Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 452
Filtrar
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 242: 112591, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630009

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition that predisposes patients to substantially increased risk of early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. FH risks can be minimized through regular participation in three self-management. BEHAVIORS: physical activity, healthy eating, and taking cholesterol lowering medication. OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the effectiveness of an integrated social cognition model in predicting intention to participate in the self-management behaviors in FH patients from seven countries. METHOD: Consecutive patients in FH clinics from Australia, Hong Kong, Brazil, Malaysia, Taiwan, China, and UK (total N = 726) completed measures of social cognitive beliefs about illness from the common sense model of self-regulation, beliefs about behaviors from the theory of planned behavior, and past behavior for the three self-management behaviors. RESULTS: Structural equation models indicated that beliefs about behaviors from the theory of planned behavior, namely, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, were consistent predictors of intention across samples and behaviors. By comparison, effects of beliefs about illness from the common sense model were smaller and trivial in size. Beliefs partially mediated past behavior effects on intention, although indirect effects of past behavior on intention were larger for physical activity relative to taking medication and healthy eating. Model constructs did not fully account for past behavior effects on intentions. Variability in the strength of the beliefs about behaviors was observed across samples and behaviors. CONCLUSION: Current findings outline the importance of beliefs about behaviors as predictors of FH self-management behaviors. Variability in the relative contribution of the beliefs across samples and behaviors highlights the imperative of identifying sample- and behavior-specific correlates of FH self-management behaviors.

3.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571196

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); however, risk prediction and stratification remain a challenge. Genetic risk scores (GRS) may have utility in identifying FH patients at high CAD risk. The study included 811 patients attending the lipid disorders clinic at Royal Perth Hospital with mutation-positive (n = 251) and mutation-negative (n = 560) FH. Patients were genotyped for a GRS previously associated with CAD. Associations between the GRS, clinical characteristics, and CAD were assessed using regression analyses. The average age of patients was 49.6 years, and 44.1% were male. The GRS was associated with increased odds of a CAD event in mutation-positive [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-8.2; P = .009] and mutation-negative FH patients (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0-3.3; P = .039) after adjusting for established predictors of CAD risk. The GRS was associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (P = .039). A high GRS was associated with CAD defined clinically and angiographically in FH patients. High GRS patients may benefit from more intensive management including lifestyle modification and aggressive lipid-lowering therapy. Further assessment of the utility of the GRS requires investigation in prospective cohorts, including its role in influencing the management of FH patients in the clinic.

4.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 30(6): 470-476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577608

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent data on the role of dyslipidaemia and the benefit from managing this in people with disease of the abdominal aorta and its peripheral branches (peripheral artery disease, PAD). RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial demonstrate the benefit of intensely lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) in people with PAD to substantially reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE; myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) and major adverse limb events (MALE). Despite the evidence of substantial benefits from lowering LDL-c, the uptake of drug therapies to lower LDL-c remains sub-optimal in people with PAD. SUMMARY: Effective methods to educate physicians and patients on best medical management are needed. Further research is needed to examine the benefit of LDL-c lowering and other lipid therapies for PAD-specific problems like abdominal aortic aneurysm progression and walking impairment. Other novel lipid therapies, such as those that lower lipoprotein (a), maybe particularly beneficial to people with PAD given the evidence indicating high concentrations in this population and the high incidence of MACE in these individuals.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6247-6255, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density lipoprotein‒like particle containing apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. Patients with elevated Lp(a), even when treated with statins, are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the kinetic basis for elevated Lp(a) in these patients. OBJECTIVES: Apo(a) production rate (PR) and fractional catabolic rate (FCR) were compared between statin-treated patients with and without elevated Lp(a). METHODS: The kinetics of apo(a) were investigated in 14 patients with elevated Lp(a) and 15 patients with normal Lp(a) levels matched for age, sex, and body mass index using stable isotope techniques and compartmental modeling. All 29 patients were on background statin treatment. Plasma apo(a) concentration was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The plasma concentration and PR of apo(a) were significantly higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) than in patients with normal Lp(a) concentration (all P < 0.01). The FCR of apo(a) was not significantly different between the groups. In univariate analysis, plasma concentration of apo(a) was significantly associated with apo(a) PR in both patient groups (r = 0.699 and r = 0.949, respectively; all P < 0.01). There was no significant association between plasma apo(a) concentration and FCR in either of the groups (r = 0.160 and r = -0.137, respectively). CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma Lp(a) concentration is a consequence of increased hepatic production of Lp(a) particles in these patients. Our findings provide a kinetic rationale for the use of therapies that target the synthesis of apo(a) and production of Lp(a) particles in patients with elevated Lp(a).

7.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 17(5): 515-537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309820

RESUMO

Postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia, defined as an increase in plasma triglyceride-containing lipoproteins following a fat meal, is a potential risk predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Several non-modifiable factors (genetics, age, sex and menopausal status) and lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, smoking status, obesity, alcohol and medication use) may influence postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia. This narrative review considers the studies published over the last decade that evaluated postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia. Additionally, the genetic determinants of postprandial plasma triglyceride levels, the types of meals for studying postprandial triglyceride response, and underlying conditions (e.g. familial dyslipidaemias, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver and chronic kidney disease) that are associated with postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are reviewed; therapeutic aspects are also considered.

8.
Public Health Genomics ; 22(1-2): 25-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that, if untreated, predisposes individuals to premature coronary heart disease. As most individuals with FH remain undiagnosed, new approaches to detection are needed and should be considered a priority in public health genomics. Universal screening of children for FH has been proposed, and this study explores public perspectives on the acceptability of this approach. METHODS: A one-day deliberative public forum was held in Perth, WA, Australia. Thirty randomly selected individuals were recruited, with self-reported sociodemographic characteristics used to obtain discursive representation. Participants were presented with information from a variety of perspectives and asked to discuss the information provided to identify points of consensus and disagreement. The data collected were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 17 participants at the forum, 16 deemed universal screening of children for FH to be acceptable. Fifteen of these 16 believed this was best performed at the time of an immunisation. Participants proposed a number of conditions that should be met to reduce the likelihood of unintended harm resulting from the screening process. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The outcomes of the forum suggest that establishing a universal screening programme for FH in childhood is acceptable to the general public in WA.

9.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(4): 608-617, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by extreme elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, accelerated coronary artery disease, and premature death. Aggressive LDL-lowering therapies are important for survival, but these are not available worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare and contrast cardiovascular outcomes and mortality of hoFH patients in 2 countries with disparate use of lipoprotein apheresis (LA) and modern therapies for lowering LDL cholesterol. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken comparing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free survival and mortality in 44 hoFH patients who were treated with statins but not LA, from a center in Beijing, China, and 18 hoFH patients who were treated with LA and novel therapies from an early age, from a center in Rome, Italy. RESULTS: CVD-free survival and survival were significantly reduced in Chinese patients compared with the Italian patients after 30 years of follow-up (log-rank P < .01). In a pooled analysis, cardiovascular survival was significantly increased with earlier age at treatment, longer duration of treatment, and lower on-treatment LDL cholesterol concentrations (P < .05). In addition, the probability of a CVD event and death were increased in patients that carried a null mutation in the LDLR or had elevated lipoprotein(a). CONCLUSIONS: We show that coronary artery disease outcomes in patients with hoFH can be significantly improved with earlier and potent LDL cholesterol lowering with pharmacotherapies and LA. This has major implications for countries, such as China, where the models of care for hoFH remains underdeveloped.

10.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1258-1266, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tools for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) rely on estimation of LDL cholesterol concentration. However, routine measurement or calculation of LDL cholesterol concentration using the Friedewald equation contains a cholesterol contribution from lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. We investigated whether Lp(a) influences the phenotypic diagnosis of FH by commonly used clinical criteria. METHODS: A cohort of 907 adult index patients attending a clinic were studied. The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) and Simon Broome (SB) diagnostic criteria were estimated before and after adjusting LDL cholesterol concentration for the cholesterol content (30%) of Lp(a). Diagnostic reclassification rates and area under the ROC (AUROC) curves in predicting an FH mutation were also compared. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients defined by DLCN criteria (8.2%) and 207 patients defined by SB criteria (22.8%) were reclassified to "unlikely" FH after adjusting LDL cholesterol for Lp(a) cholesterol. The proportion of FH patients defined by DLCN (probable/definite) and SB (possible/definite) criteria decreased significantly in patients with increased Lp(a) (>0.5 g/L; n = 330) after Lp(a) cholesterol adjustment (P < 0.01). The overall reclassification rate was significantly higher in patients with Lp(a) concentration >1.0 g/L (P < 0.001). The AUROC curve for LDL cholesterol concentration ≥191 mg/dL (≥5.0 mmol/L), DLCN criteria, and SB criteria in predicting an FH mutation increased significantly after adjustment (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in AUROC curve before and after Lp(a) cholesterol adjustment at an LDL cholesterol concentration ≥251 mg/dL (≥6.5 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting LDL cholesterol concentration for Lp(a) cholesterol improves the diagnostic accuracy of DLCN and SB criteria, especially with Lp(a) >1.0 g/L and LDL cholesterol <251 mg/dL (<6.5 mmol/L). Lp(a) should be measured in all patients suspected of having FH.

11.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 17(5): 498-514, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060488

RESUMO

Residual vascular risk exists despite the aggressive lowering of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C). A contributor to this residual risk may be elevated fasting, or non-fasting, levels of Triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, there is a need to establish whethe a standardised Oral Fat Tolerance Test (OFTT) can improve atherosclerotic Cardiovascular (CV) Disease (ASCVD) risk prediction in addition to a fasting or non-fasting lipid profile. An expert panel considered the role of postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia (as represented by an OFTT) in predicting ASCVD. The panel updated its 2011 statement by considering new studies and various patient categories. The recommendations are based on expert opinion since no strict endpoint trials have been performed. Individuals with fasting TG concentration <1 mmol/L (89 mg/dL) commonly do not have an abnormal response to an OFTT. In contrast, those with fasting TG concentration ≥2 mmol/L (175 mg/dL) or nonfasting ≥2.3 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) will usually have an abnormal response. We recommend considering postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia testing when fasting TG concentrations and non-fasting TG concentrations are 1-2 mmol/L (89-175 mg/dL) and 1.3-2.3 mmol/L (115-200 mg/dL), respectively as an additional investigation for metabolic risk prediction along with other risk factors (obesity, current tobacco abuse, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus). The panel proposes that an abnormal TG response to an OFTT (consisting of 75 g fat, 25 g carbohydrate and 10 g proteins) is >2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL). Postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia is an emerging factor that may contribute to residual CV risk. This possibility requires further research. A standardised OFTT will allow comparisons between investigational studies. We acknowledge that the OFTT will be mainly used for research to further clarify the role of TG in relation to CV risk. For routine practice, there is a considerable support for the use of a single non-fasting sample.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 928-942, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061532

RESUMO

To define the cell populations that drive joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), mass cytometry, bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometry to T cells, B cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts from 51 samples of synovial tissue from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Utilizing an integrated strategy based on canonical correlation analysis of 5,265 scRNA-seq profiles, we identified 18 unique cell populations. Combining mass cytometry and transcriptomics revealed cell states expanded in RA synovia: THY1(CD90)+HLA-DRAhi sublining fibroblasts, IL1B+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, ITGAX+TBX21+ autoimmune-associated B cells and PDCD1+ peripheral helper T (TPH) cells and follicular helper T (TFH) cells. We defined distinct subsets of CD8+ T cells characterized by GZMK+, GZMB+, and GNLY+ phenotypes. We mapped inflammatory mediators to their source cell populations; for example, we attributed IL6 expression to THY1+HLA-DRAhi fibroblasts and IL1B production to pro-inflammatory monocytes. These populations are potentially key mediators of RA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
13.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(10): 1571-1579, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104887

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have progressed from showing marked low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in early phase trials through to reducing cardiovascular events in large clinical outcome trials. Recently in Australia, the indication for evolocumab has been expanded to include both heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). With prices remaining high currently their use in non-familial hypercholesterolaemia in Australia remains by private prescription only at this stage. This manuscript summarises the major outcomes trials of the PCSK9 mAbs and the secondary analyses that have assessed their benefits in high risk patient groups, and describes the consensus of authors on which patients would most likely benefit from PCSK9 mAb therapy.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319845314, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060364

RESUMO

Despite the demonstrated benefits of statins and injectable biologics, there is a need for new and safe oral agents for addressing classical lipid targets, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). LDL-C is unquestionably causal in the development of atherogenesis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but new options are required to address triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a). For hypercholesterolaemia, pitavastatin provides a very low dose and potent statin that does not adversely affect glucose metabolism; bempedoic acid acts at a biochemical step preceding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and is not associated with muscular side effects. For hypertriglyceridaemia, pemafibrate displays a unique and selective agonist activity on peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-α that does not elevate homocysteine or creatinine. Although omega-3 fatty acids supplementation is not effective in secondary prevention, high dose eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester can lead to a remarkable fall in first and recurrent events in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridaemia/low HDL-C. Gemcabene, a dicarboxylic acid regulating apolipoprotein B-100, is effective in reducing both cholesterol and triglycerides. Among cholesteryl ester transfer protein antagonists that elevate HDL-C, only anacetrapib reduces cardiovascular events. Probucol stimulates reverse cholesteryl ester transport, lowers LDL-C stabilizing plaques and may lower incidence of cardiovascular events. These agents, which act through novel mechanisms, afford good and potentially safe treatment choices that may increase adherence and the attainment of therapeutic targets.

15.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(4): 580-585, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Niacin and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) both lower Lp(a). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine if addition of PCSK9i to background niacin therapy further lowers Lp(a). METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of patients who met the following inclusion criteria: initiated PCSK9i therapy, had Lp(a) measurements before and after initiation of PCSK9i, and for the combination therapy group, PCSK9i was added on top of baseline niacin monotherapy. Of the 150 patients included in this study, 136 were on monotherapy (PCSK9i) and 14 were on combination therapy (niacin + PCSK9i). Lp(a) values were assessed in both groups before and after the addition of PCSK9i. RESULTS: Median percent and absolute Lp(a) reductions in the niacin + PCSK9i combination therapy group were -15.3% (interquartile range [IQR] -31.8, -1) and -9 mg/dL (IQR -37.2, -0.5), respectively, from a baseline Lp(a) of 95 mg/dL (IQR 20.5, 171). These reductions were statistically significant or nearly so (P = .04 and P = .05, respectively). Median percent and absolute Lp(a) reductions in the PCSK9i monotherapy group were -17.3% (IQR -34.4, 0) and -6 mg/dL (IQR -16, 0), respectively, from a baseline Lp(a) of 39.5 mg/dL (IQR 15, 117.5). There was no difference in median percent and absolute change in Lp(a) between monotherapy and combination therapy groups (P = .84 and P = .54, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the addition of PCSK9i to background of niacin therapy is associated with ∼15% reduction in Lp(a) beyond that achieved with background niacin monotherapy.

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 286: 40-45, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may require proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) mAb as add-on therapy to achieve LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. However, the current cost of these therapies means that choosing suitable patients is based on consensus or clinical judgement rather than a quantitative risk assessment. We used the SAFEHEART Risk Equation (RE) to estimate the number needed to treat (NNT) at different risk thresholds and baseline LDL-C to identify those FH patients more likely to derive the greatest benefit from PCSK9 mAb. METHODS: Five-year event rates were calculated using the SAFEHEART-RE for every patient, overall and across LDL-C strata. A 60% reduction of LDL-C after theoretical treatment with PCSK9 mAb was assumed. Individual absolute risk simulating the effects of PCSK9 inhibition was calculated using the SAFEHEART-RE and, in a similar way, by using the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaboration criteria. Absolute risk reduction and NNTs were calculated. RESULTS: Of the total SAFEHEART population, 2,153 were FH cases aged 18 years or older, on maximum tolerated lipid lowering treatment. NNTs were dependent of both baseline predicted risk and baseline LDL-C level ranging from 44 to 17 for those with 5-year risk of ≥1 to ≥5. The smallest NNT (12) was observed among those with 5-year risk of ≥5% and LDL-C ≥160 mg/dl. Using the CTT criteria produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The SAFEHEART-RE may provide a useful quantitative tool for rationalising the selection of FH patients who might derive greater absolute benefits from PCSK9 mAb.

17.
19.
Metabolism ; 96: 8-11, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995439

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly atherogenic lipoprotein characterized by apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] covalently bounded to apoB-100 (apoB). However, the metabolism of apo(a) and apoB within plasma Lp(a) particles in patients on statins remains unclear. METHODS: The kinetics of Lp(a)-apo(a) and Lp(a)-apoB were determined in 20 patients with elevated Lp(a) (≥0.8 g/L; n = 10) and normal Lp(a) (≤0.3 g/L; n = 10) using stable isotope techniques and compartmental modeling. Plasma apo(a) concentration was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All patients were on statin therapy and were studied in the fasting state. RESULTS: The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp(a)-apo(a) was not significantly different from that of Lp(a)-apoB in statin-treated patients with elevated or normal Lp(a) (P > 0.05 in both). Lp(a)-apo(a) FCR was significantly correlated with Lp(a)-apoB in patients with elevated and normal Lp(a) concentrations (r = 0.970 and r = 0.979, respectively; all P < 0.001) with Lin's concordance test showing substantial agreement between the FCRs of Lp(a)-apo(a) and Lp(a)-apoB in patients with elevated and normal Lp(a) concentrations (rc = 0.978 and rc = 0.966, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the apo(a) and apoB proteins within Lp(a) particles have similar FCR and are therefore tightly coupled as an Lp(a) holoparticle in statin-treated patients with elevated and normal Lp(a) concentrations.

20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21 Suppl 1: 52-62, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002454

RESUMO

There is now significant evidence for the benefits of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Although statins are the most widely prescribed lipid-lowering therapy that effectively lower LDL-c, especially in combination with ezetimibe, some patients require adjunctive therapy to further lower LDL-c and mitigate attendant risk of ASCVD. The gap can be filled by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies whose use is currently supported by two recent cardiovascular outcome studies and new treatment guidelines. We provide an overview of extant studies investigating PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies in various patient populations, an update of the guidelines regarding their use and a case-based discussion.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA