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3.
Metabolism ; 107: 154221, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle containing apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) covalently linked to apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). Statin-treated patients with elevated Lp(a) have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Recent trials show that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition decreases Lp(a) and cardiovascular events, particularly in high risk patients with elevated Lp(a). We investigated the kinetic mechanism whereby alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, lowers Lp(a) in statin-treated patients with high Lp(a) and ASCVD. METHODS: The effects of 12-week alirocumab treatment (150 mg every 2 weeks) on apo(a) kinetics were studied in 21 patients with elevated Lp(a) concentration (>0.5 g/L). Apo(a) fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and production rate (PR) were determined using intravenous D3-leucine administration, mass spectrometry and compartmental modelling. All patients were on long-term statin treatment. RESULTS: Alirocumab significantly decreased plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (-39%), LDL-cholesterol (-67%), apoB (-56%), apo(a) (-25%) and Lp(a) (-22%) (P< 0.001 for all). Alirocumab also significantly lowered plasma apo(a) pool size (-26%, P <0.001) and increased the FCR of apo(a) (+28%, P< 0.001), but did not alter apo(a) PR, which remained significantly higher relative to a reference group of patients on statins with normal Lp(a) (P< 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In statin-treated patients, alirocumab lowers elevated plasma Lp(a) concentrations by accelerating the catabolism of Lp(a) particles. This may be consequent on marked upregulation of hepatic receptors (principally for LDL) and/or reduced competition between Lp(a) and LDL particles for these receptors; the mechanism could contribute to the benefit of PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab on cardiovascular outcomes.

4.
Pathology ; 52(4): 447-452, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276786

RESUMO

Rare genetic lipid disorders comprise all the monogenic disorders of lipoprotein metabolism with the exception of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). The creation and maintenance of patient registries is critical for disease monitoring, improving clinical best practice, facilitating research and enabling the development of novel therapeutics, but very few disease-specific rare genetic lipid disorder registries currently exist. Our aim was to design, develop and deploy a web-based patient registry for rare genetic lipid disorders. The Rare Genetic Lipid Disorders Registry is based on the FH Australasia Network (FHAN) Registry, which has been operating since 2015. The Rare Genetic Lipid Disorders Registry was deployed utilising the open-source Rare Disease Registry Framework (RDRF), which enables the efficient customisation and sustainable deployment of web-based registries. The Registry has been designed to capture longitudinal data on 13 rare genetic lipid disorders, with the ability to add more if required in the future. Recruitment of volunteers into the Registry is currently through the Royal Perth Hospital Lipid Disorders Clinic in Western Australia. Although in essence a clinic-based patient registry, the web-based design allows for expansion and distribution across Australia and beyond. Data collated by the Registry may ultimately improve the diagnosis, management and treatment of these conditions.

6.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(1)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous Australian research has shown that following the 21% increase in patient copayments for medications on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2005, the use of lipid-lowering therapy declined by 5%. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who continued, reduced or ceased their use of statin medication in 2005. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective observational study using routinely collected administrative data. METHOD: We used pharmaceutical claims, hospital separations and mortality records from 2000 to 2005 for the Western Australian population. The cohort comprised stable users of statin medication in 2004. Based on changes in statin use between 2004 and 2005, we identified individuals who: 1) continued using statins; 2) reduced their use by ≥20%; or 3) ceased therapy for at least the first 6 months in 2005. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine whether the demographic and clinical characteristics of the three groups differed. RESULTS: There were 205 924 statin users identified in Western Australia as of December 2004. After the January 2005 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) copayment increase, 3.2% of users ceased their regular statin therapy, 12.9% reduced statin use and 83.9% continued statin use. This represented a 2.1% increase in statin users reducing or ceasing therapy compared to 2004. Predictors of cessation and reduction of statin therapy included younger age, greater socio-economic disadvantage, residing in very remote areas, having general beneficiary status, being a new statin user, having no prior history of ischaemic heart disease, having no prior history of a coronary artery revascularisation procedure, taking no other cardiovascular medication or diabetic medication, taking an increased number of medications, and having a lower level of adherence to statin medication in 2004. CONCLUSION: Compared to 2004, an additional 2.1% of statin users reduced or discontinued medication use in 2005, which may be attributed to an increase in the medication copayment. Individuals with general beneficiary status, and younger and healthier people were at particular risk of cessation or reduction in statin use in 2005.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Duração da Terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(6): e015355, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172653

RESUMO

Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) concentration and the requirement for peripheral artery disease (PAD) operations or incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events. Methods and Results A total of 1472 people with PAD presenting with intermittent claudication (n=355), abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=989) or critical limb ischemia (n=128) were prospectively recruited from 4 outpatient clinics in Australia. Lp(a) was measured in serum samples collected at recruitment using an immunoassay. Participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 2.4 (0.1-6.1) years to record requirement for any PAD operation, defined to include any open or endovascular PAD intervention (lower limb peripheral revascularization, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, other aneurysm repair, or carotid artery revascularization). Myocardial infarctions, strokes, and deaths were also recorded. The association of Lp(a) with events was assessed using Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusting for traditional risk factors. Participants with Lp(a) ≥30 mg/dL had a greater requirement for any PAD operation (hazard ratio, 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.41) and lower limb peripheral revascularization alone (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI, 1.06-1.66) but no increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL and a 40 mg/dL increase in Lp(a) were also associated with an increased risk of lower limb peripheral revascularization alone but not with other outcomes. Conclusions In participants with PAD referred for hospital management those with high Lp(a) had greater requirement for lower limb peripheral revascularization but Lp(a) was not consistently associated with other clinical events.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 298: 52-57, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised by a high, but variable risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can be employed to assess subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We investigated the features and distribution of coronary artery plaques in asymptomatic patients with and without genetically confirmed heterozygous FH. METHODS: We undertook an aged-matched case-control study of asymptomatic phenotypic FH patients with (cases, M+) and without (controls, M-) an FH-causing mutation. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by CCTA and calcium scoring. Coronary segments were evaluated for global and vessel-level coronary plaques and degree of stenosis. RESULTS: We studied 104 cases and 104 controls (mean age 49.9 ± 10.4 years), who had a similar spectrum of non-cardiovascular risk factors. Pre-treatment plasma LDL-cholesterol was higher in the M+ than M- group (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001). There was a greater proportion of patients with mixed and calcified plaque, as well as a higher coronary artery calcium score and segment stenosis score (all p<0.05), in the M+ compared with the M- group. M+ patients also had a significantly higher frequency of coronary artery calcium in the left main and anterior descending and right coronary arteries (all p<0.05), but not in the left circumflex. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with phenotypic FH, those with a genetically confirmed diagnosis had a higher frequency and severity of coronary atherosclerotic plaques, and specifically more advanced calcified plaques.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5532-5541, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079724

RESUMO

The role of stromal fibroblasts in chronic inflammation is unfolding. In rheumatoid arthritis, leukocyte-derived cytokines TNF and IL-17A work together, activating fibroblasts to become a dominant source of the hallmark cytokine IL-6. However, IL-17A alone has minimal effect on fibroblasts. To identify key mediators of the synergistic response to TNF and IL-17A in human synovial fibroblasts, we performed time series, dose-response, and gene-silencing transcriptomics experiments. Here we show that in combination with TNF, IL-17A selectively induces a specific set of genes mediated by factors including cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) and IκBζ (NFKBIZ). In the promoters of CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL3, we found a putative CUX1-NF-κB binding motif not found elsewhere in the genome. CUX1 and NF-κB p65 mediate transcription of these genes independent of LIFR, STAT3, STAT4, and ELF3. Transcription of NFKBIZ, encoding the atypical IκB factor IκBζ, is IL-17A dose-dependent, and IκBζ only mediates the transcriptional response to TNF and IL-17A, but not to TNF alone. In fibroblasts, IL-17A response depends on CUX1 and IκBζ to engage the NF-κB complex to produce chemoattractants for neutrophil and monocyte recruitment.

10.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 35(3): 226-233, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097179

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the exception of familial hypercholesterolaemia, the value of genetic testing for managing dyslipidaemias is not established. We review the genetics of major dyslipidaemias in context of clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia is valuable to enhance diagnostic precision, cascade testing, risk prediction and the use of new medications. Hypertriglyceridaemia may be caused by rare recessive monogenic, or by polygenic, gene variants; genetic testing may be useful in the former, for which antisense therapy targeting apoC-III has been approved. Familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations, but there is no effective therapy. Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) is caused by polygenic variants for which there is no specific gene testing panel. Familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia is less frequent and commonly caused by APOE ε2ε2 homozygosity; as with FCHL, it is responsive to lifestyle modifications and statins or/and fibrates. Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a quantitative genetic trait whose value in risk prediction over-rides genetic testing; treatment relies on RNA therapeutics. SUMMARY: Genetic testing is not at present commonly available for managing dyslipidaemias. Rapidly advancing technology may presage wider use, but its worth will require demonstration of cost-effectiveness and a healthcare workforce trained in genomic medicine.

13.
J Lipid Res ; 61(4): 537-545, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060071

RESUMO

CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide, and genetic investigations into the human lipidome may provide insight into CVD risk. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of circulating lipid species and their genetic correlation with CVD traits. Targeted lipidomic profiling was performed on 4,492 participants from the Busselton Family Heart Study to quantify the major fatty acids of 596 lipid species from 33 classes. We estimated narrow-sense heritabilities of lipid species/classes and their genetic correlations with eight CVD traits: BMI, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, total cholesterol, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. We report heritabilities and genetic correlations of new lipid species/subclasses, including acylcarnitine (AC), ubiquinone, sulfatide, and oxidized cholesteryl esters. Over 99% of lipid species were significantly heritable (h2: 0.06-0.50) and all lipid classes were significantly heritable (h2: 0.14-0.50). The monohexosylceramide and AC classes had the highest median heritabilities (h2 = 0.43). The largest genetic correlation was between clinical triglycerides and total diacylglycerol (rg = 0.88). We observed novel positive genetic correlations between clinical triglycerides and phosphatidylglycerol species (rg: 0.64-0.82), and HDL-C and alkenylphosphatidylcholine species (rg: 0.45-0.74). Overall, 51% of the 4,768 lipid species-CVD trait genetic correlations were statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. This is the largest lipidomic study to address the heritability of lipids and their genetic correlation with CVD traits. Future work includes identifying putative causal genetic variants for lipid species and CVD using genome-wide SNP and whole-genome sequencing data.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 565-574, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor therapy is a treatment option for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who are unable to reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide long-term safety and efficacy data for evolocumab in patients with homozygous FH (HoFH) and severe heterozygous FH (HeFH). METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm study, patients with HoFH or severe HeFH ≥12 years of age and on stable lipid-lowering therapy began subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg monthly or 420 mg every 2 weeks if on lipoprotein apheresis. After 12 weeks, those not on apheresis could be up-titrated to 420 mg every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events; secondary endpoints were changes in LDL-C and other lipids. RESULTS: In total, 300 patients (106 with HoFH, including 14 <18 years of age at enrollment) received evolocumab for a median of 4.1 years. Adverse events occurred in 89.3% of patients, the most common of which were nasopharyngitis, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache. Mean change in LDL-C from baseline to week 12 was -21.2% (-59.8 mg/dl) in patients with HoFH and -54.9% (-104.4 mg/dl) in those with severe HeFH and was sustained over time. Of 48 patients with HoFH who were up-titrated, mean change in LDL-C improved from -19.6% at week 12 to -29.7% after 12 weeks of 420 mg every 2 weeks. The adjudicated cardiovascular event rate was 2.7% per year. Of 61 patients receiving apheresis at enrollment, 16 discontinued apheresis. CONCLUSIONS: Evolocumab was well tolerated and effectively reduced plasma LDL-C levels in patients with HoFH and severe HeFH over a median of 4.1 years.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 106, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919411

RESUMO

The antilipidemic drug, probucol (PB), has demonstrated potential applications in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) through its protective effects on pancreatic ß-cells. PB has poor solubility and bioavailability, and despite attempts to improve its oral delivery, none has shown dramatic improvements in absorption or antidiabetic effects. Preliminary data has shown potential benefits from bile acid co-encapsulation with PB. One bile acid has shown best potential improvement of PB oral delivery (ursodeoxycholic acid, UDCA). This study aimed to examine PB and UDCA microcapsules (with UDCA microcapsules serving as control) in terms of the microcapsules' morphology, biological effects ex vivo, and their hypoglycemic and antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. PBUDCA and UDCA microcapsules were examined in vitro (formulation studies), ex vivo and in vivo. PBUDCA microcapsules exerted positive effects on ß-cells viability at hyperglycemic state, and brought about hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects on the prediabetic mice. In conclusion, PBUDCA co-encapsulation have showed beneficial therapeutic impact of dual antioxidant-bile acid effects in diabetes treatment.

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 46-61, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928713

RESUMO

The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and calculated non-HDL cholesterol (=total - HDL cholesterol) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDL cholesterol is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDL cholesterol shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDL cholesterol and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDL cholesterol decline poorly upon statin treatment. Residual risk of ASCVD even under optimal LDL-lowering treatment should be also assessed by non-HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein B, especially in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (2-10 mmol/L). Non-HDL cholesterol includes the assessment of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and shall be reported in all standard lipid panels. Additional apolipoprotein B measurement can detect elevated LDL particle numbers often unidentified on the basis of LDL cholesterol alone. Reference intervals of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins are reported for European men and women aged 20-100 years. However, laboratories shall flag abnormal lipid values with reference to therapeutic decision thresholds.

17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974482

RESUMO

Optimal care for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) requires patient-centred management, multidisciplinary teamwork, involvement of primary care practitioners, patient networks, support groups and high-quality clinical registries, implemented through models of care adapted to FH. Models of care - evidence-based and context-specific frameworks that aim to deliver the highest quality of care for patients and their families - allow the application of precision and multidisciplinary medicine to FH care and can serve as paradigms for the prevention of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in all at-risk patients and families worldwide. The exponential growth in the number of publications on diverse aspects of FH has provided new knowledge for developing essential elements of existing models of care. These elements include clinical diagnostic criteria and genetic testing; risk restratification strategies; LDL-cholesterol treatment targets; management protocols for children; care of women in pregnancy; use of pharmacotherapies, including ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors; use of lipoprotein apheresis for severe FH; and addressing barriers to care. However, substantial gaps remain that need to be addressed by a broad research agenda, implementation strategies and global collaboration and advocacy, aimed at improving the uptake, cost-effectiveness and routine implementation of evidence-based standards. In this Review, we summarize the dramatic increase in knowledge that informs adaptive models of care, with an emphasis on articles published since 2014.

18.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(4): 619-633, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974028

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is caused by a major genetic defect in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) clearance pathway. Characterised by LDL-cholesterol elevation from birth, FH confers a significant risk for premature coronary artery disease (CAD) if overlooked and untreated. With risk exposure beginning at birth, early detection and intervention is crucial for the prevention of CAD. Lowering LDL-cholesterol with lifestyle and statin therapy can reduce the risk of CAD. However, most individuals with FH will not reach guideline recommended LDL-cholesterol targets. FH has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1:250 in the community. Multiple strategies are required for screening, diagnosing and treating FH. Recent publications on FH provide new data for developing models of care, including new therapies. This review provides an overview of FH and outlines some recent advances in the care of FH for the prevention of CAD in affected families. The future care of FH in Australia should be developed within the context of the National Health Genomics Policy Framework.

19.
Clin Genet ; 97(2): 257-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571196

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); however, risk prediction and stratification remain a challenge. Genetic risk scores (GRS) may have utility in identifying FH patients at high CAD risk. The study included 811 patients attending the lipid disorders clinic at Royal Perth Hospital with mutation-positive (n = 251) and mutation-negative (n = 560) FH. Patients were genotyped for a GRS previously associated with CAD. Associations between the GRS, clinical characteristics, and CAD were assessed using regression analyses. The average age of patients was 49.6 years, and 44.1% were male. The GRS was associated with increased odds of a CAD event in mutation-positive [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-8.2; P = .009] and mutation-negative FH patients (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0-3.3; P = .039) after adjusting for established predictors of CAD risk. The GRS was associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (P = .039). A high GRS was associated with CAD defined clinically and angiographically in FH patients. High GRS patients may benefit from more intensive management including lifestyle modification and aggressive lipid-lowering therapy. Further assessment of the utility of the GRS requires investigation in prospective cohorts, including its role in influencing the management of FH patients in the clinic.

20.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(4): 496-517, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855562

RESUMO

The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC), and calculated non-HDLC (=total - HDLC) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDLC is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDLC shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDLC and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDLC declines poorly upon statin treatment. Residual risk of ASCVD even under optimal LDL-lowering treatment should be also assessed by non-HDLC or apolipoprotein B (apoB), especially in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (2-10 mmol/L). Non-HDLC includes the assessment of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and shall be reported in all standard lipid panels. Additional apoB measurement can detect elevated LDL particle (LDLP) numbers often unidentified on the basis of LDLC alone. Reference intervals of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins are reported for European men and women aged 20-100 years. However, laboratories shall flag abnormal lipid values with reference to therapeutic decision thresholds.

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