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1.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 961-964, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638507

RESUMO

Enmeshment of emergency trauma providers (ETPs) into the United States health-care fabric resulted in the establishment of a formalized surgical critical care fellowship and certification for emergency medicine trainees. The aim of this study was to compare trauma outcomes for surgery-trained providers (STPs) and ETPs at our institution, hypothesizing patient outcome equivalency. We performed an institutional review board-exempt institutional registry review (January 1, 2004 to August 1, 2018), comparing 74 STPs and 6 ETPs. Comparator variables included all-cause mortality, all-cause morbidity, CT imaging studies per provider, time in ED (min), hospital/ICU lengths of stay, ICU admissions, and functional outcomes on discharge. Statistical comparisons included chi-square test for categorical data and analysis of covariance for continuous data (adjustments made for patient age, Injury Severity Score, and trauma mechanism; all P < 0.20). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05, with an equivalence study design. A total of 33,577 trauma resuscitations were reviewed (32,299 STP-led and 1,278 ETP-led). Except for patient age (STP 50.2 ± 25.9 vs ETP 54.9 ± 25.3 years), Injury Severity Score (8.47 ± 8.14 vs 9.22 ± 8.40), and ICU admissions (16.1% vs 18.8%), we noted no significant intergroup differences. ETPs' performance was equivalent to that of STPs for all primary comparator variables (mortality, morbidity, CT utilization, time in the ED, lengths of stay, and functional outcomes). Incorporation of ETPs into our trauma center resulted in outcome parity between ETPs and STPs, while simultaneously expanding the expertise and experiential diversity within our multidisciplinary team. This study provides support for further incorporation of ETPs as equal partners across the growing network of United States regional trauma centers.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Cuidados Críticos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pennsylvania , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
2.
Pediatrics ; 135(1): 94-101, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25511116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Experts suggest family engagement in care can improve safety for hospitalized children. Family-centered rounds (FCRs) can offer families the opportunity to participate in error recovery related to children's medications. The objective of this study was to describe family-initiated dialogue about medications and health care team responses to this dialogue during FCR to understand the potential for FCR to foster safe medication use. METHODS: FCR were video-recorded daily for 150 hospitalized children. Coders sorted family-initiated medication dialogue into mutually exclusive categories, reflecting place of administration, therapeutic class, topic, and health care team responses. Health care team responses were coded to reflect intent, actions taken by the team, and appropriateness of any changes. RESULTS: Eighty-three (55%) of the 150 families raised 318 medication topics during 347 FCR. Most family-initiated dialogue focused on inpatient medications (65%), with home medications comprising 35%. Anti-infectives (31%), analgesics (14%), and corticosteroids (11%) were the most commonly discussed medications. The most common medication topics raised by families were scheduling (24%) and adverse drug reactions (11%). Although most health care team responses were provision of information (74%), appropriate changes to the child's medications occurred in response to 8% of family-initiated dialogue, with most changes preventing or addressing adverse drug reactions or scheduling issues. CONCLUSIONS: Most families initiated dialogue regarding medications during FCRs, including both inpatient and home medications. They raised topics that altered treatment and were important for medication safety, adherence, and satisfaction. Study findings suggest specific medication topics that health care teams can anticipate addressing during FCR.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 55(1): 148-56, 2007 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17199326

RESUMO

The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pinus/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 20(2): 306-8, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15969129

RESUMO

An ambient extraction of goldenseal root powder followed by HPLC analysis of the alkaloids on a Zorbax Rapid Resolution Eclipse XDB-C18 column provides an accurate method for the determination of key alkaloids in goldenseal, including berberine and hydrastine. The extraction and HPLC analysis can be applied to several other alkaloids, including canadine, hydrastinine, and palmatine, and may be applicable to other berberine-containing plant roots. The Rapid Resolution Eclipse XDB-C18 column is used for an isocratic separation with high resolution of all componentsin under 15 minutes.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas/análise , Berberina/análise , Hydrastis/química , Benzilisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Berberina/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 51(25): 7352-8, 2003 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14640583

RESUMO

The characterization of herbal materials is a significant challenge to analytical chemists. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.), which has been chosen for toxicity evaluation by NIEHS, is among the top 15 herbal supplements currently on the market and contains a complex mixture of indigenous components ranging from carbohydrates and amino acids to isoquinoline alkaloids. One key component of herbal supplement production is botanical authentication, which is also recommended prior to initiation of efficacy or toxicological studies. To evaluate material available to consumers, goldenseal root powder was obtained from three commercial suppliers and a strategy was developed for characterization and comparison that included Soxhlet extraction, HPLC, GC-MS, and LC-MS analyses. HPLC was used to determine the weight percentages of the goldenseal alkaloids berberine, hydrastine, and canadine in the various extract residues. Palmatine, an isoquinoline alkaloid native to Coptis spp. and other common goldenseal adulterants, was also quantitated using HPLC. GC-MS was used to identify non-alkaloid constituents in goldenseal root powder, whereas LC-MS was used to identify alkaloid components. After review of the characterization data, it was determined that alkaloid content was the best biomarker for goldenseal. A 20-min ambient extraction method for the determination of alkaloid content was also developed and used to analyze the commercial material. All three lots of purchased material contained goldenseal alkaloids hydrastinine, berberastine, tetrahydroberberastine, canadaline, berberine, hydrastine, and canadine. Material from a single supplier also contained palmatine, coptisine, and jatrorrhizine, thus indicating that the material was not pure goldenseal. Comparative data for three commercial sources of goldenseal root powder are presented.


Assuntos
Hydrastis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
J AOAC Int ; 86(3): 476-83, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12852562

RESUMO

A fast, practical ambient extraction methodology followed by isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) analysis with UV detection was validated for the determination of berberine, hydrastine, and canadine in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) root powder. The method was also validated for palmatine, a major alkaloid present in the possible bioadulterants Coptis, Oregon grape root, and barberry bark. Alkaloid standard solutions were linear over the evaluated concentration ranges. The analytical method was linear for alkaloid extraction using 0.3-2 g goldenseal root powder/100 mL extraction solvent. Precision of the method was demonstrated using 10 replicate extractions of 0.5 g goldenseal root powder, with percent relative standard deviation for all 4 alkaloids < or = 1.6. Alkaloid recovery was determined by spiking each alkaloid into triplicate aliquots of neat goldenseal root powder. Recoveries ranged from 92.3% for palmatine to 101.9% for hydrastine. Ruggedness of the method was evaluated by performing multiple analyses of goldenseal root powder from 3 suppliers over a 2-year period. The method was also used to analyze Coptis root, Oregon grape root, barberry bark, and celandine herb, which are possible goldenseal bioadulterants. The resulting chromatographic profiles of the bioadulterants were significantly different from that of goldenseal. The method was directly transferred to LC with mass spectrometry, which was used to confirm the presence of goldenseal alkaloids tetrahydroberberastine, berberastine, canadaline, berberine, hydrastine, and canadine, as well as alkaloids from the bioadulterants, including palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and coptisine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Hydrastis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Pós
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