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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813306

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world and lacks an effective targeted therapy. G-protein-coupled receptor 161 (GPR161) has been demonstrated to perform the functional regulations on TNBC progression and might be a potential new target for TNBC therapy. This study showed the effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on GPR161 regulation, indicating that BDMC effectively inhibited GPR161 expression and downregulated GPR161-driven signaling. BDMC showed the potent inhibitory effects on TNBC proliferation through suppressing GPR161-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) activation. Besides, in this study, we discover the mechanism of GPR161-driven TNBC metastasis, linking to GPR161-mediated twist-related protein 1 (Twist1)/matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) contributing to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). BDMC effectively repressed GPR161-mediated TNBC metastasis via inhibiting Twist1/MMP9-induced EMT. The three-dimensional invasion assay also showed that BDMC significantly inhibited TNBC invasion. The combination treatment of BDMC and rapamycin enhanced the inhibition of TNBC proliferation and metastasis through increasing the blockage of mTOR activation. Furthermore, this study also observed that BDMC activated the caspase 3/9 signaling pathway to induce TNBC apoptosis. Therefore, BDMC could be applicable to anticancer therapy, especially targeting on the GPR161-driven cancer type.

2.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(12): 2578-2588, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599545

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) shows little or no toxicity in most normal cells and preferentially induces apoptosis in a variety of malignant cells. However, patients develop resistance to TRAIL, therefore, sensitizing agents that can sensitize the tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis are necessary. In this study, we investigated the effect of 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methylnaphthyridin-4-one (CSC-3436), an useful flavonoid, to overcome the TRAIL-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We found that CSC-3436 potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant TNBC cells and this correlated with the upregulation of death receptors (DR)-5 and down-regulation of decreased decoy receptor (DcR)-1 expression. When examined for its mechanism, we found that the decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins c-FLIPS/L, Bcl-Xl, Bcl-2, Survivin, and XIAP. CSC-3436 would increase the expression of Bax and promoted the cleavage of bid. In addition, the induction of DR5 by CSC-3436 was found to be dependent on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/p38/C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) signaling pathways. Overall, our results indicated that CSC-3436 could potentiate the apoptotic effects of TRAIL through down-regulation of cell survival proteins and upregulation of DR5 via the ROS-mediated upregulation of CHOP protein.


Assuntos
Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Ligantes , Naftiridinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 262: 120139, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245971

RESUMO

A new efficient Schiff base sensor SB3 for fluorescent and colorimetric "naked-eye" "turn-on" sensing of cyanide anion (CN-) with excellent sensitivity and selectivity was developed. The 4,4'-(perfluoropropane-2,2-diyl)bisphenol group and two phenyl groups were covalently linked by two C = N bonds to extend the conjugation length. The four hydroxyl groups can improve the water solubility of the SB3 sensor. The SB3 sensor exhibited high specificity towards CN- by interrupting its intramolecular charge transfer, resulting in a color change and remarkable "turn-on" green fluorescence emission. The sensing mechanism is caused by the nucleophilic addition of CN- toward imine groups of the SB3 sensor, leading to breaks of the conjugation, fluorescent spectral changes, and color change. It was confirmed by 1H NMR titration and Mass spectra. The detection limits for CN- and Al3+obtained by fluorescence spectrum are 0.80 µM and 0.25 µM, respectively. The SB3 sensor can act as an efficient chemical sensor for detecting the CN- and Al3+ ions under common environmental and physiological conditions (pH 5-12). Besides, the sensor can also detect CN- in food materials (such as sprouting potatoes and cassava flour) and imaging CN-in living cells with strong "turn-on" fluorescence at 490 nm. SB3 is an excellent CN- sensor that exhibits some advantages, including easy synthesis, distinct fluorescence and color change, high selectivity, low detection limit, and good anti-interference ability to analyze solution and food samples, together with fluorescence cell imaging.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Cianetos , Alumínio , Corantes Fluorescentes , Bases de Schiff , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 173: 151-169, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314818

RESUMO

3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid (EAA) is an ether-derivative of ascorbic acid, known to inhibit tyrosinase activity, and is widely used in skincare formulations. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the EAA's effects are poorly understood. Here, the anti-melanogenic activity of EAA was demonstrated through Nrf2-mediated α-MSH inhibition in UVA-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT) and autophagy induction and inhibition of α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis in melanocytes (B16F10). EAA pretreatment increased the HaCaT cell viability but suppressed ROS-mediated p53/POMC/α-MSH pathways in UVA-irradiated cells. Further, the conditioned medium from EAA-pretreated and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells suppressed the MITF-CREB-tyrosinase pathways leading to the inhibition of melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells. EAA treatment increased nuclear Nrf2 translocation via the p38, PKC, and ROS pathways leading to HO-1, γ-GCLC, and NQO-1 antioxidant expression in HaCaT cells. However, Nrf2 silencing reduced the EAA-mediated anti-melanogenic activity, evidenced by impaired antioxidant gene expression and uncontrolled ROS (H202) generation following UVA irradiation. In B16F10 cells, EAA-induced autophagy was shown by enhanced LC3-II levels, AVO formation, Beclin-1 upregulation, and activation of p62/SQSTM1. Further, EAA-induced anti-melanogenic activity was substantially decreased in autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) pretreated or LC3 knockdown B16F10 cells. Notably, transmission electron microscopy data showed increased melanosome-engulfing autophagosomes in EAA-treated B16F10 cells. Moreover, EAA also down-regulated MC1R, TRP-1/-2, tyrosinase expressions, and melanin synthesis by suppressing the cAMP-CREB-mediated MITF expression in B16F10 cells stimulated with α-MSH. In vivo studies on the zebrafish model further confirmed that EAA inhibited tyrosinase expression/activity and endogenous pigmentation. In conclusion, 3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid is an effective skin-whitening agent and could be used as a topical agent for cosmetic purposes.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Melanoma Experimental , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Queratinócitos , Melanócitos , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Peixe-Zebra , alfa-MSH
5.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(11): 2186-2195, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291863

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and arising from the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. Resistance to cytotoxic therapies is associated with overexpression of oncogenic proteins; including HER2, and Akt in chemotherapy resistance of bladder cancer. Various studies demonstrated that curcuminoids, the most important active phenolic compounds of turmeric (Curcuma longa), have anti-tumor activities in a wide range of human malignant cell lines. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin) could repress the expression of HER2 in HER2-overexpressing bladder cancer cells. Among the test compounds, DMC significantly suppressed the expression of HER2, and preferentially inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing bladder cancer cells. DMC decreases HER2 level through inhibiting the interaction of HER2 and Hsp90. Our study also indicated that DMC showed additive activity in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, including paclitaxel and cisplatin. These findings show that DMC should be developed further as a new antitumor drug candidate for treatment of HER2-overexpressing bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/farmacologia , Diarileptanoides , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Receptor ErbB-2 , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
6.
In Vivo ; 35(4): 2047-2057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, induces apoptosis of many types of human cancer cell. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species inducer; however, there are no reports to show whether pre-treatment of tetrandrine with H2O2 induces more cell apoptosis than H2O2 alone. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of tetrandrine on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT, in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HaCaT cells were pre-treated with and without tetrandrine for 1 h, and then treated with H2O2 for examining cell morphological changes and cell viability using contrast-phase microscopy and propidium iodide (PI) exclusion assay, respectively. Cells were measured apoptotic cell death by using annexin V/PI double staining and further analyzed by flow cytometer. Cells were further assessed for DNA condensation using 2-(4-amidinophenyl)-6-indolecarbamidine staining. Western blotting was used to measure expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and confocal laser microscopy was used to measure the protein expression and nuclear translocation from the cytoplasm to nuclei. RESULTS: Pre-treatment of tetrandrine for 1 h and treatment with H2O2 enhanced H2O2-induced cell morphological changes and reduced cell viability, whilst increasing apoptotic cell death and DNA condensation. Furthermore, tetrandrine significantly increased expression of reactive oxygen species-associated proteins such as superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn) and superoxide dismutase (Mn) but significantly reduced the level of catalase, which was also confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. It also increased expression of DNA repair-associated proteins ataxia telangiectasia mutated, ataxia-telangectasia and Rad3-related, phospho-P53, P53 and phosphorylated histone H2AX, and of pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2 apoptosis regulator-associated X-protein, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly ADP ribose polymerase in HaCaT cells. CONCLUSION: These are the first and novel findings showing tetrandrine enhances H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death of HaCaT cells and may provide a potent approach for the treatment of proliferated malignant keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas , Caspases , Apoptose , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Caspases/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Queratinócitos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
7.
In Vivo ; 35(2): 833-843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce apoptotic cell death in numerous cancer cells. Pterostilbene (PTE), a natural polyphenolic compound, induces cell apoptosis in many human cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated whether PTE could enhance H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells in vitro. The morphological change of HaCaT cells was observed and photographed under a contrast-phase microscope. The percentage of cell viability was measured by propidium iodide exclusion assay. Cell apoptosis was performed by Annexin V/PI double staining and assayed by flow cytometer. DNA condensation was measured by DAPI staining. The protein expression was determined by western blotting. ROS production-associated proteins were also assayed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: PTE pre-treatment enhanced H2O2 (600 µM)-induced cell morphological changes and reduced the total cell number (cell viability). The decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells was through induction of apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by Annexin V/PI double staining and DAPI staining. Western blotting studies indicated that HaCaT cells which were pre-treated with PTE (100 µM) and then co-treated with H2O2 (600 µM) for 12 h showed significantly increased levels of SOD (Cu/Zn), SOD (Mn), Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53, p-p53, and p-H2A.X but decreased levels Bcl-2 and catalase. Results also showed that HaCaT cells pre-treated with PTE and then co-treated with H2O2 had increased expression of SOD (Cu/Zn) and glutathione but decreased catalase. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that PTE pre-treatment can enhance the H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in keratinocyte cells and may be an effective candidate for the treatment of proliferative keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Caspases , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Estilbenos
8.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(9): 911-921, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270916

RESUMO

Leukemia is one of the major diseases causing cancer-related deaths in the young population, and its cure rate is unsatisfying with side effects on patients. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is currently used as an anticancer drug for leukemia patients. Casticin, a natural polymethoxyflavone, exerts anticancer activity against many human cancer cell lines in vitro, but no other reports show 5-FU combined with casticin increased the mouse leukemia cell apoptosis in vitro. Herein, the antileukemia activity of 5-FU combined with casticin in WEHI-3 mouse leukemia cells was investigated in vitro. Treatment of two-drug combination had a higher decrease in cell viability and a higher increase in apoptotic cell death, the level of DNA condensation, and the length of comet tail than that of 5-FU or casticin treatment alone in WEHI-3 cells. In addition, the two-drug combination has a greater production rate of reactive oxygen species but a lower level of Ca2+ release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) than that of 5-FU alone. Combined drugs also induced higher caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities than that of casticin alone and higher caspase-9 activity than that of 5-FU or casticin alone at 48 hours treatment. Furthermore, 5-FU combined with casticin has a higher expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD [Cu/Zn]) and lower catalase than that of 5-FU or casticin treatment alone. The combined treatment has higher levels of Bax, Endo G, and cytochrome C of proapoptotic proteins than that of casticin alone and induced lower levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and BCL-X of antiapoptotic proteins than that of 5-FU or casticin only. Furthermore, the combined treatment had a higher expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) than that of casticin only. Based on these findings, we may suggest that 5-FU combined with casticin treatment increased apoptotic cell death in WEHI-3 mouse leukemia cells that may undergo mitochondria and caspases signaling pathways in vitro.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935917

RESUMO

Here, staple carbon fiber fabric-reinforced polycarbonate (PC)- and epoxy (EP)-based composites with different impregnating resin levels were fabricated using a modified film stacking process. The effects of surface topographies and resin types on the tribological properties of stable carbon fabric composites (sCFC) were investigated. Friction and wear tests on the carbon composites were conducted under unlubricated sliding using a disk-on-disk wear test machine. Experimental results showed that the coefficient of friction (COF) of the sCFC was dominated by matrix type, followed by peak material portion (Smr1) values, and finalized with core height (Sk) values. The COF of composites decreased by increasing the sliding speed and applied pressure. This also relied on surface topography and temperature generated at the worn surface. However, the specific wear rate was strongly affected by resin impregnation. Partially-impregnated composites showed lower specific wear rate, whereas fully-impregnated composites showed a higher wear rate. This substantially increased by increasing the sliding speed and applied pressure. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the worn surfaces revealed that the primary wear mechanisms were abrasion, adhesion, and fatigue for PC-based composites. For EP-based composites, this was primarily abrasion and fatigue. Results proved that partially-impregnated composites exhibited better tribological properties under severe conditions.

10.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952105

RESUMO

Casticin was obtained from natural plants, and it has been shown to exert biological functions; however, no report concerns the induction of DNA damage and repair in human lung cancer cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and molecular mechanism of casticin on DNA damage and repair in human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell viability was determined by flow cytometric assay. The DNA damage was evaluated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electrophoresis which included comet assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. The protein levels associated with DNA damage and repair were analyzed by western blotting. The expression and translocation of p-H2A.X were observed by confocal laser microscopy. Casticin reduced total viable cell number and induced DNA condensation, fragmentation, and damage in A549 cells. Furthermore, casticin increased p-ATM at 6 h and increased p-ATR and BRCA1 at 6-24 h treatment but decreased p-ATM at 24-48 h, as well as decreased p-ATR and BRCA1 at 48 h. Furthermore, casticin decreased p-p53 at 6-24 h but increased at 48 h. Casticin increased p-H2A.X and MDC1 at 6-48 h treatment. In addition, casticin increased PARP (cleavage) at 6, 24, and 48 h treatment, DNA-PKcs and MGMT at 48 h in A549 cells. Casticin induced the expressions and nuclear translocation of p-H2AX in A549 cells by confocal laser microscopy. Casticin reduced cell number through DNA damage and condensation in human lung cancer A549 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo
11.
J Biol Eng ; 13: 86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754373

RESUMO

Background: Large gap healing is a difficult issue in the recovery of peripheral nerve injury. The present study provides in vivo trials of silicone rubber chambers filled with collagen containing IFN-γ or IL-4 to bridge a 15 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. Fillings of NGF and normal saline were used as the positive and negative controls. Neuronal electrophysiology, neuronal connectivity, macrophage infiltration, location and expression levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide and histology of the regenerated nerves were evaluated. Results: At the end of 6 weeks, animals from the groups of NGF and IL-4 had dramatic higher rates of successful regeneration (100 and 80%) across the wide gap as compared to the groups of IFN-γ and saline controls (30 and 40%). In addition, the NGF group had significantly higher NCV and shorter latency compared to IFN-γ group (P < 0.05). The IL-4 group recruited significantly more macrophages in the nerves as compared to the saline controls and the NGF-treated animals (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that NGF and IL-4 show potential growth-promoting capability for peripheral nerve regeneration. These fillings in the bridging conduits may modulate local inflammatory conditions affecting recovery of the nerves.

13.
In Vivo ; 33(4): 1193-1201, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our current study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms of citronellol-induced cell death and ROS accumulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H1299 cells) and also compare the anticancer effects of citronellol and EOPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ROS measurement and western blotting were performed to detect whether citronellol can induce necroptosis in vitro. Besides, we performed an in vivo analysis of tumourigenesis inhibition by citronellol treatment in BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mice. RESULTS: Necroptosis occured by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1/RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3/caspase-8 activities after citronellol treatment in NCI-H1299 cells. Citronellol also resulted in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells. Xenograft model experiments showed that citronellol could effectively inhibit subcutaneous tumours produced 4 weeks after intraperitoneal injection of NCI-H1299 in BALB/c nude mice. CONCLUSION: Citronellol induced necroptosis of NCI-H1299 cells via TNF-α pathway and ROS accumulation.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(3): 657-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974966

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most commonly occurring tumor in the cerebral hemispheres. Currently, temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent that induces DNA strand breaks, is considered the frontline chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. Despite its frontline status, GBM patients commonly exhibit resistance to TMZ treatment. We have recently established and characterized TMZ-resistant human glioma cells. The aim of this study is to investigate whether curcumin modulates cell apoptosis through the alternation of the connexin 43 (Cx43) protein level in TMZ-resistant GBM. Overexpression of Cx43, but not ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters), was observed (approximately 2.2-fold) in TMZ-resistant GBM cells compared to the Cx43 levels in parental GBM cells. Furthermore, at a concentration of 10 µ M, curcumin significantly reduced Cx43 protein expression by about 40%. In addition, curcumin did not affect the expression of other connexins like Cx26 or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins such as ß -catenin or α E-catenin. Curcumin treatment led to an increase in TMZ-induced cell apoptosis from 4% to 8%. Importantly, it did not affect the mRNA expression level of Cx43. Concomitant treatment with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) exerted additional effects on Cx43 degradation. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (methyladenine) did not affect the curcumin-induced Cx43 degradation. Interestingly, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal) significantly negated the curcumin-induced Cx43 degradation, which suggests that curcumin-induced Cx43 degradation occurs through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Humanos , Estimulação Química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(7): 10747-10760, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584666

RESUMO

We reported in our previously executed studies that the fermented culture broth of Antrodia salmonea (AS), a mushroom used in Taiwanese folk medicine induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human ovarian carcinoma cells. In this study, we studied the anticancer efficacies of AS (0-240 µg/ml) by examining the key molecular events implicated in cell death associated with autophagy in SKOV-3 and A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and clarified the fundamental molecular mechanisms. Treatment of ovarian carcinoma cells with AS-induced autophagic cell death mediated by increased microtubule-associated protein LC3-II, GFP-LC3 puncta, and acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation. These events are linked with the activation of p62/SQSTM1, the inhibition of ATG4B, the expression of ATG7, and the dysregulation of Beclin-1/Bcl-2 (i.e., B-cell lymphoma 2). N-acetylcysteine inhibited AS-induced ROS generation, which in turn constricted AS-induced LC3 conversion, AVO formation, and ATG4B inhibition, indicating ROS-mediated autophagy cell death. In addition, the 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ)-induced autophagy inhibition decreased AS-induced apoptosis. Additionally, apoptosis inhibition by Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, substantially suppressed AS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, AS-inhibited HER-2/ neu and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways which were reversed by autophagy inhibitors 3-MA and CQ. Thus, A. salmonea is a potential chemopreventive agent that is capable of activating ROS-mediated autophagic cell death in ovarian carcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antrodia , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antrodia/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(6): 9118-9129, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341909

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, especially in male. With poor prognosis, significant portions of patients with HNSCC die due to cancer recurrence and tumor metastasis after chemotherapy and targeted therapies. The HNSCC FaDu cell ectopic expression of Twist, a key transcriptional factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which triggers EMT and results in the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, was used as the cell model. Our results demonstrated that treatment with newly synthesized 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methylnaphthyridin-4-one (CSC-3436), a flavonoid derivative, elicited changes in its cell morphology, upregulated E-cadherin messenger RNA and protein expression, downregulated N-cadherin, vimentin, and CD133 (a marker associated with tumor-initiating cells) in FaDu-pCDH-Twist cells. Moreover, CSC-3436 exposure reduced B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1) expression regulated by Twist and further suppressed the direct co-regulation of E-cadherin by Twist and Bmi1. Interestingly, CSC-3436 reduced EMT, cancer stemness, and migration/invasion abilities through the inhibition of the Twist/Bmi1-Akt/ß-catenin pathway. Most importantly, our findings provided new evidence that CSC-3436 played a crucial role in therapeutic targeting to Bmi1 and its molecular pathway in HNSCC, and it will be valuable in prognostic prediction and treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/enzimologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/secundário , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 124: 219-230, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529123

RESUMO

Antrodia salonea (AS), a fungus that is indigenous to Taiwan has been well known for its anti-cancer properties. We investigated the anti-metastatic and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties of AS in TNBC cells. To determine their EMT and metastasis levels, in vitro wound healing, wound invasion, Western blotting, RT-PCR, luciferase activity and immunofluorescence assays were performed, while the in vivo anti-metastatic efficacy of AS was evaluated in BALB/c-nu mice through bioluminescence imaging, HE staining, and immunohistochemical staining. MDA-MB-231 cells, when treated with AS concentrations (25-100 µg/mL) resulted in significant reduction of invasion and migration as well as the downregulation of VEGF, uPAR, uPA and MMP-9 (inhibition of PI3K/AKT/NFκB pathways). AS treatment prevented morphological changes and reversed EMT through the upregulation of E-cadherin and the downregulation of N-cadherin, Slug, Twist, and Vimentin. Inhibition of Smad3 signaling pathway, downregulation of ß-catenin pathway and upregulation of GSK3ß expression were also observed while, suppression of metastasis and EMT in TGF-ß1-stimulated non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells was observed when treated with AS. Histological analysis confirmed that AS reduced tumor metastasis and upregulated E-cadherin expression in biopsied lung tissues. Our results indicated that AS exhibits anti-EMT and anti-metastatic activity, that could contribute to develop anticancer drugs against TNBC.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Hifas/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(4): 364-374, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549224

RESUMO

Tetrandrine (TET) has been reported to induce anti-cancer activity in many human cancer cells and also to inhibit cancer cell migration and invasion. However, there are no reports to show TET inhibits cell migration and invasion in human brain glioblastoma multiforme GBM 8401 cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastasis effects of TET on GBM 8401 cells in vitro. Under sub-lethal concentrations (from 1, 5 up to 10 µM), TET significantly inhibited cell mobility, migration and invasion of GBM 8401 cells that were assayed by wound healing and Transwell assays. Gelatin zymography assay showed that TET inhibited MMP-2 activity in GBM 8401 cells. Western blotting results indicated that TET inhibited several key metastasis-related proteins, such as p-EGFR(Tyr1068) , SOS-1, GRB2, Ras, p-AKT(Ser473) and p-AKT(Thr308) , NF-κB-p65, Snail, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9 that were significant reduction at 24 and 48 hours treatment by TET. TET reduced MAPK signaling associated proteins such as p-JNK1/2 and p-c-Jun in GBM 8401 cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) assay was used to investigate NF-κB and DNA binding was reduced by TET in a dose-dependently. Based on these findings, we suggested that TET could be used in anti-metastasis of human brain glioblastoma multiforme GBM 8401 cells in the future.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(4): 434-442, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578657

RESUMO

Numerous evidences have shown that chrysin induced cytotoxic effects via induced cell cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis in human cancer cell lines, however, no information showed that chrysin inhibited skin cancer cell migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated anti-metastasis mechanisms of chrysin in human melanoma cancer A375.S2 cells in vitro. Under sub-lethal concentrations of chrysin (0, 5, 10, and 15 µM) which inhibits cell mobility, migration and invasion of A375.S2 cells that were assayed by wound healing and Transwell filter. That chrysin inhibited MMP-2 activity in A375.S2 cells was investigated by gelatin zymography assay. Western blotting was used to examine protein expression and results indicated that chrysin inhibited the expression of GRB2, SOS-1, PKC, p-AKT (Thr308), NF-κBp65, and NF-κBp50 at 24 and 48 hours treatment, but only at 10-15 µM of chrysin decreased Ras, PI3K, p-c-Jun, and Snail only at 48 hours treatment and only decrease p-AKT(Ser473) at 24 hours treatment. Furthermore, chrysin (5-15 µM) decreased the expression of uPA, N-cadherin and MMP-1 at 24 and 48 hours treatment but only decreased MMP-2 and VEGF at 48 hours treatment at 10-15 µM and 5-15 µM of chrysin, respectively, however, increased E-cadherin at 5-15 µM treatment. Results of confocal laser microscopy systems indicated that chrysin inhibited expression of NF-κBp65 in A375.S2 cells. Based on these observations, we suggest that chrysin can be used in anti-metastasis of human melanoma cells in the future.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
20.
Oncol Lett ; 16(5): 6323-6330, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333889

RESUMO

Cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb), is a novel targeted therapy for the treatment of patients with oral cancer. Cetuximab can be used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to prolong the overall survival rates of patients with oral cancer. Curcumin is a traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been demonstrated to have growth-inhibiting effects on oral cancer cells. However, information regarding the combination of cetuximab and curcumin in drug-resistant oral cancer cells is lacking, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to explore the oral anticancer effects of cetuximab combined with curcumin on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cell apoptosis in vitro. The results demonstrated that combination treatment synergistically potentiated the effect of cetuximab and curcumin on the suppression of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in CAR cells. Cetuximab and curcumin combination induced apoptosis and dramatically increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities compared with singular treatment. Combination treatment also markedly suppressed the protein expression levels of EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling (phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38). The results demonstrated that co-treatment with cetuximab and curcumin exerts synergistic oral anticancer effects on CAR cells through the suppression of the EGFR signaling by regulation of the MAPK pathway.

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