation and disclosure on PrEP awareness and use. Despite the majority of the sample reporting PrEP awareness (91%), few Black MSM in our sample had ever used PrEP (10%). Bisexual Black MSM were less likely to have been aware of PrEP compared to their same-gender loving/gay counterparts. Black MSM who had disclosed their sexual orientation to some or all of the members of their networks were more aware of PrEP compared to their counterparts who reported lower levels of disclosure, but were not more likely to actually use PrEP. Alarmingly, the gap in PrEP awareness and use has not decreased over the past 5 years. These findings suggest that disclosure may be a relevant characteristic to consider for PrEP awareness, but there may be more to consider in closing the awareness-uptake gap among Black MSM.

5.
J Behav Med ; 43(1): 34-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177373

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic stigma has served as a strong barrier to effectively delivering HIV prevention and treatment. Due in part to its complex nature, stigma is difficult to address and novel methods of understanding stigma are needed. Based on formative and empirical research with N = 236 primarily Black men living with HIV, a HIV microaggressions scale was developed and evaluated in order to assess this component of stigma. Factor analysis resulted in a 13-item scale (α = .83) with 3 subscales explaining 51% of the total variance. The microaggressions scale demonstrated convergent validity (with internalized, enacted, and anticipated stigmas) and discriminant validity (with social support). HIV microaggressions was associated with longer gaps since last care appointment and depressive symptoms, and subscales were associated with barriers to accessing health care, disclosure, and HIV care self-efficacy. The HIV microaggressions scale is a novel tool for assessing a critical subcomponent of stigma.

6.
Fam Community Health ; 43(1): 17-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764303

RESUMO

This study explored weight-based victimization by family members, accepting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) attitudes, and family connectedness, and how these experiences are associated with health, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ adolescents. Data came from the LGBTQ National Teen Survey (N = 9261, mean age = 15.6 years). The 3 key variables were significantly associated with poorer self-rated health, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. For example, weight-based victimization was associated with approximately 2 more points on the depressive symptoms scale (ß = 1.81, P < .001), adjusting for covariates. Findings highlight the negative impact of weight-based victimization among LGBTQ youth, even in the context of other types of family support.

7.
J Child Fam Stud ; 28(11): 3121-3131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649475

RESUMO

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents often report compromised relations with their families. Given the recent changes in societal attitudes toward LGB individuals, in respect to rights for marriage and other legal statuses, we explore whether or not there has been a change in how LGB and heterosexual adolescents perceive their family relations over time. Methods: Using the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey from British Columbia, Canada (N = 99,373; M age = 14.8), we investigated the trends and disparities in family connectedness and mother/father support in four data sets from 1998 to 2013. Results: We found that while levels of perceived family connectedness and parent support have increased for heterosexual adolescents since 1998, the same increases were not found for LGB adolescents. Among LGB participants, levels of perceived connectedness/support generally decreased in each survey waves, especially among females. Alarmingly, significant disparities in these perceptions remained for LGB youth over time. Conclusions: Our findings have implications for supportive interventions focused on LGB adolescents and their families and in particular, the role of father support.

8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2403-2417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605292

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual cisgender peers. At the same time, SGM youth experience sexuality- and gender identity-specific stressors known to exacerbate negative health outcomes. Though scholars have established a link between minority stressors (e.g., internalized stigma and victimization) and increased alcohol use for SGM youth as a whole, there is little indication of whether internalized stigma and victimization are more strongly associated with alcohol use for specific groups of SGM youth. A United States sample of 11,811 racially and geographically diverse 13-17 year old SGM youth was used to employ a series of gender-stratified multivariable regression models to examine the association among internalized stigma, victimization, and alcohol-related behaviors, and whether they differed for specific groups of sexual minority youth. Sexual orientation moderated several associations between sexual minority stressors (i.e., victimization and stigma) and youth's alcohol use (i.e., recent use and heavy episodic drinking) across models stratified by gender (i.e., male, female, and non-binary). For example, bisexual boys had stronger associations between SGM-specific victimization and alcohol use frequency and heavy episodic drinking relative to gay boys; conversely, victimization and alcohol use frequency were more weakly associated among bisexual girls relative to lesbian/gay girls. Pansexual girls showed weaker associations between internalized stigma and alcohol use frequency compared to lesbian/gay girls. This paper demonstrates who among SGM youth are more likely to engage in alcohol-related behaviors as a function of differential forms of SGM-related victimization and stigma. These findings can inform substance use interventions that are tailored to youth of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446582

RESUMO

Research has indicated that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning (LGBQ) adolescents have disproportionately high rates of substance use compared to heterosexual peers; yet certain features of schools and communities have been associated with lower substance use rates in this population. To advance this field, research examining multiple levels of influence using measures developed with youth input is needed. With community, school, and student data, this study tested hypotheses that LGBQ students attending high schools and living in communities with more LGBQ-supportive environments (assessed with a novel inventory tool) have lower odds of substance use behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, prescription drug misuse, and other drug use) than their peers in less supportive LGBQ environments. Multilevel models using data from 2454 LGBQ students (54.0% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic white) in 81 communities and adjusting for student and school covariates found that LGBQ adolescents who lived in areas with more community support had lower odds of frequent substance use, particularly among females. Expanding and strengthening community resources (e.g., LGBQ youth-serving organizations, LGBQ events such as a Pride parade, and LGBQ-friendly services) is recommended to further support LGBQ adolescents and reduce substance use disparities.

10.
J Sch Nurs ; : 1059840519863094, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337243

RESUMO

Research on enacted stigma, or stigma- and bias-based victimization, including bullying and harassment, among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth often focuses on one context (e.g., school) or one form (e.g., bullying or microaggressions), which limits our understanding of these experiences. We conducted qualitative go-along interviews with 66 LGBTQ adolescents (14-19 years) in urban, suburban, town, and rural locations in the United States and Canada identified through purposive and snowball sampling. Forty-six participants (70%) described at least one instance of enacted stigma. Three primary themes emerged: (1) enacted stigma occurred in many contexts; (2) enacted stigma restricted movement; and (3) second-hand accounts of enacted stigma shaped perceptions of safety. Efforts to improve well-being among LGBTQ youth must address the diverse forms and contexts of enacted stigma that youth experience, which limit freedom of movement and potential access to opportunities that encourage positive youth development. School nurses can play a critical role in reducing enacted stigma in schools and in collaboration with community partners.

11.
Appetite ; 141: 104321, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202917

RESUMO

Weight-based victimization (WBV) is a common form of bullying associated with maladaptive eating, and poor weight-related health. Although sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth experience a number of eating and weight-related health disparities, the link between WBV and these outcomes has not been investigated in this vulnerable population. Data came from the LGBTQ Teen Study, a national survey of SGM adolescents. Participants provided data to assess body mass index (BMI), WBV, sexual identity, gender identity, dieting, binge eating, eating to cope with stress, weight control behaviors, exercise, and stress (N = 9679). The sample was 66% White, with a mean age of 15.6 years; 58.5% had healthy weight, and 37.2% had overweight or obesity. Over half of participants reported WBV from family members and peers. WBV from family members was associated with maladaptive eating (i.e., binge-eating, unhealthy weight-control behaviors), dieting, and poor weight-related health (i.e., stress, exercise avoidance, less physical activity and poorer sleep); relationships remained significant after accounting for participants' age, BMI percentile for age and sex, race, gender identity, and sexual identity. Higher frequency of WBV at school, but not history of peer weight-based victimization, was associated with more maladaptive eating, dieting, and poorer weight-related health on all outcomes except physical activity. This is the first large-scale study that examined links between WBV, maladaptive eating behaviors, and weight-related health in SGM adolescents. These results suggest the need for increased awareness that WBV may play a role in maladaptive eating, and weight-related health of SGM youth, and may contribute to both elevated levels of eating disorders and obesity in this population.

12.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100905, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193847

RESUMO

Research at the intersection of substance use and protective factors among transgender youth is scarce; emerging evidence suggests high risk for substance use for transgender youth. We analyzed data from 323 transgender youth aged 14-18 (M age = 16.67) to investigate the extent that risk (enacted stigma) and protective factors (support from family, school, friends) were related to substance use (i.e., cannabis and tobacco use, binge drinking). Enacted stigma was linked to higher odds of substance use behaviors, family connectedness was related to lower levels of tobacco and cannabis use, and more than one protective factor significantly lowered the probability of engaging in substance use behaviors. Support from multiple sources may be differentially protective against substance use for transgender youth.

13.
Health Psychol ; 38(8): 727-737, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight-based victimization (WBV) involves being the target of intentional physical, verbal, or psychological harm because of one's body weight. Youth experience harmful health consequences from WBV, but this literature has neglected sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth, despite their high rates of overweight and obesity, and mental health problems. The present study assessed health behaviors (substance use), self-rated health, perceived control over stressors, depressive symptoms and self-esteem as a function of WBV in a large, national sample of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) adolescents. METHOD: Participants (N = 9,838, Mage = 15.6 years, SD = 1.26) completed a web-based battery of questionnaires examining victimization, health, family, and school experiences of LGBTQ adolescents in the United States. RESULTS: WBV was associated with increased odds of alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette use, independent of adolescents' age, race, body mass index (BMI), sexual identity, gender identity, caregiver education, and U.S. region. Frequency of WBV at school and weight teasing from family members were both consistently associated with lower self-rated health, lower perceived control over stressors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptom scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings present the first large-scale evidence of the relationship between WBV and adverse health behaviors in SGM youth. Sexual minority youth who experience WBV, especially from family members, may be vulnerable to adverse health behaviors and low perceived health, regardless of their BMI. These findings highlight the importance of considering WBV when examining health behaviors in LGBTQ youth, and increased awareness of these issues among health care professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
14.
Pediatrics ; 143(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender and gender nonbinary adolescents experience high rates of peer victimization, but the prevalence of sexual assault in this population has not been established. Some schools restrict transgender and nonbinary students from using restrooms and locker rooms that match their gender identity, with unknown effects on sexual assault risk. We tested whether these restrictions were associated with the 12-month prevalence of sexual assault victimization. METHODS: Survey responses were analyzed from 3673 transgender and nonbinary US adolescents in grades 7 through 12 who participated in the cross-sectional 2017 LGBTQ Teen Study. We estimated the association between school restroom and locker room restrictions and sexual assault, adjusting for potential social and behavioral confounders, using logistic regression. We also tested potential mediators. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of sexual assault was 26.5% among transgender boys, 27.0% among nonbinary youth assigned female at birth, 18.5% among transgender girls, and 17.6% among nonbinary youth assigned male at birth. Youth whose restroom and locker room use was restricted were more likely to experience sexual assault compared with those without restrictions, with risk ratios of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.52) in transgender boys, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.10-1.78) in nonbinary youth assigned female at birth, and 2.49 (95% CI: 1.11-4.28) in transgender girls. Restrictions were not associated with sexual assault among nonbinary youth assigned male at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be aware that sexual assault is highly prevalent in transgender and nonbinary youth and that restrictive school restroom and locker room policies may be associated with risk.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Toaletes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Transgênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/normas , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
15.
LGBT Health ; 6(5): 235-241, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140928

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth who are most vulnerable to tobacco use. Methods: We analyzed data from a national nonprobability sample of 11,192 SGM youth (ages 13-17). Age of cigarette initiation and current use were modeled using Cox proportional hazard and binomial regression. Sexual and gender identities were explanatory variables and the models were adjusted for ethnoracial identity and age. Results: Approximately 7% of the sample reported current smoking. Cisgender and transgender boys had higher odds of current smoking compared with cisgender and transgender girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.21). Pansexual-identified youth had higher odds of smoking (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) compared with gay/lesbian youth independent of gender identity. Pansexual-identified cisgender boys had the highest smoking prevalence (21.6%). Predicted probabilities were higher among transgender boys across all sexual identities, except asexual. The hazard of smoking at a younger age was greater for transgender boys compared with cisgender boys (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.43-1.94) as well as for bisexual (AHR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24) and pansexual (AHR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03-1.33) youth compared with those who identified as gay or lesbian. Conclusions: These findings suggest that transgender boys may be at higher risk for early and current cigarette use regardless of their sexual identity, whereas smoking varied more widely for youth across different sexual identities. The findings suggest that specific subgroups of SGM youth require focused attention in tobacco control research and practice.

16.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(7): e12514, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents with overweight and obesity are vulnerable to weight-based victimization. Research on weight-based victimization and sexual identity have been largely isolated from one another; little is known about the nature of weight-based victimization in sexual and gender minority (SGM: eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth. Our study is the first to examine the nature, extent, and sources of weight-based victimization in a large sample of SGM adolescents. METHODS: This study utilized data from the LGBTQ National Teen Survey, a comprehensive online survey assessing victimization, school experiences, health behaviors, and sexuality-specific experiences of SGM adolescents across the United States. The sample was composed of 9838 SGM adolescents (Mage  = 15.6 years). RESULTS: Across diverse sexual orientation and gender identity groups, 44% to 70% of adolescents reported weight-based teasing from family members, and 42% to 57% reported weight-based teasing from peers. Approximately one-third of adolescents reported these experiences from both family and peers. Weight-based victimization was prevalent across body weight categories, particularly at highest (obesity) and lowest (underweight) extremes. Moreover, weight-based victimization was prevalent across adolescents who endorsed established sexual identity labels (eg, gay, lesbian, bisexual) and emerging labels (eg, pansexual, asexual). CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based victimization, from family members and peers, is prevalent among SGM adolescents, across diverse body sizes and sexual and gender identities. Pediatric providers should be aware that SGM youth may be vulnerable to weight-based victimization, across diverse body sizes.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Família , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade Feminina , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Res Adolesc ; 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758906

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of identity exploration, and preliminary evidence indicates the ways adolescents are describing their sexual and gender identities (SOGI) are changing. A nuanced understanding of SOGI is necessary for valid assessment in developmental research. Current measures do not capture the diversity of emerging identities among young people. Our study analyzed a national sample of 17,112 sexual and gender minority adolescents (13-17 years) to better understand how identity labels are reported across sexual, gender, and ethnoracial minorities. Adolescents reported 26 distinct SOGI categories; 24% of adolescents utilized nontraditional SOGI labels, such as pansexual and nonbinary. These identifications varied significantly as a function of ethnoracial identity. Results have implications for how scholars conceptualize and measure SOGI among adolescents.

18.
SSM Popul Health ; 7: 100350, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723767

RESUMO

There is limited research on evaluating nonrandomized population health interventions. We aimed to introduce a new approach for assessing site-level longitudinal effects of population health interventions (SLEPHI) by innovatively applying multiple group multilevel (MG-ML) modeling to repeated cycles of cross-sectional data collected from different individuals of the same sites at different times, a design commonly employed in public health research. For illustration, we used this SLEPHI method to examine the influence of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) on school-level perceived safety among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual (HET) adolescents. Individual-level data of perceived school safety came from 1625 LGB students (67.4% female; mean age, 15.7 years) and 37,597 HET students (50.2% female; mean age, 15.4 years) attending Grades 7-12 in 135 schools, which participated in 3 British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys (BCAHS: 2003, 2008, 2013) in Canada. School-level data of GSA length since established were collected by telephone in 2008 and 2014. Nested MG-ML models suggested that after accounting for secular trend, cohort effects, measurement error, measurement equivalence, and student age, GSA length linearly related to increased school-level perceived safety among LGB students (b = 1.57, SE = 0.21, p < .001, ß = 0.32) and also among HET students (ß = 0.34 in 2003 & 2013, ß = 0.32 in 2008) although statistical differences between years for HET youth were likely due to the large sample size. By conducting MG-ML analysis on repeated cross-sectional surveys, this SLEPHI method accounted for many confounding factors and followed schools for a longer period than most longitudinal designs can follow individuals. Therefore, we drew a stronger conclusion than previous observational research about GSAs and LGB students' well-being. The SLEPHI method can be widely applied to other repeated cycles of cross-sectional data in public health research.

19.
Youth Soc ; 51(1): 30-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636819

RESUMO

Disparities in psychosocial adjustment have been identified for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, yet research that explores multiple sources of social support among subgroups of LGB youth is sparse. Social support theory is used as a framework to analyze the ways that different sources of support might promote better psychosocial adjustment for LGB youth. Data from a diverse sample among LGB youth (N = 835) were used to understand how social support from a close friend, teachers, classmates, and parents might be differently associated with depression and self-esteem. We found that parent support and its importance to the participant were consistently related to higher self-esteem and lower depression for all youth, except for lesbians for whom no forms of social support were associated with self-esteem. Teacher and classmate support influenced some subgroups more than others. These results provide parents, clinicians, and schools a roadmap to assist youth navigate supports.

20.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318820101, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599761

RESUMO

Internalized stigma undermines health among people diagnosed with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), yet limited research has examined how internalized stigma develops. Black gay and bisexual men ( n = 151) reported their race and sexual orientation internalized stigma once before HIV/STI diagnosis and their HIV/STI internalized stigma monthly for 1 year after HIV/STI diagnosis. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that race and sexual orientation internalized stigma before diagnosis were associated with greater HIV/STI internalized stigma after diagnosis. More research is needed to understand how internalized stigma develops, including within the context of other identities and broader environmental characteristics to inform intervention efforts.

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