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Adv Mater ; : e2209779, 2023 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36951229


Thermoelectric materials convert heat into electricity through thermally driven charge transport in solids, or vice versa for cooling. To be competitive with conventional energy-generation technologies, a thermoelectric material must possess the properties of both an electrical conductor and a thermal insulator. However, these properties are normally mutually exclusive because of the interconnection of the scattering mechanisms for charge carriers and phonons. Recent theoretical investigations on sub-device scales have revealed that silicon membranes covered by nanopillars exhibit a multitude of local phonon resonances, spanning the full spectrum, that couple with the heat-carrying phonons in the membrane and collectively cause a reduction in the in-plane thermal conductivity-while, in principle, not affecting the electrical properties because the nanopillars are external to the pathway of voltage generation and charge transport. Here this effect is demonstrated experimentally for the first time by investigating device-scale suspended silicon membranes with GaN nanopillars grown on the surface. The nanopillars cause up to 21 % reduction in the thermal conductivity while the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient remain unaffected, thus demonstrating an unprecedented decoupling in the semiconductor's thermoelectric properties. The measured thermal conductivity behavior for coalesced nanopillars and corresponding lattice-dynamics calculations provide further evidence that the reductions are mechanistically tied to the phonon resonances. This finding breaks a longstanding trade-off between competing properties in thermoelectricity and paves the way for engineered high-efficiency solid-state energy recovery and cooling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(8): 11084-11091, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36800520


Compliant sutures surrounded by stiff matrices are present in biological armors and carapaces, providing enhanced mechanical performance. Understanding the mechanisms through which these sutured composites achieve outstanding properties is key to developing engineering materials with improved strength and toughness. This article studies the impact of suture geometry and load direction on the performance of suture joints using a two-stage reactive polymer resin that enables facile photopatterning of mechanical heterogeneity within a single polymer network. Compliant sinusoidal sutures with varying geometries are photopatterned into stiff matrices, generating a modulus contrast of 2 orders of magnitude. Empirical relationships are developed connecting suture wavelength and amplitude to composite performance under parallel and perpendicular loading conditions. Results indicate that a greater suture interdigitation broadly improves composite performance when loading is applied perpendicular to suture joints but has deleterious effects when loading is applied parallel to the joint. Investigations into the failure mechanisms under perpendicular loading highlight the interplay between suture geometry and crack growth stability after damage initiation occurs. Our findings could enable a framework for engineering composites and bio-inspired structures in the future.

Suturas , Resistência à Tração
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529769


Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and detection of unexpected structures in externally sourced chips, among other applications. Here, we report on a non-destructive, tabletop approach that addresses this imaging problem through x-ray tomography, which we uniquely realize with an instrument that combines a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer. Our approach uses the highly focused SEM electron beam to generate a small x-ray generation region in a carefully designed target layer that is placed over the sample being tested. With the high collection efficiency and resolving power of a TES spectrometer, we can isolate x-rays generated in the target from background and trace their paths through regions of interest in the sample layers, providing information about the various materials along the x-ray paths through their attenuation functions. We have recently demonstrated our approach using a 240 Mo/Cu bilayer TES prototype instrument on a simplified test sample containing features with sizes of ∼ 1 µm. Currently, we are designing and building a 3000 Mo/Au bilayer TES spectrometer upgrade, which is expected to improve the imaging speed by factor of up to 60 through a combination of increased detector number and detector speed.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343056


GaN nanowire LEDs with radial p-i-n junctions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using N-polar selective area growth on Si(111) substrates. The N-polar selective area growth process facilitated the growth of isolated and high-aspect-ratio n-type NW cores that were not subject to self-shadowing effects during the subsequent growth of a conformal low-temperature Mg:GaN shell. LED devices were fabricated from single-NW and multiple-NW arrays in their as-grown configuration by contacting the n-type core through an underlying conductive GaN layer and the p-type NW shell via a metallization layer. The NW LEDs exhibited rectifying I-V characteristics with a sharp turn-on voltage near the GaN bandgap and low reverse bias leakage current. Under forward bias, the NW LEDs produced electroluminescence with a peak emission wavelength near 380 nm and exhibited a small spectral blueshift with increasing current injection, both of which are consistent with electron recombination in the p-type shell layer through donor-acceptor-pair recombination. These core-shell NW devices demonstrate N-polar selective area growth as an effective technique for producing on-chip nanoscale light sources.

Nano Lett ; 15(2): 1122-7, 2015 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25625509


Optimizing new generations of two-dimensional devices based on van der Waals materials will require techniques capable of measuring variations in electronic properties in situ and with nanometer spatial resolution. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) imaging of single layers of MoS2 and n- and p-doped WSe2. By controlling the sample charge carrier concentration through the applied tip bias, we are able to reversibly control and optimize the SMM contrast to image variations in electronic structure and the localized effects of surface contaminants. By further performing tip bias-dependent point spectroscopy together with finite element simulations, we distinguish the effects of the quantum capacitance and determine the local dominant charge carrier species and dopant concentration. These results underscore the capability of SMM for the study of 2D materials to image, identify, and study electronic defects.

Nanotechnology ; 25(41): 415502, 2014 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25258349


GaN nanowires were coated with tungsten by means of atomic layer deposition. These structures were then adapted as probe tips for near-field scanning microwave microscopy. These probes displayed a capacitive resolution of ~0.03 fF, which surpasses that of a commercial Pt tip. Upon imaging of MoS2 sheets with both the Pt and GaN nanowire tips, we found that the nanowire tips were comparatively immune to surface contamination and far more durable than their Pt counterparts.