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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, the addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance post- autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in 64 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients was evaluated based on the observed benefit of lenalidomide-only maintenance in prior studies. METHODS: Patients were started on maintenance therapy with lenalidomide and ixazomib within 60-180 days of stem cell infusion. RESULTS: Response rates deepened over time from baseline post-ASCT for 39 patients. The complete response (CR)/stringent CR rate was 43% and median overall survival was not reached with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 25-82 months). Median PFS (mPFS) for all patients was 73 months and has not been reached for those with ISS stage 1 disease. mPFS in 9 patients who had ISS stage 3 disease and 14 patients who had high-risk cytogenetics was 34 and 25 months, respectively. Twenty-two patients had progressive disease, while 19 patients continue to receive dual maintenance. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lung infections, diarrhea, and maculopapular rash. Second primary malignancies occurred in 9 patients. Toxicity led to dose reductions in ixazomib and lenalidomide in 20 and 31 patients, respectively. Discontinuation of ixazomib due to toxicity occurred in 4 patients. Grade 1/2 neuropathy occurred in 22 patients and led to reduction or discontinuation of ixazomib in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance demonstrated a better than expected PFS compared with historical data using lenalidomide alone and was safe and tolerable.

2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686083

RESUMO

Standard-of-care for newly-diagnosed, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT)-eligible, multiple myeloma (MM) patients includes bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) induction followed by melphalan 200 mg/m2 (Mel200)-conditioned auto-HCT and lenalidomide maintenance. We completed a retrospective case series assessing outcomes of 187 MM patients who received this regimen at our institution. The 100-day non-relapse mortality incidence was zero. Before auto-HCT, 9.6 and 52.9% of patients achieved a complete response (CR) or ≥ very good partial response (VGPR), respectively. At day-100 post-transplant, 29.4 and 74.9% had achieved a CR/stringent-CR (sCR) or ≥ VGPR, respectively. At the last evaluation, 57.2% of patients had CR/sCR and 87.1% had ≥ VGPR. Median follow-up, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 63.2, 50, and 101.7 months, respectively. The 5-year PFS and OS were 43.1 and 79%. High-risk cytogenetics was associated with worse outcomes. This study illustrates that VRD induction, Mel200-conditioned auto-HCT, and lenalidomide maintenance are associated with good outcomes in MM.

4.
Neoplasia ; 23(4): 361-374, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735664

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct type of indolent lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with a high frequency of MYD88L265P mutation. Treatment for WM/LPL is highly variable in clinic and ibrutinib (a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BTKi) has become a new treatment option for WM. To investigate the clinical impact of genetic alterations in WM, we assembled a large cohort of 219 WMs and 12 LPLs dividing into two subcohorts: a training cohort, patients sequenced by a same targeted 29-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, and a validation cohort, patients sequenced by allele specific-PCR or other targeted NGS panels. In both training and validation subcohorts, MYD88L265P and TP53 mutations showed favorable and adverse prognostic effects, respectively. CXCR4 nonsense/missense mutations (CXCR4NS/MS), cytogenetic complex karyotypes, and a family history of lymphoma/leukemia in first-degree relatives were associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes only or more in the validation subcohort. We further investigated the efficacy of various treatments and interaction with genetic factors in the entire cohort. Upfront dexamethasone usage was associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients who received non-proteasome-containing chemotherapy as first-line treatment independent of genetic factors. Maintenance rituximab was associated with better survival. Ibrutinib/BTKi showed potential benefit in relapsed/refractory patients and patients without CXCR4NS/MS including those with TP53 mutations. In conclusion, genetic testing for MYD88L265P, TP53, and CXCR4 mutations and cytogenetic analysis provide important information for prognosis prediction and therapy selection. The findings in these study are valuable for improving treatment decisions on therapies available for WM/LPL patients with integration of NGS in clinic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Mod Pathol ; 34(2): 327-335, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908255

RESUMO

Gains or amplification (amp) of chromosome 1q21/CKS1B are reported to be a high-risk factor in myeloma. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the impact of CKS1B gain/amp on overall survival in the context of other genetic aberrations, such as TP53 deletion, FGFR3-IGH, IGH-MAF, MYEOV/CCND1-IGH, and RB1, as well as karyotype. The cohort included 132 myeloma patients with CKS1B gain/amp detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. There were 72 men and 60 women with a median age of 65 years (range 39-88 years). A normal, simple, or complex karyotype was observed in 39.5%, 5.4%, and 55% of patients, respectively. "Double hit," defined as CKS1B gain/amp coexisting with TP53 deletion, or "triple hit," defined as double hit plus t(4;14)FGFR3-IGH or t(14;16)IGH-MAF, were identified in 25 patients (18.9%) and five patients (3.8%), respectively. Double and triple hit were highly associated with a complex karyotype (p = 0.02). Ninety-nine patients (99/128, 77.3%) received stem cell transplantation. The median follow-up time was 48.2 months (range 2-104 months); 68 patients (51.5%) died, with a median overall survival of 58.8 months. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that double hit with TP53 deletion (p = 0.0031), triple hit (p = 0.01), and complex karyotype (p = 0.0009) were each independently associated with poorer overall survival. Stem cell transplantation was associated with better overall survival, mainly in patients with a double or triple hit and complex karyotype (p = 0.003). These findings indicate that the inferior outcome of myeloma patients with CKS1B gain/amp is attributable to the high number of high-risk patients in this group. The prognostic impact of CKS1B gain/amp depends on the background karyotype and TP53 status.


Assuntos
Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Cariótipo Anormal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(5): e221-e238, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a standard measurement for response assessment in multiple myeloma (MM). Despite new treatments, high-risk MM patients continue to have poor prognosis. We evaluated the effect of MRD negativity in high-risk versus standard-risk patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive MM patients who underwent routine MRD testing by 1-tube 8-color advanced flow cytometry with 2,000,000 events and sensitivity level 10-5 at our center from 2015 to 2018 after initial therapy. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test were used to assess survival estimates and differences between study groups. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-six patients with MRD testing after initial therapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation were identified. At a median follow-up of 14 months (range, 1-36 months), progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly worse in high-risk versus standard-risk patients. During the study period, 50% of high-risk group had experienced disease progression (relapse and/or death) versus 20% in the standard-risk group (P = .0006). No patients with standard-risk died, but 4 (14%) in the high-risk group did (P = .0007). Regardless of MRD status, high-risk patients had statistically significant worse progression-free survival than standard-risk patients. At median follow-up, those with disease 10% standard-risk/MRD negative; 20% standard-risk/MRD positive; 40% high-risk/MRD negative; and 45% high-risk/MRD positive had either experienced relapse or died (P = .0041). MRD status did not significantly affect overall survival in either group (P = .0914); however, longer follow-up is needed to assess survival. CONCLUSION: Genetic abnormalities remain a powerful prognostic indicator for MM, regardless of MRD status. For newly diagnosed MM patients treated with novel triple-drug initial therapy and frontline autologous stem-cell transplantation, MRD-negative status did not mitigate the poor-prognosis outcomes of high-risk MM patients.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Neoplasia Residual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(4): 982-985, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylator employed in the treatment of many malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Despite reports of cyclophosphamide hypersensitivity ranging from rash to anaphylaxis, no cases of desensitization have been reported in the oncologic setting. CASE REPORT: We report a cyclophosphamide desensitization protocol used for two patients who experienced severe hypersensitivity to bendamustine, a structurally related drug with potential cross immunogenicity. MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: An interdisciplinary approach including immunologist, oncologist, and clinical pharmacists resulted in the development of a multi-step desensitization protocol for cyclophosphamide. The desensitization protocol described enabled the safe administration of cyclophosphamide for the two patients with limited treatment alternatives. DISCUSSION: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cyclophosphamide desensitization in the oncologic setting. Two patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were able to receive cyclophosphamide with minimal adverse effects, despite experiencing previous severe hypersensitivity to another nitrogen mustard analogue.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(4): 665-671, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881283

RESUMO

The gain/amplification CKS1B gene at chromosome region 1q21 (1q+) is one of the most common genetic aberrations in multiple myeloma (MM). Amplification of CKS1B is frequently associated with the deletion of the CDKN2C gene at chromosome region 1p32 (1p-), which is also associated with inferior outcomes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with 1q+ and/or 1p- after high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). From January 2006 to December 2015, 1491 newly diagnosed patients with MM underwent upfront high-dose therapy and auto-HCT at our institution. Of those, 899 had the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) data available. FISH was performed at diagnosis and before the start of induction in 686 (76%) patients and after the initiation of induction therapy in 213 (24%) patients. We identified 100 patients with 1q+ and/or 1p- by FISH from the cohort of 899 patients. A control group (n = 287) with diploid cytogenetics and normal FISH panel was selected from the same cohort. From the above 2 cohorts, using a propensity score matched analysis, we identified matched controls for 85 of the 100 patients with 1q+/1p-. Patients were matched for age at auto-HCT, sex, International Staging System stage, induction regimen, creatinine level, disease status at auto-HCT, conditioning regimen, and maintenance therapy. Sixty-seven (79%), 4 (5%), and 14 (16%) patients had 1q+, 1p-, or both 1q+ and 1p-, respectively. There was no significant difference in induction therapy, preparative regimen, or maintenance therapy between the 1q+/1p- and the control group. The median follow-up time for all patients was 29.2 months (range, 0.29 to 84.96). The cumulative incidence of 100-day nonrelapse mortality was 1.2% and 0% for the 1q+/1p- and the control group, respectively. Forty-two patients (50%) in the 1q+/1p- group achieved complete response compared with 40 patients (47%) in the control group. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 41% and 79% for the 1q+/1p- group and 56% and 86% for the control group. Patients in the 1q+/1p- group were at significantly increased risk of progression or death compared to the control group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 4.16; P = .014). No significant association between OS in the 2 groups was observed. The outcome of the 1q+/1p- alone (with no additional high-risk cytogenetics) and the propensity score matched control groups was also compared. Median PFS for the 1q+/1p- alone subgroup was 26.6 months, compared with 38.8 months for the control group (HR, 1.9; CI, 0.9 to 4.08; P = .09). The median OS had not been reached for the 1q+/1p- alone subgroup and was 81.1 months for the control group (HR, 1.25; CI, 0.3 to 4.6; P= .73). 1q+/1p- abnormalities with amplification of CKS1B and deletion ofCDKN2Cgenes were associated with shorter PFS compared with a propensity score matched group of patients with diploid cytogenetics and normal a FISH panel. The outcomes of 1q+/1p- patients with MM have improved with the use of more effective induction, conditioning, and maintenance therapy compared with historical controls, but we still need more effective therapeutic approaches to fully overcome the negative impact of 1q+/1p-.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Cromossomos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1077-1083, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786242

RESUMO

In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the impact of age on the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) at our institution. A total of 1128 patients were divided into the older (>70 years; 182 [16%]) and the younger (≤70 years; 946 [84%]) groups. Compared with the younger cohort, older patients had a higher International Staging System (ISS) stage (ISS-II, 57 [31%] versus 215 [23%]; ISS-III, 52 [28%] versus 211 [22%]; P = .01), higher use of reduced-dose melphalan as a conditioning regimen (140 mg/m², 59 [32%] versus 29 [3%]; P < .001), and a higher comorbidity index (median, 3 versus 2; P = .01). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year after auto-HCT was significantly higher in older patients (7 [4%] versus 9 [1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; P = .005). Complete remission rates after auto-HCT for the older and the younger groups were 41% and 46%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 32%) and 37% (95% CI, 33% to 40%) in the older and younger groups, respectively (HR, 1.3; P = .02). Five-year OS for the older and younger groups was 56% (95% CI, 47% to 64%) and 73% (95% CI, 70% to 76%; P < .001), respectively. Older age emerged as one of the predictors of shorter OS but not PFS in the multivariate classification and regression tree analysis. In conclusion, age ≥70 years was associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an auto-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(22): 6781-6787, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) have been considered to have standard-risk disease. However, several recent reports have shown contradictory results. We identified 95 patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) on FISH studies, who underwent upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auto-HCT) at our center. We compared their outcome with a group of standard-risk patients with multiple myeloma who had diploid cytogenetics by both conventional cytogenetics (CC) and FISH (n = 287). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To reduce the bias between the groups, we performed a 1:1 propensity score matching technique for analysis. A total of 160 patients, 80 in each group, were identified. Patients in the 2 groups were matched for age, International staging system stage at diagnosis, serum creatinine at presentation, disease status at auto-HCT, type of preparative regimens, dose of melphalan used for conditioning, and induction and maintenance regimens. RESULTS: Patients in t(11;14) group had a post auto-HCT overall response rate (ORR) of 97.5% (78/80), compared with 100% (80/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.50). Complete response rate in the t(11;14) group was 35% (28/80), compared with 45% (36/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.26). The 4-year PFS rates were 40.8% (95% CI, 29.6%-56.1%) and 51.1% (95% CI, 39.4%-66.3%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.14). The 4-year OS rates were 74.9% (95% CI, 63.3%-88.7%) and 88.3% (95% CI, 80.4%-97.0%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.17). Also, patients with t(11;14) with concurrent cytogenetics had significantly poor PFS and OS compared with a propensity matched standard-risk control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that t(11;14) multiple myeloma undergoing upfront autologous transplantation had similar outcomes as patients with multiple myeloma with normal cytogenetic and FISH studies. Existence of additional genomic aberrations by CC or FISH was associated with a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Translocação Genética , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 21: 100159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulated bone turnover is an important clinical manifestation of multiple myeloma (MM), and 30% of patients present with hypercalcemia. Serum calcium levels are routinely monitored using total calcium measurements corrected for albumin. However, myeloma-related paraproteins may bind calcium, confounding these measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed correlation between corrected calcium and ionized calcium in a sample of patients with MM and a control sample of patients with breast or non-small cell lung cancers (n = 200). Multiple linear regression was used to identify variables affecting corrected calcium measurements. RESULTS: Correlation between corrected calcium and ionized calcium was stronger in the control group compared to the MM group (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.85 versus 0.76, respectively). Sensitivity of corrected calcium in identifying hypercalcemia defined by elevated ionized calcium was 36% in patients with MM and 76% in the control group. Multiple linear regression did not reveal variables significantly influencing corrected calcium in the MM group, although serum paraprotein trended toward significance (p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Ionized calcium may be better than corrected calcium for detecting hypercalcemia in patients with MM. Additional analyses are needed to better quantify the clinical impact of paraprotein calcium-binding.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2400-2408, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405950

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is, in most patients, an incurable cancer. Its precursors can be identified with routine tests setting the stage for early intervention to prevent active myeloma. We investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab, an antiprogrammed cell death 1 antibody, in smoldering myeloma patients with intermediate/high risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. Thirteen patients were treated with a median number of 8 cycles. One patient achieved a stringent complete response with bone marrow next-generation sequencing negativity at 10-4 that is ongoing at 27 months (8%); 11 had stable disease (85%), and 1 progressed (8%). Three patients discontinued therapy due to immune-related adverse events: 2 with transaminitis and 1 due to tubulointerstitial nephritis. Immune profiling of bone marrow samples at baseline showed markers associated with a preexisting immune response in the responder compared with nonresponders and features of increased T-cell exhaustion in nonresponders. Consistent with this, transcriptome sequencing of bone marrow samples at baseline revealed an increased interferon-γ signature in the responder compared with the nonresponders. In summary, our results suggest that smoldering myeloma may be immunogenic in a subset of patients, and therapies that enhance antitumor T-cell responses may be effective in preventing its progression. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02603887.

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