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1.
Chirurg ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496813

RESUMO

Minimally invasive surgical techniques with respect to the treatment of gastric cancer have progressed rapidly over the last few years. Especially in Asia, where the incidence of gastric cancer is ten times higher than in Europe, surgery for gastric cancer is steadily evolving, especially regarding laparoscopic and robot-assisted procedures. This review first discusses the different options for reconstruction of the gastrointestinal passage after gastrectomy, ranging from Billroth procedures to the latest developments, such as the double tract reconstruction. In particular, the possibility of function-preserving partial gastrectomy, such as proximal and distal gastric resection and the corresponding reconstruction techniques are presented. The latest studies and technical developments are presented, especially with respect to laparoscopically assisted, completely laparoscopic and robot-assisted gastrectomies.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374446

RESUMO

Adequate tissue engineered models are required to further understand the (patho)physiological mechanism involved in the destructive processes of cartilage and subchondral bone during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we developed a human in vitro 3D osteochondral tissue model (OTM), mimicking cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes leading to cartilage degradation and bone destruction in order to ultimately provide a preclinical drug screening tool. To this end, the OTM was engineered by co-cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived bone and cartilage components in a 3D environment. It was comprehensively characterized on cell, protein, and mRNA level. Stimulating the OTM with pro-inflammatory cytokines, relevant in RA (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor), caused cell- and matrix-related changes, resulting in a significantly induced gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase A, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor α in both, cartilage and bone, while the matrix metalloproteases 1 and 3 were only induced in cartilage. Finally, application of target-specific drugs prevented the induction of inflammation and matrix-degradation. Thus, we here provide evidence that our human in vitro 3D OTM mimics cytokine-induced cell- and matrix-related changes-key features of RA-and may serve as a preclinical tool for the evaluation of both new targets and potential drugs in a more translational setup.

3.
Biofabrication ; 12(4): 045016, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598334

RESUMO

Understanding the pathophysiological processes of cartilage degradation requires adequate model systems to develop therapeutic strategies towards osteoarthritis (OA). Although different in vitro or in vivo models have been described, further comprehensive approaches are needed to study specific disease aspects. This study aimed to combine in vitro and in silico modeling based on a tissue-engineering approach using mesenchymal condensation to mimic cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes during cartilage degradation. Thus, scaffold-free cartilage-like constructs (SFCCs) were produced based on self-organization of mesenchymal stromal cells (mesenchymal condensation) and (i) characterized regarding their cellular and matrix composition or secondly (ii) treated with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) for 3 weeks to simulate OA-related matrix degradation. In addition, an existing mathematical model based on partial differential equations was optimized and transferred to the underlying settings to simulate the distribution of IL-1ß, type II collagen degradation and cell number reduction. By combining in vitro and in silico methods, we aimed to develop a valid, efficient alternative approach to examine and predict disease progression and effects of new therapeutics.

4.
Diabetologia ; 62(8): 1463-1477, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098671

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Chronic glucocorticoid therapy causes insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, abnormal fat accumulation, loss of muscle mass and osteoporosis. Here we describe a hitherto unknown sexual dimorphism in the metabolic response to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in mice. This led us to investigate whether glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and obesity were dependent on sex hormones. METHODS: Male and female CD1 mice were treated for 4 weeks with supraphysiological doses (~250 µg/day) of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in rodents, or equivalent volume of vehicle (drinking water without corticosterone). To investigate the effects of sex hormones, a separate group of mice were either orchidectomised or ovariectomised prior to corticosterone treatment, with or without dihydrotestosterone replacement. Body composition was determined before and after corticosterone treatment, and insulin tolerance was assessed after 7 and 28 days of treatment. Adipocyte morphology was assessed in white and brown adipose tissues by immunohistochemistry, and fasting serum concentrations of NEFA, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and free glycerol were measured using colorimetric assays. Obesity- and diabetes-related hormones were measured using multiplex assays, and RNA and protein expression in adipose tissues were measured by RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. RESULTS: Chronic corticosterone treatment led to insulin resistance, fasting hyperinsulinaemia, increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in male, but not female mice. In males, orchidectomy improved baseline insulin sensitivity and attenuated corticosterone-induced insulin resistance, but did not prevent fat accumulation. In androgen-deficient mice (orchidectomised males, and intact and ovariectomised females) treated with dihydrotestosterone, corticosterone treatment led to insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. In brown adipose tissue, androgens were required for corticosterone-induced intracellular lipid accumulation ('whitening'), and dihydrotestosterone specifically exacerbated corticosterone-induced accumulation of white adipose tissue by increasing adipocyte hypertrophy. Androgens also suppressed circulating adiponectin concentrations, but corticosterone-induced insulin resistance did not involve additional suppression of adiponectin levels. In white adipose tissue, androgens were required for induction of the glucocorticoid target gene Gilz (also known as Tsc22d3) by corticosterone. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In mice, androgens potentiate the development of insulin resistance, fat accumulation and brown adipose tissue whitening following chronic glucocorticoid treatment.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Androgênios/metabolismo , Corticosterona/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Adipócitos/citologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Inflamação , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Acta Biomater ; 86: 171-184, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616076

RESUMO

Although several biomaterials for bone regeneration have been developed in the last decades, clinical application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is clinically only approved when applied on an absorbable bovine collagen I scaffold (ACS) (Helistat; ACS-H). In research, another ACS, namely Lyostypt (ACS-L) is frequently used as a scaffold in bone-linked studies. Nevertheless, until today, the influence of ACS alone on bone healing remains unknown. Unexpectedly, in vitro studies using ASC-H revealed a suppression of osteogenic differentiation and a significant reduction of cell vitality when compared to ASC-L. In mice, we observed a significant delay in bone healing when applying ACS-L in the fracture gap during femoral osteotomy. The results of our study show for the first time a negative influence of both ACS-H and ACS-L on bone formation demonstrating a substantial need for more sophisticated delivery systems for local stimulation of bone healing in both clinical application and research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence-based justification to promote the development and approval of more suitable and sophisticated delivery systems in bone healing research. Additionally, we stimulate researchers of the field to consider that the application of those scaffolds as a delivery system for new substances represents a delayed healing approach rather than a normal bone healing which could greatly impact the outcome of those studies and play a pivotal role in the translation to the clinics. Moreover, we provide impulses on underlying mechanism involving the roles of small-leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRP) for further detailed investigations.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteotomia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
Steroids ; 116: 76-82, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27815034

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid excess in rodent models, reliable methods of continuous glucocorticoid delivery are essential. The current study compares two methods of corticosterone (CS) delivery in regards to their ability to induce typical adverse outcomes such as fat accrual, insulin resistance, sarcopenia and bone loss. Eight-week-old mice received CS for 4weeks either via the drinking water (25-100µgCS/mL) or through weekly surgical implantation of slow release pellets containing 1.5mg CS. Both methods induced abnormal fat mass accrual, inhibited lean mass accretion and bone expansion, suppressed serum osteocalcin levels and induced severe insulin resistance. There was a clear dose dependant relationship between the CS concentrations in the drinking water and the severity of the phenotype, with a concentration of 50µg CS/mL drinking water most closely matching the metabolic changes induced by weekly pellet implantations. In contrast to pellets, however, delivery of CS via the drinking water resulted in a consistent diurnal exposure pattern, closely mimicking the kinetics of clinical glucocorticoid therapy. In addition, the method is safe, inexpensive, easily adjustable, non-invasive and avoids operative stress to the animals. Our data demonstrate that delivery of CS via the drinking water has advantages over weekly implantations of slow-release pellets. A dose of 50µg CS/mL drinking water is appropriate for the investigation of chronic glucocorticoid excess in mice.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/administração & dosagem , Corticosterona/farmacocinética , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/química , Implantes de Medicamento/administração & dosagem , Implantes de Medicamento/farmacocinética , Animais , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes de Medicamento/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico
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