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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369089

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism with oral calcium and active vitamin D is aimed at correcting hypocalcemia but does not address other physiologic defects caused by deficiency of parathyroid hormone (PTH). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term safety and tolerability of recombinant human PTH(1-84) (rhPTH[1-84]). DESIGN: Open-label extension study; 5-year interim analysis. SETTING: 12 US centers. PATIENTS: Adults (N=49) with chronic hypoparathyroidism. INTERVENTION(S): Patients initially received rhPTH(1-84) 25 or 50 µg/day, with 25-µg adjustments permitted to 100 µg/day maximum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Safety parameters; composite efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in oral calcium (or ≤500 mg/day) and calcitriol (or ≤0.25 µg/day) doses, and albumin-corrected serum calcium normalized or maintained compared with baseline, not exceeding upper limit of normal. RESULTS: Forty patients completed 60 months of treatment. Mean albumin-corrected serum calcium remained between 8.2 and 8.7 mg/dL. Between baseline and Month 60, urinary calcium decreased by 101.2±236.24 mg/24 hours, serum phosphorus decreased by 1.0±0.78 mg/dL, and calcium-phosphorus product decreased by 8.5±8.29 mg2/dL2. Serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were unchanged. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported in 48 patients (98.0%; hypocalcemia, 36.7%; muscle spasms, 32.7%; paresthesia, 30.6%; sinusitis, 30.6%; nausea, 30.6%) and serious AEs in 13 (26.5%). At Month 60, 28/40 patients (70.0%) achieved the composite efficacy outcome. Bone turnover markers increased, peaked at approximately 12 months, and then declined to values that remained above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with rhPTH(1-84) for 5 years demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies and improved key biochemical parameters.

2.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399845

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An increased risk of fracture with canagliflozin vs placebo was reported from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, with heterogeneity of findings identified between the two trials that comprise the CANVAS Program, CANVAS and CANVAS-R. The objective of these analyses was to identify reasons for the possibly different effects on fracture observed between CANVAS and CANVAS-R. METHODS: This study was an analysis of two highly similar trials, CANVAS and CANVAS-R, conducted in 10,142 individuals with type 2 diabetes and history or high risk of cardiovascular disease who received canagliflozin (pooled 100/300 mg once daily) or placebo. Outcomes assessed in this analysis were effects on adjudicated fractures overall and by type, location, association with a fall, dose and follow-up time. RESULTS: A total of 496 participants recorded ≥1 fracture event during follow-up (15.40 vs 11.93 per 1000 patient-years with canagliflozin vs placebo; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.04, 1.52]). There was significant heterogeneity in the effects on fracture (p = 0.005) between CANVAS (n = 4330: HR 1.55 [95% CI 1.21, 1.97]) and CANVAS-R (n = 5812: HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.62, 1.19]). The between-study heterogeneity in fracture risk was not clearly explained by differences in baseline characteristics, interactions of randomised treatment with participant characteristics, dose effects, duration of follow-up, metabolic effects, adverse events related to falls or adverse events possibly causing falls. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence to explain clearly the fracture risk observed in the CANVAS Program or the heterogeneity in fracture risk between the two studies. The recently reported null result for fracture in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial suggests that the observed association in CANVAS is likely to be a chance finding, although an unidentified fall-related mechanism remains a possibility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032629, NCT01989754.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2443-2452, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759221

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Antiresorptive therapy has been associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), an infrequent but potentially serious adverse event. OBJECTIVE: To assess information on invasive oral procedures and events (OPEs)-dental implants, tooth extraction, natural tooth loss, scaling/root planing, and jaw surgery-during the 7-year Fracture REduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis every 6 Months (FREEDOM) Extension study and to present details of positively adjudicated ONJ cases. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-year trial (FREEDOM) followed by 7 years of open-label denosumab (FREEDOM Extension). At Extension Year 3, women were asked to record their history of invasive OPEs since the start of the Extension to Year 2.5 and oral events in the prior 6 months. The questionnaire was then administered every 6 months until the end of the Extension. SETTING: Multicenter, multinational clinical trial. PATIENTS: Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. INTERVENTIONS: Subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg or placebo every 6 months for 3 years, then 7 years of open-label denosumab. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reports of OPEs and adjudicated cases of ONJ. RESULTS: Of respondents, 45.1% reported at least one invasive OPE. The exposure-adjusted ONJ rate in FREEDOM Extension was 5.2 per 10,000 person-years. ONJ incidence was higher in those reporting an OPE (0.68%) than not (0.05%). CONCLUSIONS: Although invasive OPEs were common in these denosumab-treated women and were associated with an increased ONJ incidence, the overall rate of ONJ was low, and all cases with complete follow-up resolved with treatment.

4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate elagolix, an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist, alone or with add-back therapy, in premenopausal women with heavy menstrual bleeding (greater than 80 mL per month) associated with uterine leiomyomas. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated efficacy and safety of elagolix in cohorts 1 (300 mg twice daily) and 2 (600 mg daily) with four arms per cohort: placebo, elagolix alone, elagolix with 0.5 mg estradiol/0.1 norethindrone acetate, and elagolix with 1.0 mg estradiol/0.5 mg norethindrone acetate. A sample size of 65 per group was planned to compare elagolix with add-back to placebo on the primary end point: the percentage of women who had less than 80 mL menstrual blood loss and 50% or greater reduction in menstrual blood loss from baseline to the last 28 days of treatment. Safety assessments included changes in bone mineral density. RESULTS: From April 8, 2013, to December 8, 2015, 571 women were enrolled, 567 were randomized and treated (cohort 1=259; cohort 2=308), and 80% and 75% completed treatment, respectively. Participants had a mean±SD age of 43±5 years (cohort 2, 42±5 years), and 70% were black (cohort 2, 74%). Primary end point responder rates in cohort 1 (cohort 2) were 92% (90%) for elagolix alone, 85% (73%) for elagolix with 0.5 mg estradiol/0.1 mg norethindrone acetate, 79% (82%) for elagolix with 1.0 mg estradiol/0.5 mg norethindrone acetate, and 27% (32%) for placebo (all P<.001 vs placebo). Elagolix groups had significant decreases compared with placebo in lumbar spine bone mineral density, which was attenuated by adding 1.0 mg estradiol/0.5 mg norethindrone acetate. CONCLUSION: Elagolix with and without add-back significantly reduced menstrual blood loss in women with uterine leiomyomas. Add-back therapy reduced hypoestrogenic effects on bone mineral density. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01817530; EU Clinical Trial Register, 2013-000082-37.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 132(1): 147-160, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of elagolix, an oral, nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, over 12 months in women with endometriosis-associated pain. METHODS: Elaris Endometriosis (EM)-III and -IV were extension studies that evaluated an additional 6 months of treatment after two 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials (12 continuous treatment months) with two elagolix doses (150 mg once daily and 200 mg twice daily). Coprimary efficacy endpoints were the proportion of responders (clinically meaningful pain reduction and stable or decreased rescue analgesic use) based on average monthly dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pelvic pain scores. Safety assessments included adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, and endometrial and bone mineral density assessments. The power of Elaris EM-III and -IV was based on the comparison to placebo in Elaris EM-I and -II with an expected 25% dropout rate. RESULTS: Between December 28, 2012, and October 31, 2014 (Elaris EM-III), and between May 27, 2014, and January 6, 2016 (Elaris EM-IV), 569 participants were enrolled. After 12 months of treatment, Elaris EM-III responder rates for dysmenorrhea were 52.1% at 150 mg once daily (Elaris EM-IV=50.8%) and 78.1% at 200 mg twice daily (Elaris EM-IV=75.9%). Elaris EM-III nonmenstrual pelvic pain responder rates were 67.8% at 150 mg once daily (Elaris EM-IV=66.4%) and 69.1% at 200 mg twice daily (Elaris EM-IV=67.2%). After 12 months of treatment, Elaris EM-III dyspareunia responder rates were 45.2% at 150 mg once daily (Elaris EM-IV=45.9%) and 60.0% at 200 mg twice daily (Elaris EM-IV=58.1%). Hot flush was the most common adverse event. Decreases from baseline in bone mineral density and increases from baseline in lipids were observed after 12 months of treatment. There were no adverse endometrial findings. CONCLUSION: Long-term elagolix treatment provided sustained reductions in dysmenorrhea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. The safety was consistent with reduced estrogen levels and no new safety concerns were associated with long-term elagolix use. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01760954 and NCT02143713.

7.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 27(9): 1093-1096, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29583083

RESUMO

In postmenopausal women, osteoporotic fractures are more common than stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer combined, and fractures can be costly and result in disability or death. Because there are no signs or symptoms of osteoporosis other than fracture, risk assessment is necessary to identify those at higher risk for clinical events. For women, a clinical fracture risk assessment (FRAX) is appropriate at menopause. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is recommended for women at age 65, and earlier for those who have risk factors. Adequate calcium, vitamin D, and weight-bearing exercise are important for bone health at all ages, and those at high risk for fracture based on BMD or FRAX should be offered medical therapy to reduce fracture risk after an appropriate medical evaluation. Bisphosphonates can accumulate in bone, so after a period of treatment, lower risk patients may be offered a period off drug therapy. However, the effects of denosumab are not sustained when treatment is discontinued, so there is no "drug holiday" with denosumab. Anabolic therapy can be offered to those with higher risk for fracture. Although rare safety concerns regarding atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw have received prominent attention, for patients who are appropriately treated according to National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines, the benefit of hip fracture risk reduction far outweighs the risk of these uncommon side effects. Accurate information for patients and shared decision-making are important for acceptance and persistent with appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 33, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564735

RESUMO

Studies examining real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies are beset by limitations due to confounding by indication. By evaluating longitudinal changes in fracture incidence, we demonstrated that osteoporosis therapies are effective in reducing fracture risk in real-world practice settings. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis therapies have been shown to reduce incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. However, information on the real-world effectiveness of these therapies is limited. METHODS: We examined fracture risk reduction in older, post-menopausal women treated with osteoporosis therapies. Using Medicare claims, we identified 1,278,296 women age ≥ 65 years treated with zoledronic acid, oral bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, or raloxifene. Fracture incidence rates before and after treatment initiation were described to understand patients' fracture risk profile, and fracture reduction effectiveness of each therapy was evaluated as a longitudinal change in incidence rates. RESULTS: Fracture incidence rates increased during the period leading up to treatment initiation and were highest in the 3-month period most proximal to treatment initiation. Fracture incidence rates following treatment initiation were significantly lower than before treatment initiation. Compared with the 12-month pre-index period, there were reductions in clinical vertebral fractures for denosumab (45%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 39-51%), zoledronic acid (50%; 95% CI 47-52%), oral bisphosphonates (24%; 95% CI 22-26%), and teriparatide (72%; 95% CI 69-75%) during the subsequent 12 months. Relative to the first 3 months after initiation, clinical vertebral fractures were reduced for denosumab (51%; 95% CI 42-59%), zoledronic acid (25%; 95% CI 17-32%), oral bisphosphonates (23%; 95% CI 20-26%), and teriparatide (64%; 95% CI 58-69%) during the subsequent 12 months. CONCLUSION: In summary, reductions in fracture incidence over time were observed in cohorts of patients treated with osteoporosis therapies.

9.
Endocr Pract ; 24(5): 405-410, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The most common adverse reaction to zoledronic acid (ZOL) infusion is the acute phase reaction (APR), characterized by transient, usually mild, flu-like symptoms. Previous treatment with oral amino-bisphosphonates (BPs) was reported as an independent protective factor for APR, and an association between APR and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in BP-naïve patients treated with ZOL was identified. The aims of our study were to confirm this association and to see if it was different in patients previously treated with oral BPs compared with BP-naïve patients and to investigate the role of 25(OH)D for the time of APR onset. METHODS: We included 153 consecutive patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis undergoing their first ZOL infusion. Sixty-eight had been previously treated with oral BPs. Clinical, demographic, and serologic data were recorded. RESULTS: 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients experiencing APR compared to patients without APR (26.3 ± 12.7 vs. 37.0 ± 13.5 ng/mL, respectively; P<.0001). Patients with 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL had a significantly higher risk of APR (odds ratio [OR] 4.2 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-8.2]) occurring in 65%. APR was significantly less frequent in patients previously treated with oral BPs than in BP-naïve subjects (33.8% [23/68] vs 52.9% [45/85], P = .018), but only a weak association remained after correction for 25(OH)D (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, P = .08). CONCLUSION: Higher baseline 25(OH)D levels appear to be protective for APR post-ZOL infusion. The role of previous treatment with oral BPs as an independent protective factor for APR should be evaluated in a larger cohort. ABBREVIATIONS: APR = acute phase reaction; BPs = amino-bisphosphonates; CI = confidence interval; 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxyvitamin D; OP = osteoporosis; OR = odds ratio; PTH = parathyroid hormone; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; ZOL = zoledronic acid.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Vitamina D/sangue , Ácido Zoledrônico
10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(5): 763-772, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377378

RESUMO

Osteoporosis treatment rates are declining, even among those with past fractures. Novel, low-cost approaches are needed to improve osteoporosis care. We conducted a parallel group, controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating a behavioral intervention for improving osteoporosis medication use. A total of 2684 women with self-reported fracture history after age 45 years not using osteoporosis therapy from US Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) sites were randomized 1:1 to receive a multimodal, tailored, direct-to-patient, video intervention versus usual care. The primary study outcome was self-report of osteoporosis medication use at 6 months. Other outcomes included calcium and vitamin D supplementation, bone mineral density (BMD) testing, readiness for behavioral change, and barriers to treatment. In intent-to-treat analyses, there were no significant differences between groups (intervention versus control) in osteoporosis medication use (11.7% versus 11.4%, p = 0.8), calcium supplementation (31.8% versus 32.6%, p = 0.7), vitamin D intake (41.3% versus 41.9%, p = 0.8), or BMD testing (61.8% versus 57.1%, p = 0.2). In the intervention group, fewer women were in the precontemplative stage of behavior change, more women reported seeing their primary care provider, had concerns regarding osteonecrosis of the jaw, and difficulty in taking/remembering to take osteoporosis medications. We found differences in BMD testing among the subgroup of women with no prior osteoporosis treatment, those who provided contact information, and those with no past BMD testing. In per protocol analyses, women with appreciable exposure to the online intervention (n = 257) were more likely to start nonbisphosphonates (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-5.79) compared with the usual care group. Although our intervention did not increase the use of osteoporosis therapy at 6 months, it increased nonbisphosphonate medication use and BMD testing in select subgroups, shifted participants' readiness for behavior change, and altered perceptions of barriers to osteoporosis treatment. Achieving changes in osteoporosis care using patient activation approaches alone is challenging. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 377(1): 28-40, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent condition that causes dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. Elagolix, an oral, nonpeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, produced partial to nearly full estrogen suppression in previous studies. METHODS: We performed two similar, double-blind, randomized, 6-month phase 3 trials (Elaris Endometriosis I and II [EM-I and EM-II]) to evaluate the effects of two doses of elagolix - 150 mg once daily (lower-dose group) and 200 mg twice daily (higher-dose group) - as compared with placebo in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis and moderate or severe endometriosis-associated pain. The two primary efficacy end points were the proportion of women who had a clinical response with respect to dysmenorrhea and the proportion who had a clinical response with respect to nonmenstrual pelvic pain at 3 months. Each of these end points was measured as a clinically meaningful reduction in the pain score and a decreased or stable use of rescue analgesic agents, as recorded in a daily electronic diary. RESULTS: A total of 872 women underwent randomization in Elaris EM-I and 817 in Elaris EM-II; of these women, 653 (74.9%) and 632 (77.4%), respectively, completed the intervention. At 3 months, a significantly greater proportion of women who received each elagolix dose met the clinical response criteria for the two primary end points than did those who received placebo. In Elaris EM-I, the percentage of women who had a clinical response with respect to dysmenorrhea was 46.4% in the lower-dose elagolix group and 75.8% in the higher-dose elagolix group, as compared with 19.6% in the placebo group; in Elaris EM-II, the corresponding percentages were 43.4% and 72.4%, as compared with 22.7% (P<0.001 for all comparisons). In Elaris EM-I, the percentage of women who had a clinical response with respect to nonmenstrual pelvic pain was 50.4% in the lower-dose elagolix group and 54.5% in the higher-dose elagolix group, as compared with 36.5% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for all comparisons); in Elaris EM-II, the corresponding percentages were 49.8% and 57.8%, as compared with 36.5% (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The responses with respect to dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pelvic pain were sustained at 6 months. Women who received elagolix had higher rates of hot flushes (mostly mild or moderate), higher levels of serum lipids, and greater decreases from baseline in bone mineral density than did those who received placebo; there were no adverse endometrial findings. CONCLUSIONS: Both higher and lower doses of elagolix were effective in improving dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pelvic pain during a 6-month period in women with endometriosis-associated pain. The two doses of elagolix were associated with hypoestrogenic adverse effects. (Funded by AbbVie; Elaris EM-I and EM-II ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01620528 and NCT01931670 .).


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/administração & dosagem , Dor Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Dismenorreia/etiologia , Endometriose/complicações , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fogachos/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Pré-Menopausa , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(7): 1481-1485, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277603

RESUMO

Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) that decreases osteoclast formation, function and survival, and is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fracture, among other indications. During the pivotal 3-year fracture trial FREEDOM, denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months significantly reduced new vertebral (68%), hip (40%), and nonvertebral (20%) fractures; increased bone mineral density (BMD); and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Questions have arisen regarding imbalances of certain low-frequency adverse events (AEs) observed in FREEDOM, as well as the top 5 most frequent adverse reactions listed in the United States prescribing information (USPI; back pain, pain in extremity, musculoskeletal pain, hypercholesterolemia, and cystitis). We examined the incidences of these AEs in women who originally received placebo during FREEDOM and then received denosumab for up to 3 years during the FREEDOM Extension (Crossover Group). This provided a unique opportunity for comparison with the original 3-year denosumab FREEDOM observations. We also examined the incidences of these AEs over 6 years of denosumab treatment (Long-term Group; ie, comparing a second 3 years of treatment with findings in the first 3 years). There was no indication of increasing trends regarding the imbalances of either low-frequency AEs or common AEs observed in FREEDOM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(5): 1027-1033, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28071822

RESUMO

If oversuppression of bone turnover explained the association between bisphosphonate use and atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures (AFF), this could be reversed with anabolic treatment such as teriparatide. We conducted a prospective, open-label study in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates who sustained AFF, examining the response to 24-month treatment with teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), bone turnover markers (BTM), and fracture healing as well as quantitative histomorphometry. We studied 14 patients. Baseline BMD, BTM, and TBS varied widely. On initial bone biopsies, 12 of 14 patients showed tetracycline labels, but mineralizing surface/bone surface was below published normal values in all but 2. Lumbar spine BMD increased significantly at month 24 (6.1% ± 4.3%, p < 0.05 versus baseline), whereas total hip BMD and TBS did not change significantly. Changes in BTM occurred as reported previously for patients without AFF treated with teriparatide after prior bisphosphonate treatment. At month 24, fractures were healed in 6 patients, showed partial healing in 3, were unchanged in 2, and showed nonunion in 1. In a patient with two fractures, the fracture that occurred before teriparatide treatment was reported as healed, but the fracture that occurred while on treatment showed only partial healing. Bisphosphonate-treated patients who sustain AFF show heterogeneity of bone turnover. Treatment with teriparatide resulted in increases in BTM and lumbar spine BMD, as has been reported for patients without AFF. There was no significant effect of teriparatide on hip BMD, mineralizing surface to bone surface (MS/BS), or TBS and no consistent effect on fracture healing. In the context of a patient who has experienced an AFF after receiving bisphosphonate treatment, therapy with teriparatide for 24 months would be expected to increase BMD and BTM (and probably reduce the risk of fractures resulting from osteoporosis) but should not be relied on to aid in healing of the AFF. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/sangue , Fraturas do Fêmur/terapia , Teriparatida/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(1): 302-308, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27820659

RESUMO

Context: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy (HT) trials showed protection against hip and total fractures, but a later observational report suggested loss of benefit and a rebound increased risk after cessation of HT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine fractures after discontinuation of HT. Design and Setting: Two placebo-controlled randomized trials served as the study setting. Patients: Study patients included WHI participants (N = 15,187) who continued active HT or placebo through the intervention period and who did not take HT in the postintervention period. Interventions: Trial interventions included conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in naturally menopausal women and CEE alone in women with prior hysterectomy. Main Outcome Measures: Total fractures and hip fractures through 5 years after discontinuation of HT were recorded. Results: Hip fractures were infrequent (∼2.5 per 1000 person-years); this finding was similar between trials and in former HT and placebo groups. There was no difference in total fractures in the CEE + MPA trial for former HT vs former placebo users (28.9 per 1000 person-years and 29.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.09; P = 0.63); however, in the CEE-alone trial, total fractures were higher in former placebo users (36.9 per 1000 person-years) compared with the former active group (31.1 per 1000 person-years), a finding that was suggestive of a residual benefit of CEE against total fractures (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P = 0.03). Conclusions: We found no evidence for increased fracture risk, either sustained or transient, for former HT users compared with former placebo users after stopping HT. There was residual benefit for total fractures in former HT users from the CEE-alone study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Saúde da Mulher
15.
J Clin Densitom ; 20(1): 8-24, 2017 Jan - Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956123

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been associated with antiresorptive therapy in both oncology and osteoporosis patients. This debilitating condition is very rare and advances in diagnosis and management may now effectively reduce the risk of its development and offer valuable treatment options for affected patients. This paper provides a case-based review of ONJ and application of the International Task Force on ONJ (referred to as the "Task Force") recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ONJ. The Task Force was supported by 14 international societies and achieved consensus from representatives of these multidisciplinary societies on key issues pertaining to the diagnosis and management of ONJ. The frequency of ONJ in oncology patients receiving oncology doses of bisphosphonate (BP) or denosumab is estimated at 1%-15%, and the frequency in the osteoporosis patient population receiving much lower doses of BP or denosumab is estimated at 0.001%-0.01%. Although the diagnosis of ONJ is primarily clinical, imaging may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and staging. In those with multiple risk factors for ONJ for whom major invasive oral surgery is being planned, interruption of BP or denosumab therapy (in cancer patients) is advised, if possible, before surgery, until the surgical site heals. Major oral surgery in this context could include multiple extractions if surgical extractions are required, not simple forceps extractions. ONJ development may be reduced by optimizing oral hygiene and postoperatively using topical and systemic antibiotics as appropriate. Periodontal disease should be managed before starting oncology doses of BP or denosumab. Local debridement may be successful in disease unresponsive to conservative therapy. Successful surgical intervention has been reported in those with stage 3 disease; less severe disease is best managed conservatively. Teriparatide may be helpful in healing ONJ lesions and may be considered in osteoporosis patients at a high fracture risk in the absence of contraindications. Resumption of BP or denosumab therapy following healing of ONJ lesions is recommended, and there have not been reports of subsequent local recurrence.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/epidemiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Comitês Consultivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/terapia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Desbridamento , Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
17.
Endocr Pract ; 22(Suppl 4): 1-42, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27662240

RESUMO

ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists AFF = atypical femur fracture ASBMR = American Society for Bone and Mineral Research BEL = best evidence level BMD = bone mineral density BTM = bone turnover marker CBC = complete blood count CI = confidence interval DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry EL = evidence level FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration FLEX = Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT) Long-term Extension FRAX® = Fracture Risk Assessment Tool GFR = glomerular filtration rate GI = gastrointestinal HORIZON = Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly IOF = International Osteoporosis Foundation ISCD = International Society for Clinical Densitometry IU = international units IV = intravenous LSC = least significant change NBHA = National Bone Health Alliance NOF = National Osteoporosis Foundation 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxy vitamin D ONJ = osteonecrosis of the jaw PINP = serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen PTH = parathyroid hormone R = recommendation RANK = receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B RANKL = receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RCT = randomized controlled trial RR = relative risk S-CTX = serum C-terminal telopeptide SQ = subcutaneous VFA = vertebral fracture assessment WHO = World Health Organization.

18.
Endocr Pract ; 22(9): 1111-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27643923

RESUMO

ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists AFF = atypical femur fracture ASBMR = American Society for Bone and Mineral Research BEL = best evidence level BMD = bone mineral density BTM = bone turnover marker CBC = complete blood count CI = confidence interval DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry EL = evidence level FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration FLEX = Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT) Long-term Extension FRAX(®) = Fracture Risk Assessment Tool GFR = glomerular filtration rate GI = gastrointestinal HORIZON = Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly IOF = International Osteoporosis Foundation ISCD = International Society for Clinical Densitometry IU = international units IV = intravenous LSC = least significant change NBHA = National Bone Health Alliance NOF = National Osteoporosis Foundation 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxy vitamin D ONJ = osteonecrosis of the jaw PINP = serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen PTH = parathyroid hormone R = recommendation RANK = receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B RANKL = receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RCT = randomized controlled trial RR = relative risk S-CTX = serum C-terminal telopeptide SQ = subcutaneous VFA = vertebral fracture assessment WHO = World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
19.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 4: 14-24, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop an innovative and effective educational intervention to inform patients about the need for osteoporosis treatment and to determine factors associated with its online uptake. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with a prior fracture and not currently using osteoporosis therapy were eligible to be included in the Activating Patients at Risk for OsteoPOroSis (APROPOS). Four nominal groups with a total of 18 racially/ethnically diverse women identified osteoporosis treatment barriers. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavior Skills conceptual model to develop a direct-to-patient intervention to mitigate potentially modifiable barriers to osteoporosis therapy. The intervention included videos tailored by participants' race/ethnicity and their survey responses: ranked barriers to osteoporosis treatment, deduced barriers to treatment, readiness to behavior change, and osteoporosis treatment history. Videos consisted of "storytelling" narratives, based on osteoporosis patient experiences and portrayed by actresses of patient-identified race/ethnicity. We also delivered personalized brief phone calls followed by an interactive voice-response phone messages aimed to promote uptake of the videos. RESULTS: To address the factors associated with online intervention uptake, we focused on participants assigned to the intervention arm (n = 1342). These participants were 92.9% Caucasian, with a mean (SD) age 74.9 (8.0) years and the majority (77.7%) had some college education. Preference for natural treatments was the barrier ranked #1 by most (n = 130; 27%), while concern about osteonecrosis of the jaw was the most frequently reported barrier (at any level; n = 322; 67%). Overall, 28.1% (n = 377) of participants in the intervention group accessed the videos online. After adjusting for relevant covariates, the participants who provided an email address had 6.07 (95% CI 4.53-8.14) higher adjusted odds of accessing their online videos compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: We developed and implemented a novel tailored multi-modal intervention to improve initiation of osteoporosis therapy. An email address provided on the survey was the most important factor independently associated with accessing the intervention online. The design and uptake of this intervention may have implications for future studies in osteoporosis or other chronic diseases.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(7): 1466-72, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861139

RESUMO

Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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