Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 100
Filtrar
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(8): 811, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373617
4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270899

RESUMO

Dye-loaded micelles of 10 nm diameter formed from amphiphilic graft copolymers composed of a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) backbone and hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) side chains with a degree of polymerization of 15 were investigated concerning their cellular interaction and uptake in vitro as well as their interaction with local and circulating cells of the reticuloendothelial system in the liver by intravital microscopy. Despite the high molar mass of the individual macromolecules (Mn ≈ 20 kg mol-1), backbone end group modification by attachment of a hydrophilic anionic fluorescent probe strongly affected the in vivo performance. To understand these effects, the end group was additionally modified by the attachment of four methacrylic acid repeating units. Although various micelles appeared similar in dynamic light scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, changes in the micelles were evident from principal component analysis of the Raman spectra. Whereas an efficient stealth effect was found for micelles formed from polymers with anionically charged or thiol end groups, a hydrophobic end group altered the micelles' structure sufficiently to adapt cell-type specificity and stealth properties in the liver.

5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 2909-2927, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260279

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how epidemiological and clinical factors collectively predict whether a preschooler who is stuttering will persist or recover and to provide guidance on how clinicians can use these factors to evaluate a child's risk for stuttering persistence. Method We collected epidemiological and clinical measures from 52 preschoolers (M = 54.4 months, SD = 6.7 months; 38 boys and 14 girls) diagnosed as stuttering. We then followed these children longitudinally to document whether they eventually recovered or persisted in stuttering. Risk factors found to be significantly associated with stuttering persistence were used to build single and multiple variable predictive statistical models. Finally, we assessed each model's prediction capabilities by recording how accurate a model was in predicting a child's stuttering outcome-persisting or recovered. Results We found that a positive family history of stuttering, poorer performance on a standardized articulation/phonological assessment, higher frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies during spontaneous speech, and lower accuracy on a nonword repetition task were all significantly associated with an increased probability of persistence. The interaction between family history of stuttering and nonword repetition performance was also significant. The full multiple regression model incorporating all these risk factors resulted in the best fitting model with the highest predictive accuracy and lowest error rate. Conclusions For the first time, we show how multiple risk factors collectively predict the probability of stuttering persistence in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children who stutter. Using the full combination of risk factors to assess preschoolers who stutter yielded more accurate predictions of persistence compared to sparser models. A better understanding of the factors that underlie stuttering persistence will yield insight into the underpinnings of chronic stuttering and will help identify etiological targets for novel treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Atenção , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Gagueira/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(7): 677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253891
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1653: 462364, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280792

RESUMO

Hydrophilic poly(2-oxazoline)s represent a promising alternative to replace poly(ethylene glycol) in the biomedical field. For that purpose, reliable analytical protocols to confirm identity and quantity of impurities are required. In particular, side products deriving from chain transfer reactions occurring during the cationic ring-opening polymerization and incomplete end-capping processes may be present. The analytical approach must hence be capable of separating polymers according to minor changes regarding their end group. We demonstrate that liquid chromatography, relying on a monolithic C18-modified silica column and isocratic as well as gradient elution using water / acetonitrile mixtures and varying detectors, can accomplish such demanding high resolution separations. Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PEtOx) with acetyl, hydroxyl, and phthalimide ω-end groups were investigated. Identification of side products was achieved through coupling with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. UV / Vis detection was applied to quantify chain transfer products in PEtOx comprising biphenyl moieties. In addition, gradient elution enabled the separation of PEtOx into macromolecules according to their specific degrees of polymerization in molar mass ranges around 2,000 g mol-1.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Polímeros , Peso Molecular , Polímeros/síntese química , Prótons
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(6): 579, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108655

Assuntos
Corpo Estriado , Feto , Humanos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113066, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146777

RESUMO

Sediment transport in mountain streams can be a major hazard to downstream infrastructure. Consequently, sediment traps are a common feature in many high gradient streams to retain large volumes of sediment and protect settlements from major sediment transport events. Despite the wide application of these instream structures, there is little knowledge regarding the environmental and ecological effects on streams. Here, we investigated the hydromorphological effects of sediment traps on instream habitats and associated macroinvertebrate communities in four impacted and three non-impacted streams in Switzerland. Sediment traps significantly disrupted the sediment regime homogenising grain size percentiles compared to the natural stepwise downstream fining in control streams. This disruption in the sediment regime resulted in finer grain size distributions upstream of the sediment trap, and reduced substrate diversity in the sediment retention basin and just downstream of the trap. The reductions in substrate diversity resulted in an altered macroinvertebrate community composition. Further, the disconnection in sediment transport led to a lack of longitudinal correlation in macroinvertebrate communities. Refugia provision downstream of the sediment trap, and resource availability within the retention basin, were diminished, potentially reducing resilience of macroinvertebrate assemblages to instream disturbances. The effects of sediment traps were most likely localised in three of the four streams with substrate diversity recovering to comparable control values within 8 wetted widths (ca. 50 m) downstream of the trap associated with natural longitudinal fining. In contrast, ecological and environmental effects propagated downstream in one impacted stream with no recovery being evident. Sediment retention basins in the impacted streams provided a local artificially unique habitat of dynamic-braided channels. Our results indicate that sediment traps can significantly disrupt the sediment regime with important consequences for instream ecology and environmental conditions, although these effects can be system specific. Further work is needed to fully understand the effects of sediment traps in mountain streams to assist resource managers in the mitigation and future construction of these structures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Suíça
10.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(13): e2100132, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960561

RESUMO

The incorporation of an amino group into a bifunctional initiator for the cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) is achieved in a two-step reaction. Detailed kinetic studies using 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline demonstrate the initiators' eligibility for the CROP yielding well-defined polymers featuring molar masses of about 2000 g mol-1 . Deprotection of the phthalimide moiety subsequent to polymerization enables the introduction of a cyclooctyne group in central position of the polymer which is further exploited in a strain-promoted alkyne-azide click reaction (SpAAC) with a Fmoc-protected azido lysine representing a commonly used binding motif for site specific polymer-protein/peptide conjugation. In-depth characterization via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI) confirms the success of all post polymerization modification steps.


Assuntos
Oxazóis , Cinética , Poliaminas , Polimerização
11.
J Neurodev Disord ; 13(1): 20, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with developmental language disorders (DLD) have well-documented weaknesses in vocabulary. In recent years, investigators have explored the nature of these weaknesses through the use of novel word learning paradigms. These studies have begun to uncover specific areas of difficulty and have provided hints about possible intervention strategies that might help these children learn words more accurately and efficiently. Among the studies of this type are those that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval activities in the learning procedures. METHODS: In this study, we examined the data from four of these studies that employed the same types of participants (4- and 5-year-old children with DLD and same-age children with typical language development), research design, and outcome measures. The studies differed primarily in the type of learning condition that was being compared to a spaced retrieval condition. A mixed-effects modeling framework was used, enabling the data from the four studies and different outcome measures to be aggregated. RESULTS: Across the studies, more words in the repeated spaced retrieval condition were recalled than those in the comparison conditions. This was true regardless of outcome measure. Children with typical language development recalled more words than the children with DLD. Both groups benefited from spaced retrieval, though effects were larger for the group with DLD. Children recalled words as accurately 1 week after learning as they did at the 5-min mark; the two groups were essentially identical in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings support the continued refinement of these types of repeated spaced retrieval procedures, as they may have potential to serve as effective approaches to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Vocabulário
12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 142(1): 191-210, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929593

RESUMO

The genetic basis of brain tumor development is poorly understood. Here, leukocyte DNA of 21 patients from 15 families with ≥ 2 glioma cases each was analyzed by whole-genome or targeted sequencing. As a result, we identified two families with rare germline variants, p.(A592T) or p.(A817V), in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 that co-segregate with the tumor phenotype, consisting primarily of oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade II/III, IDH-mutant, 1p/19q-codeleted (ODs). Rare CDH1 variants, previously shown to predispose to gastric and breast cancer, were significantly overrepresented in these glioma families (13.3%) versus controls (1.7%). In 68 individuals from 28 gastric cancer families with pathogenic CDH1 germline variants, brain tumors, including a pituitary adenoma, were observed in three cases (4.4%), a significantly higher prevalence than in the general population (0.2%). Furthermore, rare CDH1 variants were identified in tumor DNA of 6/99 (6%) ODs. CDH1 expression was detected in undifferentiated and differentiating oligodendroglial cells isolated from rat brain. Functional studies using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in or stably transfected cell models demonstrated that the identified CDH1 germline variants affect cell membrane expression, cell migration and aggregation. E-cadherin ectodomain containing variant p.(A592T) had an increased intramolecular flexibility in a molecular dynamics simulation model. E-cadherin harboring intracellular variant p.(A817V) showed reduced ß-catenin binding resulting in increased cytosolic and nuclear ß-catenin levels reverted by treatment with the MAPK interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 inhibitor CGP 57380. Our data provide evidence for a role of deactivating CDH1 variants in the risk and tumorigenesis of neuroepithelial and epithelial brain tumors, particularly ODs, possibly via WNT/ß-catenin signaling.

13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 542-560, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561369

RESUMO

Purpose Recent findings in preschool children indicated novel adjective recall was enhanced when learned using repeated retrieval with contextual reinstatement (RRCR) compared to repeated study (RS). Recall was similar for learned pictures used during training and new (generalized) pictures with the same adjective features. The current study compared the effects of learning method and learned/generalized pictures on the neural processes mediating the recognition of novel adjectives. Method Twenty typically developing children aged 4;6-5;11 (years;months) learned four novel adjectives, two using RRCR and two using RS. Five-minute and 1-week tests assessed adjective recall using learned and generalized pictures. Also, at the 1-week visit, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess children's processing of learned/generalized pictures, followed by naturally spoken novel adjectives in a match-mismatch paradigm. Results Naming recall and match-mismatch judgment accuracy were similar for the RS and RRCR conditions and across learned/generalized pictures. However, ERPs revealed more reliable condition effects in the phonological mapping negativity, indexing phonological expectations, and the late positive component, indexing semantic reanalysis, for the adjectives learned in the RRCR relative to the RS condition. Unfamiliar pictures (generalized) elicited larger amplitude N300 and N400 components relative to learned pictures. Conclusions Although behavioral accuracy measures suggest similar effects of the RS and RRCR learning conditions, subtle differences in the ERPs underlying novel adjective processing indicate advantages of RRCR for phonological processing and semantic reanalysis. While children readily generalized the novel adjectives, ERPs revealed greater cognitive resources for processing unfamiliar compared to learned pictures of the novel adjective characteristics. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13683214.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(11): 1308-1311, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459327

RESUMO

A new monomer, 2-ferrocene-ethyl-2-oxazoline, was copolymerized with 2-alkyl-2-oxazolines. The cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) of 2-oxazolines allows the synthesis of well-defined copolymers with adjustable molar masses as well as end-group control, which was also evident from kinetic studies. The utilization of this new comonomer led to redox-active polymers as proven by UV-VIS-measurements and cyclic-voltammetry.

15.
J Fluency Disord ; 67: 105802, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the neural correlates of emotion processing in 5- to 8-year-old children who do and do not stutter. METHODS: Participants were presented with an audio contextual cue followed by images of threatening (angry/fearful) and neutral facial expressions from similarly aged peers. Three conditions differed in audio-image pairing: neutral context-neutral expression (neutral condition), negative context-threatening expression (threat condition), and reappraisal context-threatening expression (reappraisal condition). These conditions reflected social stimuli that are ecologically valid to the everyday life of children. RESULTS: P100, N170, and late positive potential (LPP) ERP components were elicited over parietal and occipital electrodes. The threat condition elicited an increased LPP mean amplitude compared to the neutral condition across our participants, suggesting increased emotional reactivity to threatening facial expressions. In addition, LPP amplitude decreased during the reappraisal condition- evidence of emotion regulation. No group differences were observed in the mean amplitude of ERP components between children who do and do not stutter. Furthermore, dimensions of childhood temperament and stuttering severity were not strongly correlated with LPP elicitation. CONCLUSION: These findings are suggestive that, at this young age, children who stutter exhibit typical brain activation underlying emotional reactivity and regulation to social threat from peer facial expressions.

16.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 156: 60-68, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711016

RESUMO

The school-age years is a period of increasing social interaction with peers and development of emotion regulation in facilitating that interaction. This study was an investigation of the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and reappraisal in typically developing school-age children elicited by threatening facial expressions of same-aged peers. This experimental paradigm is novel in eliciting event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to social stimuli that are ecologically valid to the everyday life of children. ERPs of 5- to 8-year-old children (N = 41, 18 females) were elicited by threatening (i.e., angry and fearful) and neutral child facial expressions, which were preceded by audio contextual cues. Three conditions differed in audio-image pairing: neutral context-neutral expression (neutral condition), negative context-threatening expression (threat condition), and reappraisal context-threatening expression (reappraisal condition). In addition, parental reporting of childhood temperament was collected to determine if elicited ERP morphologies were associated with temperamental dimensions of negative affect, extraversion, and effortful control. Elicitation of the P100 and N170 did not largely differ between conditions; however, amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP), a marker of heightened emotional reactivity and attention, was greater for threatening faces relative to neutral faces. During the reappraisal condition, no differences in ERP activity was observed compared to the threat condition. Neural substrates of emotional reactivity to social threat from peers were evident; however, the lack of ERP modulation facilitating reappraisal and the lack of strong associations between ERP morphology and temperamental dimensions is indicative of heterogeneity in LPP elicitation underlying emotion regulation in children.

17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(8): 2555-2566, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692634

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study is to document disfluency behaviors expressed by 4- and 5-year-old children who stutter and to identify whether stuttering characteristics at this age are predictive of later stuttering recovery or persistence. Method We analyzed spontaneous speech samples from 47 children diagnosed with developmental stuttering when they were 4-5 years old. Based on their eventual diagnosis made the final year of participation in the longitudinal study when the children were 6-9 years old, the children were divided into two groups: children who eventually recovered from stuttering (n = 29) and children who were persisting (n = 18). We calculated a composite weighted stuttering-like disfluency (SLD) index of overall severity that considers the frequency, type, and number of repetition units of SLDs. The frequency and type of typical disfluencies were also examined. Results Higher weighted SLD scores at ages 4-5 years were associated with a higher probability of persistent stuttering. The weighted SLD also significantly discriminated between children who would eventually be diagnosed as persisting or recovered from stuttering. The frequency and type of typical disfluency did not distinguish the two groups of children; however, children who were persisting had significantly higher frequencies of part-word repetitions and dysrhythmic phonations (i.e., blocks, prolongations, and broken words) and maximum number of part-word repetitions compared to children who eventually recovered from stuttering. Conclusions Previous findings in younger, 2- to 3-year-old children who stutter did not suggest a relationship between the severity and type of children's SLDs and their eventual stuttering outcome. Yet, by the age of 4-5 years, we found that the weighted SLD, a clinically applicable tool, may be used to help identify children at greater risk for stuttering persistence. We propose that the weighted SLD be considered, along with other predictive factors, when assessing risk of stuttering persistence in 4- and 5-year-old children who are stuttering.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Gagueira/diagnóstico , Gagueira/epidemiologia
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(4): 1053-1070, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302258

RESUMO

Purpose Previous studies of neural processing of rhyme discrimination in 7- to 8-year-old children who stutter (CWS) distinguished children who had recovered, children who had persisted, and children who did not stutter (CWNS; Mohan & Weber, 2015). Here, we investigate neural processing mediating rhyme discrimination for early acquired real words in younger CWS and CWNS (4;1-6;0 years;months), when rhyming abilities are newly emerging, to examine possible relationships to eventual recovery (CWS-eRec) and persistence in stuttering (CWS-ePer). Method Children performed a rhyme discrimination task while their event-related brain potentials were recorded. CWNS, CWS-eRec, and CWS-ePer had similar speech and language abilities. Inclusionary criteria incorporated at least 70% accuracy for rhyme discrimination. Analyses focused on the mean amplitude of the N400 component elicited by rhyming and nonrhyming words in anterior and posterior regions of interest. Results CWNS, CWS-eRec, and CWS-ePer displayed a classic event-related potential rhyme effect for rhyme discrimination characterized by larger amplitude, posteriorly distributed N400s elicited by nonrhyming targets compared to rhyming targets. CWNS displayed a more robust anterior rhyme effect compared to the CWS groups with a larger amplitude N400 anteriorly for the rhyming targets. This effect was more consistent across individual CWNS than CWS. Conclusions The groups of CWNS, CWS-eRec, and CWS-ePer, who had all developed rhyming discrimination abilities, exhibited similar underlying neural processes mediating phonological processing of early acquired words for the classic central-parietal rhyme effect. However, individual variability of the anterior rhyme effect suggested differences in specific aspects of phonological processing for some CWS-eRec and CWS-ePer compared to CWNS.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fala
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 143: 107473, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333934

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that affective valence states induced by brief stimulus presentations are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether those results will generalize to identification of continuous changes in affective valence states under naturalistic settings, such as watching a movie. We examined neural representations of signed (positive versus negative) and unsigned (valenced versus non-valenced) valence on previously collected fMRI data from 17 participants who watched a TV show episode in a passive viewing task in the scanner (Chen et al., 2017). These data were correlated with behavioral valence ratings from a separate group of 125 participants. We spatially localized both signed and unsigned valence representations and were able to predict valence ratings for most participants based on the signed valence model in a cross-participant cross-validation procedure. These findings extend previous results from controlled experimental studies to naturalistic settings, demonstrating the ecological validity of prior findings.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Afeto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos
20.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(6): 2104-2115, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286800

RESUMO

We describe the synthesis of hydrophilic poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PmPEGMA) and hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) caspofungin conjugates by a post-polymerization modification of copolymers containing 10 mol % pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFPMA), which were obtained via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization. The coupling of the clinically used antifungal caspofungin was confirmed and quantified in detail by a combination of 1H-, 19F- and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography. The trifunctional amine-containing antifungal was attached via several amide bonds to the hydrophobic PMMA, but sterical hindrance induced by the mPEGMA side chains prohibited intramolecular double functionalization. Both polymer-drug conjugates revealed activity against important human-pathogenic fungi, that is, two strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and one strain of Candida albicans (2.5 mg L-1 < MEC < 8 mg L-1, MIC50 = 4 mg L-1), whereas RAW 264.7 macrophages as well as HeLa cells remained unaffected at these concentrations.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Caspofungina , Células HeLa , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...