Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(2): 252-255, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement between an oscillometric device and invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurements in anesthetized healthy adult guinea pigs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of eight adult Hartley guinea pigs. METHODS: All animals were anesthetized; a carotid artery was surgically exposed and catheterized for IBP measurements. A size 1 cuff placed on the right thoracic limb was connected to an oscillometric device for noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) assessment. Concurrent pairs of systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures were recorded simultaneously with both methods every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was determined using the Bland-Altman method, considering the recommended standards for the validation of NIBP measurement devices proposed by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). RESULTS: The bias and the 95% limits of agreement were: -14 (-31 to 3) mmHg, -2 (-14 to 10) mmHg and -1 (-13 to 11) mmHg for SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The oscillometric device used in this study to measure NIBP did not meet ACVIM criteria for validation. It showed good agreement for DAP and MAP but not for SAP measurements. Considering the small size of these animals and the resulting difficulty in performing percutaneous arterial catheterization, this device might be a useful tool to assess MAP and DAP during anesthetic procedures in adult guinea pigs.

2.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 727-735, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after IV administration in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus), to compare clearance of enrofloxacin in American black vultures with clearance of this fluoroquinolone in other avian species, and to evaluate whether allometric scaling is an appropriate tool for dose extrapolation in avian species. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult American black vultures. PROCEDURES: Enrofloxacin concentrations were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin was determined in American black vultures after IV administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 12 avian species obtained from 24 pharmacokinetic studies were used. Allometric analysis of enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was performed. RESULTS: Volume of distribution at steady state for enrofloxacin was 3.47 L/kg, clearance was 0.147 L/h·kg, and elimination half-life was 18.3 hours. Comparisons among avian species revealed that American black vultures had the lowest extraction ratio for enrofloxacin (1.04%). Only the volume of distribution at steady state and clearance had a good allometric fit. Goodness of fit was improved when ratites were not included in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that the use of allometric scaling for the prediction of volume of distribution at steady state could provide a suitable method for extrapolation of enrofloxacin doses among avian species; however, allometric scaling could not be used to adequately predict the clearance of enrofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aves/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enrofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 43(6): 652-661, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the caudal lumbar spine in cats and to detect ultrasound (US) signs associated with epidural or intrathecal injection. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical study. ANIMALS: Twenty-six client-owned cats. METHODS: Transverse (position 1) and parasagittal (position 2) two-dimensional US scanning was performed over the caudal lumbar spine in all cats. Midline distances between the identified structures were measured. Cats assigned to epidural injection (group E, n = 16) were administered a bupivacaine-morphine combination confirmed by electrical stimulation. Cats assigned to intrathecal injection (group I, n = 10) were administered a morphine-iohexol combination injected at the lumbosacral level and confirmed by lateral radiography. The total volume injected (0.3 mL kg-1 ) was divided into two equal aliquots that were injected without needle repositioning, with the US probe in positions 1 and 2, respectively. The presence or absence of a burst of color [color flow Doppler test (CFDT)], dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were registered during and after both injections. RESULTS: US scanning allowed measurement of the distances between the highly visible structures inside the spinal canal. CFDT was positive for all animals in group E. In group I, intrathecal injection was confirmed in only two animals, for which the CFDT was negative; seven cats inadvertently and simultaneously were administered an epidural injection and showed a positive CFDT during the second aliquot injection, and the remaining animal was administered epidural anesthesia and was excluded from the CFDT data analysis. Dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were present in all animals in which an epidural injection was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: US examination allowed an anatomical description of the caudal lumbar spine and real-time confirmation of epidural injection by observation of a positive CFDT, dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/veterinária , Raquianestesia/veterinária , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Medula Espinal/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/cirurgia , Injeções Espinhais/veterinária , Região Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 45(1): 78-85, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24712165

RESUMO

Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters for enrofloxacin were investigated in seven urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus), following intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 108, and 168 hr. The kinetic behavior was characterized by a relatively slow absorption (time of maximal plasma concentration = 4.50 +/- 3.45 hr) with peak plasma concentration of 4.81 +/- 1.12 microg/ml. The long half-life during the terminal elimination phase (t1/2 lambda = 27.91 +/- 7.55 hr) of enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration, calculated in the present study, could suggest that the antibiotic is eliminated relatively slowly and/or the presence of a slow absorption in urutu pit vipers. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0.35 microg/ml at 13.45 hr, and the fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 13.06%. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values of 0.5 microg/ml were used, the ratios AUC(e+c): MIC90 (276 +/- 67 hr) and Cmax(e+c): MIC90 (10 +/- 2) reach the proposed threshold values (125 hr and 10, respectively) for optimized efficacy and minimized resistance development when treating infections caused by Pseudomonas. The administration of 10 mg/kg of enrofloxacin by the i.m. route should be considered to be a judicious choice in urutu pit vipers against infections caused by microorganisms with MIC values < or = 0.5 microg/ml. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase and/or an interval reduction should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Bothrops , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/metabolismo , Meia-Vida
6.
J Avian Med Surg ; 27(3): 180-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24344508

RESUMO

To determine the dosage of enrofloxacin in southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus), plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after intravenous (IV) (5 mg/kg) and intramuscular (IM) (10 mg/kg) administration. This compound presented a relatively high volume of distribution (2.09 L/kg), a total body clearance of 0.24 L/kg x h, and a long permanence as shown by an elimination half-life of 7.81 hours after IV administration and a terminal half-life of 6.58 hours after IM administration. The areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were 21.92 and 34.38 microg x h/mL for IM and IV administration, respectively. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after IM administration with a time to reach maximum concentration of 0.72 hours and bioavailability of 78.76%. After IM administration, the peak drug concentration (C(max)) was 3.92 microg/mL. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), C(max), and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a C(max)/MIC value of 10 and an AUC/MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and a MIC breakpoint of 0.25 microg/mL, values of C(max)/MIC were 13.74 and 15.94 and for AUC/MIC were 90.73 and 139.63, for the IV and IM routes respectively. For the treatment of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the calculated optimal dosages were 7.5 and 9.5 mg/kg q24h by the IV and IM routes, respectively. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase should be evaluated. To treat caracara by the IV route against microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the dose should be higher than the 5 mg/kg used in our study, but possible side effects derived from an increase in the IV dose and efficacy in sick birds should be assessed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aves/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Meia-Vida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Avian Med Surg ; 26(1): 6-10, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22645833

RESUMO

Marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone developed specifically for veterinary use, has demonstrated considerable pharmokinetic variation among avian species. The goal of this study was to determine the disposition kinetics of marbofloxacin in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after a single intravenous injection. Six wild mallard ducks were used in the study. Marbofloxacin was injected at a dose of 2 mg/kg into the basilic vein, and blood was subsequently collected at regular intervals from each bird. Plasma marbofloxacin concentrations were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The volume of distribution at steady state was 1.78 +/- 0.37 L/kg, and the total plasma clearance was 0.59 +/- 0.08 L/kg per hour. Marbofloxacin had a relatively short permanence, with a elimination half-life of 2.81 +/- 1.20 hours, a terminal half-life of 2.43 +/- 0.61 hours, and a mean residence time of 2.99 +/- 0.52 hour. The maximum observed concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) were 1.34 +/- 0.27 microg/mL and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg x h/mL, respectively. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Cmax, and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a Cmax: MIC value of 10 and an AUC: MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and MIC breakpoints of 0.125 microg/mL or 0.2 microg/mL, values derived for Cmax: MIC were 9.37 +/- 0.99 and 5.85 +/- 0.62, respectively, and for AUC: MIC were 29.99 +/- 4.51 and 18.74 +/- 2.82, respectively. By using MIC values of 0.125 and 0.2 microg/mL and a target AUC: MIC = 125, the calculated optimal daily marbofloxacin dosages for mallard ducks were 9.24 and 14.78 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that, primarily because of the high total plasma clearance observed, the marbofloxacin dose for treatment of bacterial diseases in mallard ducks should be increased after intravenous administration. Intravenous doses of 10-15 mg/kg should be assessed by studying their potential toxicity and efficacy in sick birds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Patos/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Esquema de Medicação , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 90(2): 288-90, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20605034

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics properties of marbofloxacin were studied in adult Eurassian Griffon vulture after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration of 2mg/kg. Drug concentration in plasma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and the data obtained were subjected to compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic analysis. Marbofloxacin presented a volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) of 1.51±0.22L and total plasma clearance (Cl) of 0.109±0.023L/hkg. The permanence of this drug was long in vultures (T(1/2)(λ)=12.51±2.52h; MRT(∞)=13.54±2.29h). The optimal dose of marbofloxacin estimated is 2.73mg/kg per day for the treatment of infections in vultures with MIC(90)=0.2µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Falconiformes/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Meia-Vida , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Vet Res Commun ; 32(7): 509-19, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18481189

RESUMO

Sulphonamides are still being used widely, influenced by the low cost and the efficacy against many common bacterial infections, since they present a broad spectrum of activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) integration of intravenous sulfamethazine (60 mg/kgbw) in cattle, and the possible therapeutic outcomes. Six healthy female calves, at the age of one, three, seven and fifteen weeks were used. Normality analysis was assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Non-parametric tests for paired data were used. Plasma concentrations were quantified using HPLC/uv. Differences were found between one-three-weeks-old calves and seven-fifteen-weeks-old calves, in pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, area under the concentration-time curve and elimination half-life) and in the PK/PD integration. The ratios obtained in PK/PD integration (T>MIC, WAUC) confirm that it is necessary to apply twice the dose of sulfamethazine in > or = 7 weeks-old cattle to reach a satisfactory dosage regimen (MIC > or = 32 microg/mL).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Sulfametazina/administração & dosagem , Sulfametazina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sulfametazina/sangue
10.
Vet J ; 171(3): 551-5, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16624724

RESUMO

This study reports on the administration of a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg) to five adult Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) by the intraosseous (IO) route, which has been proposed as a rapid and efficient means for the parenteral delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The drug was rapidly absorbed. Peak marbofloxacin concentration (C(max)) in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.92+/-0.78 microg/mL and 8.53+/-2.73 microg h/mL, respectively. The time marbofloxacin remained in the plasma after IO administration was relatively short (elimination half-life, t(1/2beta)=4.91+/-0.65 h; mean residence time (MRT)=5.38+/-0.57 h). Single dose marbofloxacin gave values for C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 19.2 and an AUC/MIC value of 85.3h after IO administration. The IO route appears to be practical and effective for the rapid delivery of marbofloxacin to buzzards.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Infusões Intraósseas/veterinária , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Meia-Vida , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos
11.
Vet J ; 172(2): 334-9, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15994101

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices predictive of clinical outcome of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) after multiple oral dosing, and to investigate their penetration into prostatic fluid in dogs. Eight dogs received seven oral doses b.i.d. of NOR (20 mg/kg) and CIP (15 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were determined in blood and in two prostatic fluid samples. Prostatic fluid concentrations were lower than plasma concentrations for both drugs. No statistically significant differences were determined between the pharmacokinetic parameters calculated after the first and seventh doses for either CIP or NOR. The PK/PD indices were found to be useful for predicting bacteriological outcome for fluoroquinolones (area under the disposition curve/minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and peak plasma concentration/MIC) and indicate that with this dose regimen CIP presents a more favourable disposition than NOR for successful clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Cães/metabolismo , Norfloxacino/farmacocinética , Próstata/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Masculino , Norfloxacino/administração & dosagem , Norfloxacino/sangue
12.
Vet J ; 170(3): 364-8, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16266851

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Struthioniformes/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...