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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A recent paper suggested all women with endometrial cancer should take statins but it is unclear whether there is sufficient evidence to justify this recommendation. METHODS: We identified all women diagnosed with uterine cancer in Australia between July 2003 and December 2013 (2012 in New South Wales) through the Australian Cancer Database (N = 16,501) and linked these to the national prescription database and National Death Index to identify statin use and survival outcomes to December 2015. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between statin use and survival. RESULTS: Among the 15,703 women with endometrial cancer, pre-diagnosis statin use was not associated with survival. Endometrial cancer-specific mortality was lower among women who used statins after diagnosis (time-varying models: HR = 0.92; 95%CI 0.82-1.03) but the association was only seen among women with type 1 cancers (0.87; 0.76-1.00), for hydrophilic statins (0.84; 0.68-1.03) and for new use of statins after diagnosis (0.75; 0.59-0.95). There was a weak dose-response with increasing number of statin prescriptions. Sensitivity analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights were similar. CONCLUSION: Women with endometrial cancer who take statins after diagnosis may have better survival than those who do not use statins. However, it is impossible to completely rule out bias, particularly reverse causation where disease status may affect statin use. We believe it is too early to recommend all women with endometrial cancer take statins, but there is sufficient evidence to justify a randomized trial.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 104: 106347, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The D-Health Trial aims to determine whether monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation can reduce the mortality rate and prevent cancer. We did not have adequate statistical power for subgroup analyses, so could not justify the high cost of collecting blood samples at baseline. To enable future exploratory analyses stratified by baseline vitamin D status, we developed models to predict baseline serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. METHODS: We used data and serum 25(OH)D concentrations from participants who gave a blood sample during the trial for compliance monitoring and were randomised to placebo. Data were partitioned into training (80%) and validation (20%) datasets. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D concentrations were dichotomised using cut-points of 50, 60 and 75 nmol/L. We fitted boosted regression tree models, based on 13 predictors, and evaluated model performance using the validation data. RESULTS: The training and validation datasets had 1788 (10.5% <50 nmol/L, 23.1% <60 nmol, 48.8 <75 nmol/L) and 447 (11.9% <50 nmol/L, 25.7% <60 nmol/L, and 49.2% <75 nmol/L) samples, respectively. Ambient UV radiation and total intake of vitamin D were the strongest predictors of 'low' serum 25(OH)D concentration. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.71, 0.70, and 0.66 for cut-points of <50, <60 and <75 nmol/L respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We exploited compliance monitoring data to develop models to predict serum 25(OH)D concentration for D-Health participants at baseline. This approach may prove useful in other trial settings where there is an obstacle to exhaustive data collection.

3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After ovarian cancer treatment, women report health issues that may be amenable to change with dietary support. The present study investigated how many women encounter a dietitian post-treatment and the factors associated with dietitian service use. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to identify socio-economic, clinical and personal factors associated with dietitian encounter after treatment completion. Data were collected at regular intervals using validated questionnaires up to 4 years post-treatment completion. Logistic regression (LR) and generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess factors associated with dietitian encounter at any time-point post-treatment (LR), as well as in the 3 months prior to a follow-up questionnaire (GLMM) to assess time-varying factors. RESULTS: Of 819 women, 97 (12%) reported seeing a dietitian post-treatment. Factors associated with dietitian encounter were being overweight (ORLR  = 1.7, CI = 1.1-2.8), having poorer self-rated health (ORLR  = 2.5, CI = 1.2-5.2; ORGLMM  = 2.3, CI = 1.2-4.4) or poorer diet quality (ORLR  = 0.5, CI = 0.2-1.0) pre-diagnosis, treatment within the public health system (ORGLMM  = 1.8, CI = 1.2-2.7), previous support from dietetic (ORLR  = 3.1, CI = 1.8-5.4; ORGLMM  = 2.8, CI = 1.8-4.2) or other allied health services (ORLR  = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.2; ORGLMM  = 3.7, CI = 2.4-5.5), and having progressive disease at follow-up (ORGLMM  = 2.2, CI = 1.4-3.3). Most women (86%) with ≥ 3 moderate-to-severe nutrition impact symptoms did not report a dietitian encounter post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Few women encounter a dietitian post-treatment for ovarian cancer, including those with multiple nutrition impact symptoms. Further work is needed to engage those likely to benefit from dietitian support but less likely to seek or receive it.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the associations between hysterectomy for benign indications and risk of breast, colorectal, kidney, and thyroid cancer, and to explore whether these associations are modified by removal of ovaries at the time of surgery or by age at surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the female population of Western Australia (n = 839,332) linking data from electoral, hospital, births, deaths, and cancer records. We used Cox regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between hysterectomy and diagnosis of breast, colorectal, kidney, and thyroid cancers. RESULTS: Compared with no surgery, hysterectomy without oophorectomy (hysterectomy) and hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (hysterectomy-BSO) were associated with higher risk of kidney cancer (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.56 and HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.96-1.73, respectively). Hysterectomy, but not hysterectomy-BSO, was related to higher risk of thyroid cancer (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19-1.60). In contrast, hysterectomy (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98) and hysterectomy-BSO (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-1.00) were associated with lower risk of breast cancer. We found no association between hysterectomy status and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between hysterectomy and cancer varied by cancer type with increased risks for thyroid and kidney cancer, decreased risk for breast cancer, and no association for colorectal cancer. IMPACT: As breast, colorectal, and gynecologic cancers comprise a sizeable proportion of all cancers in women, our results suggest that hysterectomy is unlikely to increase overall cancer risk; however, further research to understand the higher risk of thyroid and kidney cancer is warranted.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619020

RESUMO

Background Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer). There is suggestive evidence of an inverse association between progestin-only contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk, but studies have been underpowered. Methods The current study used primary data from 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women in seven case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to evaluate the association between use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic models were fit to determine the association between ever use of DMPA and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A systematic review of the association between DMPA use and ovarian cancer risk was conducted. Results Ever use of DMPA was associated with a 35% decreased risk overall (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85). There was a statistically significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing duration of use (p-trend<0.001). The systematic review yielded six studies, four of which showed an inverse association and two showed increased risk. Conclusions DMPA use appears to be associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a duration-dependent manner based on the preponderance of evidence. Further study of the mechanism through which DMPA use is associated with ovarian cancer is warranted. Impact The results of this study are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices which have a substantially lower progestin dose than that in DMPA, but may have a stronger local effect.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 69-81, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with acute respiratory tract infection, but results from randomised controlled trials are heterogeneous. We analysed data from the D-Health Trial to determine whether supplementing older Australian adults, recruited from the general population, with monthly doses of vitamin D reduced the risk, duration, and severity of acute respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We used data from the D-Health Trial, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of monthly vitamin D supplementation, for which acute respiratory infection was a pre-specified trial outcome. Participants were supplemented and followed for up to 5 years. The trial was set within the Australian general population, using the Commonwealth Electoral Roll as the sampling frame, but also allowing some volunteers to participate. Participants were men and women aged 60 to 79 years (with volunteers up to age 84 years). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D or placebo (1:1) using computer-generated permuted block randomisation, which was stratified by age, sex, and state. This was an automated process and the assignment list was not visible to study staff or investigators. Active and placebo gel capsules, identical in appearance to ensure masking, were labelled A and B and the code was not available to study staff or investigators. Participants were asked to report occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms over the previous month via annual surveys, and a subset of participants completed 8-week respiratory symptom diaries in winter. As part of our process to maintain blinding, a random sample of participants was selected for analysis of survey data and a separate sample selected for analysis of diary data. Blood samples were obtained from a random sample of participants (about 450 per group per year) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured to monitor adherence. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR), rate ratios, and rate differences. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000743763. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2014, and May 26, 2015, 421 207 invitations were sent, 40 824 people were interested in participating, and 21 315 participants were recruited and randomised. Of the 16 000 participants selected for potential analysis of survey data, 15 373 were included in the analysis; 295 in the vitamin D group and 332 in the placebo group who were missing data for all five annual surveys were excluded from the analysis. Of the 3800 selected for potential analysis of diary data, 3070 were invited to complete the diaries because 730 had already withdrawn. 2598 people were included in the analysis; 218 people in the vitamin D group and 254 in the placebo group were missing data and were therefore excluded from the analysis. In blood samples collected from randomly sampled participants throughout the trial, the mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 114·8 (SD 30·3) nmol/L in the vitamin D group and 77·5 (25·2) nmol/L in the placebo group. Vitamin D supplementation did not reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infection (survey OR 0·98, 95% CI 0·93 to 1·02; diary OR 0·98, 0·83 to 1·15). Analyses of diary data showed reductions in the overall duration of symptoms and of severe symptoms, but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. INTERPRETATION: Monthly bolus doses of 60 000 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the overall risk of acute respiratory tract infection, but could slightly reduce the duration of symptoms in the general population. These findings suggest that routine vitamin D supplementation of a population that is largely vitamin D replete is unlikely to have a clinically relevant effect on acute respiratory tract infection. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 246, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431812

RESUMO

Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cancer have typically adopted a handful of variants and found no relationship between 25(OH)D and cancer; however, issues of horizontal pleiotropy cannot be reliably addressed. Using a larger set of variants associated with 25(OH)D (74 SNPs, up from 6 previously), we perform a unified MR analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and ten cancers. Our findings are broadly consistent with previous MR studies indicating no relationship, apart from ovarian cancers (OR 0.89; 95% C.I: 0.82 to 0.96 per 1 SD change in 25(OH)D concentration) and basal cell carcinoma (OR 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04 to 1.28). However, after adjustment for pigmentation related variables in a multivariable MR framework, the BCC findings were attenuated. Here we report that lower 25(OH)D is unlikely to be a causal risk factor for most cancers, with our study providing more precise confidence intervals than previously possible.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Pigmentação/genética , Fatores de Risco , Queimadura Solar/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies evaluating diet quality in relation to ovarian cancer survival are sparse, and to date none have assessed diet quality or diet-quality change after diagnosis. METHODS: In the prospective Ovarian cancer Prognosis And Lifestyle (OPAL) study, diet-quality scores were calculated using data from food frequency questionnaires completed pre-diagnosis (n = 650) and 12 months' post-diagnosis (n = 503). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between diet quality and survival. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 4.4 years, 278 women died from ovarian cancer. There was no evidence of an association between diet quality pre- or post-diagnosis and progression-free, overall, or ovarian cancer-specific survival. No survival advantage was observed for women who had either improved their diet quality or who consumed a high-quality diet both before and 12 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher pre- and post-diagnosis diet quality was not associated with better survival outcomes in this cohort of women with ovarian cancer. IMPACT: Diet quality is important for a range of health outcomes but may not improve survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034053

RESUMO

Most women with ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis, but studies have reported an association between statin use and improved survival. We investigated the potential survival benefit of statins in women with ovarian cancer using data from the Ovarian cancer Prognosis and Lifestyle study, a prospective study of Australian women aged 18 to 79 years, diagnosed with ovarian cancer from 2012 to 2015 and followed for 5 to 8 years. We obtained information from patient-completed questionnaires and medical records. We defined exposure based on prediagnosis use, as most women used statins continuously (prediagnosis and postdiagnosis) and few started using statins postdiagnosis. We measured survival from date of first treatment (surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy) until date of death or last follow-up. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. To reduce bias due to confounding by indication, we also applied inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Of 955 eligible women, 21% reported statin use before diagnosis. Statin users had a slightly better survival (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.70-1.15) that was driven by lipophilic statin use (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.61-1.11), with no association for hydrophilic statins (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.72-1.49). The IPTW model weighted to all women with ovarian cancer also suggested a possible reduction in mortality associated with lipophilic statins (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.54-1.21). In analyses restricted to women with hyperlipidaemia, the HRs were further from the null. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence, suggesting that lipophilic statins might improve ovarian cancer survival. Further investigation, in larger cohorts, or preferably in a randomised trial, is required.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976626

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is correlated positively with risk for breast cancer in observational studies, but observational studies are subject to reverse causation and confounding. The association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unclear. We performed both observational Cox regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data from various European cohort studies (observational) and publicly available cancer consortia (MR). These estimates were compared to World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) findings. In our observational analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for a one standard drink/day increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.04, 1.08) for breast cancer and 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) for EOC, both of which were consistent with previous WCRF findings. MR ORs per genetically predicted one standard drink/day increase estimated via 34 SNPs using MR-PRESSO were 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) for breast cancer and 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) for EOC. Stratification by EOC subtype or estrogen receptor status in breast cancers made no meaningful difference to the results. For breast cancer, the CIs for the genetically derived estimates include the point-estimate from observational studies so are not inconsistent with a small increase in risk. Our data provide additional evidence that alcohol intake is unlikely to have anything other than a very small effect on risk of EOC.

12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1025-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959149

RESUMO

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 179-186, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: After treatment for ovarian cancer, women want to know when they will feel 'normal' again. Our objective was to document the proportions of women with high levels of physical and emotional symptoms at the end of treatment, determine if/when they return to normal and identify groups at risk of persistent symptoms/delayed recovery. METHODS: Women in the OPAL (Ovarian cancer Prognosis And Lifestyle) study who received ≥3 cycles of first-line chemotherapy and completed patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires on or < 6 weeks after completing chemotherapy (baseline) were included in this analysis (n = 527). PRO measures included anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue and wellbeing (quality-of-life) at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Group-based trajectory models identified clusters of individuals who followed similar patterns. Logistic and Cox regression identified factors associated with persistent symptoms and delayed recovery, respectively. RESULTS: At baseline, 57% of women reported moderate-to-severe fatigue, 22% anxiety, 20% depression, 14% clinical insomnia and 45% had quality-of-life scores significantly lower than the general population. Between 50 and 75% of individual PRO scores normalised within six months, with the exception of emotional wellbeing (42%), but approximately two-in-five women still had at least one persistently poor PRO at 18 months. Women with more severe symptoms at baseline, who were younger, or had a history of anxiety/depression were more likely to have persistent symptoms or delayed recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Two-in-five women might never fully return to 'normal' after completing primary treatment for ovarian cancer. Those with risk factors should be triaged for early supportive interventions.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 760-768, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Insomnia is common in women with ovarian cancer but there are limited prospective data on the frequency and degree of impact on patients. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of insomnia over the first three years after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer; and the relationship between insomnia and quality of life. METHODS: OPAL (Ovarian cancer, Prognosis And Lifestyle) is a prospective study of Australian women with epithelial ovarian cancer; 894 provided information on insomnia symptoms, medications and quality of life at three, six, nine, 12, 24 and 36 months after diagnosis. Generalised linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between insomnia and quality of life measured at the same time and three months later. RESULTS: One-quarter of women reported symptoms consistent with clinical insomnia within three years after diagnosis and an additional 13% regularly used sleep medication (total 36% affected). Excluding 7% who reported insomnia symptoms before diagnosis, 22% reported new insomnia, which reduced to 17% when also excluding women on chemotherapy. The proportion of women with clinical (14%) or subclinical (28%) insomnia symptoms was highest at three months after diagnosis. Compared to women with no insomnia, those with clinical insomnia had significantly lower quality of life measured at the same time (8.4 points lower, 95% CI: 7.2-9.5), and three months later (5.5 points lower, 95% CI: 3.4-7.6). CONCLUSIONS: Over a third of women with ovarian cancer likely experience insomnia after diagnosis; this may persist and is associated with poorer quality of life.

17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 492, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid uptake of genomic technologies within cancer care, few studies provide detailed information on the costs of sequencing across different applications. The objective of the study was to examine and categorise the complete costs involved in genomic sequencing for a range of applications within cancer settings. METHODS: We performed a cost-analysis using gross and micro-costing approaches for genomic sequencing performed during 2017/2018 across different settings in Brisbane, Australia. Sequencing was undertaken for patients with lung, breast, oesophageal cancers, melanoma or mesothelioma. Aggregated resource data were captured for a total of 1433 patients and point estimates of per patient costs were generated. Deterministic sensitivity analyses addressed the uncertainty in the estimates. Estimated costs to the public health system for resources were categorised into seven distinct activities in the sequencing process: sampling, extraction, library preparation, sequencing, analysis, data storage and clinical reporting. Costs were also aggregated according to labour, consumables, testing, equipment and 'other' categories. RESULTS: The per person costs were AU$347-429 (2018 US$240-297) for targeted panels, AU$871-$2788 (2018 US$604-1932) for exome sequencing, and AU$2895-4830 (2018 US$2006-3347) for whole genome sequencing. Cost proportions were highest for library preparation/sequencing materials (average 76.8% of total costs), sample extraction (8.1%), data analysis (9.2%) and data storage (2.6%). Capital costs for the sequencers were an additional AU$34-197 (2018 US$24-67) per person. CONCLUSIONS: Total costs were most sensitive to consumables and sequencing activities driven by commercial prices. Per person sequencing costs for cancer are high when tumour/blood pairs require testing. Using the natural steps involved in sequencing and categorising resources accordingly, future evaluations of costs or cost-effectiveness of clinical genomics across cancer projects could be more standardised and facilitate easier comparison of cost drivers.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101742, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease burden globally and people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have a higher incidence of many types of cancer. We investigated the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparities in cancer incidence in Australia by lowering the prevalence of exposure to four modifiable causes: smoking, alcohol, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity. METHODS: We used cancer incidence data from the Australian Cancer Database and risk factor prevalence data from the Australian National Health Survey to estimate the proportions of cancers attributable to the four factors, by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage. For the three risk factors where prevalence was lowest among the least disadvantaged (smoking, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity), we also estimated the potential impact of reducing prevalence in the most disadvantaged areas to that in the least disadvantaged areas. RESULTS: The proportion of cancer attributable to the four factors in combination ranged from 22 % in the most disadvantaged areas to 14 % in the least disadvantaged areas. If the prevalence of tobacco smoking, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in the more disadvantaged areas were the same as that in the least disadvantaged, an estimated 19,500 cancers (4 % of all cancers diagnosed) could have been prevented in Australia between 2009 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the prevalence of key causal factors in areas of greater social disadvantage would prevent many cases of cancer. Strategies to achieve this in highly disadvantaged areas are needed.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e037740, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medical research studies often rely on the manual collection of data from scanned typewritten clinical records, which can be laborious, time consuming and error prone because of the need to review individual clinical records. We aimed to use text mining to assist with the extraction of clinical features from complex text-based scanned pathology records for medical research studies. DESIGN: Text mining performance was measured by extracting and annotating three distinct pathological features from scanned photocopies of endometrial carcinoma clinical pathology reports, and comparing results to manually abstracted terms. Inclusion and exclusion keyword trigger terms to capture leiomyomas, endometriosis and adenomyosis were provided based on expert knowledge. Terms were expanded with character variations based on common optical character recognition (OCR) error patterns as well as negation phrases found in sample reports. The approach was evaluated on an unseen test set of 1293 scanned pathology reports originating from laboratories across Australia. SETTING: Scanned typewritten pathology reports for women aged 18-79 years with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer (2005-2007) in Australia. RESULTS: High concordance with final abstracted codes was observed for identifying the presence of three pathology features (94%-98% F-measure). The approach was more consistent and reliable than manual abstractions, identifying 3%-14% additional feature instances. CONCLUSION: Keyword trigger-based automation with OCR error correction and negation handling proved not only to be rapid and convenient, but also providing consistent and reliable data abstractions from scanned clinical records. In conjunction with manual review, it can assist in the generation of high-quality data abstractions for medical research studies.

20.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

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