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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203653

RESUMO

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) teachers have a central role in supporting young children's physical activity (PA) and overall development in the early years. However, the value of early childhood education teacher training (ECETT) programmes is not widely understood. This study aimed to investigate pre-service teachers' perceptions of perceived competence when (1) supporting a child's PA, (2) teaching PE, and (3) observing and assessing a child's motor skills and PA. These self-evaluations were compared with a range of individual, educational, and behavioural characteristics. Final-year Bachelor degree pre-service teachers (n = 274; 54%) from seven universities in Finland participated in the self-report questionnaire. The results of the linear regression models showed that the relevant PE studies and previous experiences of pre-service teachers predicted higher perceived competence of supporting a child's PA, teaching PE, and observing and assessing a child's motor skills and PA. Thus, the study findings demonstrated how teacher training could positively influence perceptions and attitudes to increase a person's perceived competence when implementing PE in the early years. Overall, results reinforce the importance of PE in ECETT, and the time devoted to this syllabus area should be maintained or increased.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Educação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Finlândia , Humanos , Percepção , Professores Escolares
2.
Pathology ; 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158180

RESUMO

In ruminants Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative organism of a chronic granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease called Johne's disease (JD). Some researchers have hypothesised that MAP is also associated with Crohn's disease (CD), an inflammatory bowel disease in humans that shares some histological features of JD. Despite numerous attempts to demonstrate causality by researchers, direct microbiological evidence of MAP involvement in CD remains elusive. Importantly, it has not been possible to reliably and reproducibly demonstrate mycobacteria in the tissue of CD patients. Past attempts to visualise mycobacteria in tissue may have been hampered by the use of stains optimised for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and the lack of reliable bacteriological culture media for both non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and cell-wall-deficient mycobacteria (CWDM). Here we describe a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining method for the demonstration of CWDM in resected tissue from patients with Crohn's disease, revealing the association of CWDM in situ with host tissue reactions, and posit this as a cause of the tissue inflammation. Using the ZN stain described we demonstrated the presence of CWDM in 18 out of 18 excised tissue samples from patients diagnosed as having Crohn's disease, and in zero samples out of 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls.

3.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(9): 765-771, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the distribution of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of fifth-grade students during school, leisure time, and physical education (PE) classes. Demographic, anthropometric, and PA data were collected from 17 representative Finnish schools. METHODS: To estimate the PA and sedentary time, participants (N = 592) wore wGT3X-BT ActiGraphs for 7 consecutive days. Comparisons were made between genders and different BMI groups. RESULTS: From the study sample, 43.7% met the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guidelines. Participants spent 62.2% of the day sedentary and 8.2% in moderate and vigorous activities. Boys performed more MVPA than girls, and girls were more sedentary during school days. Boys had more MVPA than girls in leisure time, but there were no differences in sedentary time. However, an examination of PA assessed during PE classes revealed no differences between boys and girls. Normal-weight boys engaged in more MVPA than overweight and obese boys. No differences were found for girls. CONCLUSIONS: The PE levels differ between different BMI groups in leisure time and during school but not during PE lessons. PA for overweight children should be targeted and compulsory PE time should be increased to achieve the PA guidelines.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes
4.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(2): 239-247, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191093

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations and enjoyment within Finnish physical education (PE) students. The participants of the study were 260 Grade 5 students (Mage=11.86, SD=0.28) and 242 Grade 8 students (Mage=14.93, SD=0.37) who completed a questionnaire prior to their regular PE classes. This cross-sectional study incorporated a multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM, path model) separately for Grade 5 and 8 students, using gender as a grouping value. Results indicated that among Grade 5 students autonomy was directly associated with enjoyment. In addition, there was an indirect path from autonomy to enjoyment via intrinsic regulation in the boys group, and an indirect path from relatedness to enjoyment via intrinsic regulation in the girls group. Among Grade 8 students, need for competence was directly associated with enjoyment for the boys. Results also revealed negative associations from autonomy to enjoyment via amotivation for the girls group, and via external regulation for the boys group. For both Grades 5 and 8 SEM revealed additional, gender specific associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of students' need satisfaction and autonomous motivation as factors that could facilitate enjoyable experiences in PE classes.


Assuntos
Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Prazer , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal
5.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(1): 85-90, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate cross-lagged associations of leaping skill and throwing-catching skills with objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) during school transition from upper primary (Grade 6) to lower secondary school (Grade 7). DESIGN: This study is a one-year prospective follow-up study within Finnish school settings. Students' MVPA, ST, leaping skill and throwing-catching skills were measured at Grade 6 and subsequently at Grade 7. METHODS: A sample of 336 students (163 girls, 173 boys; M age=12.0 years, SD=0.4 at Grade 6 participated in the study. Students' MVPA and ST were measured objectively by hip-worn accelerometers. Leaping skill was measured by 5-leaps test. Throwing and catching skills were measured by throwing-catching combination test. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling was conducted to evaluate the associations between MVPA, ST, leaping skill, and throwing-catching skills at Grade 6 and Grade 7. RESULTS: Results demonstrated three significant cross-lagged associations among girls: (1) leaping skill measured at Grade 6 was negatively associated with ST at Grade 7; (2) objectively measured MVPA at Grade 6 associated positively with leaping skill at Grade 7; and (3) throwing-catching skills measured at Grade 6 associated positively with leaping skill measured at Grade 7. There were no statistically significant cross-lagged associations between the study variables for the sample of boys. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that supporting opportunities for girls' engagement in both MVPA and leaping skill development activities during their primary school education is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1419, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883802

RESUMO

Absorption has been identified as readiness for experiences of deep involvement in the task. Conceptually, absorption is a key psychological construct, incorporating experiential, cognitive, and motivational components. Although, no operationalization of the construct has been provided to facilitate research in this area, the purpose of this research was the development and examination of the psychometric properties of a sport-specific measure of absorption that evolved from the use of the modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS; Jamieson, 2005) in mainstream psychology. The study aimed to provide evidence of the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the Measure of Absorption in Sport Contexts (MASCs). The psychometric examination included a calibration sample from Scotland and a cross-validation sample from Australia using a cross-sectional design. The item pool was developed based on existing items from the modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (Jamieson, 2005). The MODTAS items were reworded and translated into a sport context. The Scottish sample consisted of 292 participants and the Australian sample of 314 participants. Congeneric model testing and confirmatory factor analysis for both samples and multi-group invariance testing across samples was used. In the cross-validation sample the MASC subscales showed acceptable internal consistency and construct reliability (≥0.70). Excellent fit indices were found for the final 18-item, six-factor measure in the cross-validation sample, [Formula: see text] = 197.486, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.957; TLI = 0.945; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.044. Multi-group invariance testing revealed no differences in item meaning, except for two items. The MASC and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 showed moderate-to-strong positive correlations in both samples, r = 0.38, p < 0.001 and r = 0.42, p < 0.001, supporting the external validity of the MASC. This article provides initial evidence in support of the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the sport-specific measure of absorption. The MASC provides rich research opportunities in sport psychology that can enhance the theoretical understanding between absorption and related constructs and facilitate future intervention studies.

8.
J Sports Sci Med ; 16(3): 318-327, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912648

RESUMO

The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls' PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

9.
J Phys Act Health ; 14(6): 455-464, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study examined the effects of school-based program on students' self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical competence, and associated links to gender, grade, body mass index, and physical education assessments. METHODS: Participants were 240 middle school students (143 intervention, 97 control) from 3 small cities in North-East Finland. The intervention group received task-involving climate support in physical education classes and additional physical activities during school days across 1 year. RESULTS: The intervention group's physical competence increased, whereas the control group's competence remained stable across the period. However, physical activity levels were stable in both groups. The findings also showed that body mass index was negatively associated with physical competence and activity in the intervention group at the follow-up measure. Physical education assessments were positively related with only the baseline scores of physical competence in the intervention group. In contrast, the assessments had positive relationships with physical competence and activity of control group students. CONCLUSIONS: The present program was an effective protocol to increase student's perceptions of physical competence. Since the quantity of school physical education including recess activities cannot be dramatically increased, positive learning experiences should be provided, and thus, support perceptions of physical competence.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Eplasty ; 15: ic11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834692
11.
J Sch Health ; 85(2): 125-34, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the school-initiated physical activity program on secondary school students' self-reported physical activity. METHODS: The sample included 847 students (experimental condition school = 208, control school = 639) at the age of 12 to 14 years from northeast and central Finland. The program was conducted across 1 academic year and 2 measurement phases were carried out using self-report questionnaires in April 2011 and 2012. RESULTS: The findings highlighted that the program appeared to be effective as an approach to change the sharp decline in the pattern of Grade 7 students' self-reported physical activity across 1 school year. Specifically, change in the experimental condition students' self-reported physical activity was 13.4% higher compared the students in the control condition. CONCLUSION: On the basis of current findings, increased opportunities for school day physical activities have the potential to affect large number of students and are an efficient strategy for promoting regular physical activity.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Atividade Motora , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato
12.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 26(2): 267-272, mayo 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-121950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), which assesses cognitive and motivational functions of imagery use. METHOD: Participants were 361 athletes (234 male and 127 female) with a mean of age of 24.29 ± 7.76 yrs. Athletes were recruited from 31 sports across three competitive levels (i.e., regional, national, and international). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses of the 30-item five factor SIQ model revealed adequate fit to the data, c²(378) = 694.6, CFI = .91, TLI = .90, RMSEA= .05, SRMR= .05. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that athletes of higher competitive level reported significantly higher levels of cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide further support for the claim that the SIQ has a reproducible factor structure and internal consistency for measuring imagery use in Spanish athletes


ANTECEDENTES: la presente investigación describe las características psicométricas de la versión española del cuestionario sobre la práctica en imaginación en el deporte que evalúa funciones cognitivas y motivacionales del uso de la imaginación. MÉTODO: el estudio se realizó en una muestra de 361 deportistas (234 hombres y 127 mujeres) con una media de edad de 24.29 ± 7.76 años. Los deportistas competían en 31 modalidades a nivel regional, nacional o internacional. RESULTADOS: un análisis confirmatorio inicial representando un modelo de cinco factores mostró un buen ajuste a los datos, c²(378) = 694.6; CFI = .91; TLI = .90; RMSEA= .05; SRMR= .05). Un análisis de varianza multivariante indicó que los deportistas de mayor nivel competitivo utilizaban de forma significativa mayores niveles de las funciones cognitiva general y cognitiva específica de la imaginación. CONCLUSIONES: se demuestra evidencia empírica que indica que la versión española del cuestionario de la práctica en imaginación mantiene la estructural factorial original y una alta consistencia interna en deportistas españoles


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esportes/psicologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/organização & administração , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Dados/métodos
13.
Psicothema ; 26(2): 267-72, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), which assesses cognitive and motivational functions of imagery use. METHOD: Participants were 361 athletes (234 male and 127 female) with a mean of age of 24.29 ± 7.76 yrs. Athletes were recruited from 31 sports across three competitive levels (i.e., regional, national, and international). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses of the 30-item five factor SIQ model revealed adequate fit to the data, c²(378) = 694.6, CFI = .91, TLI = .90, RMSEA= .05, SRMR= .05. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that athletes of higher competitive level reported significantly higher levels of cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide further support for the claim that the SIQ has a reproducible factor structure and internal consistency for measuring imagery use in Spanish athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Psicometria , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Cognição , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Imaginação , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci Med ; 13(1): 137-44, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24570617

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key PointsThis study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories.The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the MCPES consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. Additionally, the results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions.The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate.Autonomy, social relatedness, and task climate were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego climate factor had low or negligible correlations with the other three factors.

15.
ANZ J Surg ; 83(6): 412-6, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23647783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining admission criteria to select candidates most likely to succeed in surgical training in Australia and New Zealand has been an imprecise art with little empirical evidence informing decisions. Selection to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons' Surgical Education and Training programme is based entirely on applicants' performance in structured curriculum vitae (CV), referees' reports and interviews. This retrospective review compared General Surgery (GS) trainees' performance in selection with subsequent performance in assessments during training. METHODS: Data from three cohorts of GS trainees were sourced. Scores for four selection items were compared with scores from six training assessments. Interrelationships within each of the sets of selection and assessment variables were determined. RESULTS: A single significant relationship was found between scores on the three selection tools. High scores in the CV did not correlate with higher scores in any subsequent assessments. The structured referee report score, multi-station interview score and total selection score all correlated with performance in subsequent work-based assessments and examinations. Direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) scores appear to reflect increasing acquisition of operative skills. Performance in mini clinical examinations (Mini-CEX) was variable, perhaps reflecting limitations of this assessment. Candidates who perform well in one examination tend to perform well in all three examinations. CONCLUSIONS: No selection tool demonstrated strong relationships with scores in all subsequent assessments; however referee reports, multi-station interviews and total selection scores are indicators for performance in particular assessments. This may engender confidence that candidates admitted into the GS training programme are likely to progress successfully through the programme.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Australásia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Sports Sci Med ; 11(2): 260-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24149199

RESUMO

The specific aim of this study was to examine whether motivational climate, perceived physical competence, and exercise motivation predict enjoyment in school physical education within the same sample of adolescents across three years of secondary school. A sample of 639 students (girls = 296, boys = 343) aged between 13- to 15-years at the commencement of the study completed the Intrinsic Motivation Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire, Physical Self-Perception Profile, Physical Education Motivation Scale, and Physical Education Enjoyment Scale. Results derived from path analyses indicated that task-involving motivational climate predicted enjoyment in physical education via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation in both girls and boys. In particular, these results supported previous findings of Vallerand et. al (1997) with the self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory. Ego-involving climate was not a significant predictor either in girls or boys. The current results provide continuing support for the investigation of Vallerand's model in the physical education setting, and highlight that motivational climate is an area that requires further evaluation as a contributing factor in the improvement of physical education teaching. A better understanding of the role of motivational climate may assist efforts to promote children's and adolescents' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment in the school physical education setting. Key pointsThe findings of the current study support existing suggestions of Vallerand's (1997) model in which social factors mediated by a psychological mediator, and exercise motivation are related to positive consequences in the PE context.Task-involving motivational climate predicted PE enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation with both girls and boys. Task-involving motivational climate in PE lessons at Grade 7 had a strong association with PE enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation at Grade 9 for both girls and boys.Ego-involving climate did not fit either the data for the girls or boys, as PE lessons based on ego-involving motivational climate did not significantly influence on the level of PE enjoyment.The results of the current study and previous practical findings support task-involving teaching methods to promote adolescent's PE enjoyment through secondary school years. School PE could be most effective if based on task-involving motivational climate, in which the main objective is increasing students' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment.

17.
Psychol Rep ; 108(1): 75-93, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21526593

RESUMO

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity.


Assuntos
Atitude , Atividade Motora , Grupo Associado , Educação Física e Treinamento , Psicologia do Adolescente , Facilitação Social , Valores Sociais , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Fatores Sexuais , Identificação Social
18.
Percept Mot Skills ; 111(1): 115-28, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21058593

RESUMO

To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.


Assuntos
Motivação , Atividade Motora , Destreza Motora , Educação Física e Treinamento , Equilíbrio Postural , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 108(1): 97-111, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19425451

RESUMO

To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/fisiologia
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 8(2): 259-64, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24149535

RESUMO

Substantial research exists in relation to the effect of fatigue on the cognitive skills of athletes. Very few studies in the sport domain, however, have investigated decision-making time and accuracy in relation to the discrimination of the speed of a moving object following exercise at maximal intensity. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted. The participants in the study were 163 males (M = 21.17, SD = 4.18) Estonian national level soccer (n = 79), basketball (n = 63) and volleyball (n = 21) players. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed during completion of an incremental exercise test on a treadmill. Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making time factor. A second MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making accuracy factor. The soccer group made a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = 0.015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy. The results showed that athletes' decision-making time decreased and decision-making errors increased after a maximal aerobic capacity exercise task. A comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of experienced basketball, volleyball and soccer players indicated that the only significant difference was for decision-making accuracy between the soccer and basketball groups. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster at the expense of accuracy when fatigued. Key pointsThe purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted.Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen that represented the frontal plane.The participants exercised on a treadmill to level of 100% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2max).Repeated measures MANOVA revealed significant main effects for both the decision-making time and accuracy factors. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster but with greater errors when fatigued.Post hoc analyses of the differences between the ball game sport groups indicated that soccer group participants reported a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = .015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy.Further investigations are required to clarify the equivocal set of previous findings regarding the relationship between the cognitive function of athletes at varying physical workload intensities.

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