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1.
Lancet ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-based renal denervation has significantly reduced blood pressure in previous studies. Following a positive pilot trial, the SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED (SPYRAL Pivotal) trial was designed to assess the efficacy of renal denervation in the absence of antihypertensive medications. METHODS: In this international, prospective, single-blinded, sham-controlled trial, done at 44 study sites in Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, the UK, and the USA, hypertensive patients with office systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg to less than 180 mm Hg were randomly assigned 1:1 to either a renal denervation or sham procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in 24-h systolic blood pressure and the secondary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in office systolic blood pressure from baseline to 3 months after the procedure. We used a Bayesian design with an informative prior, so the primary analysis combines evidence from the pilot and Pivotal trials. The primary efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02439749. FINDINGS: From June 25, 2015, to Oct 15, 2019, 331 patients were randomly assigned to either renal denervation (n=166) or a sham procedure (n=165). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were met, with posterior probability of superiority more than 0·999 for both. The treatment difference between the two groups for 24-h systolic blood pressure was -3·9 mm Hg (Bayesian 95% credible interval -6·2 to -1·6) and for office systolic blood pressure the difference was -6·5 mm Hg (-9·6 to -3·5). No major device-related or procedural-related safety events occurred up to 3 months. INTERPRETATION: SPYRAL Pivotal showed the superiority of catheter-based renal denervation compared with a sham procedure to safely lower blood pressure in the absence of antihypertensive medications. FUNDING: Medtronic.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS) is a rare chronic autoimmune disease which can also affect bones and muscles. Nevertheless, muscle loss was not previously investigated in patients with JLS. Thus, the aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate deep involvement and assess and quantify sarcopenia in JLS patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Fourteen children with JLS (nine females, mean age ± SD, 7.1 ± 3.6 years) referring to our tertiary center from January 2012 to January 2018 who underwent at least one MRI examination including axial T1-weighted and short tau inversion recovery images were included. Two readers assessed in consensus superficial and deep involvement. Muscle edema, muscle fatty infiltration, and sarcopenia were independently scored (absent, moderate, or severe) and the Cohen's kappa coefficient computed. Skin perimeter, subcutaneous area, muscle area, and muscle volume were independently measured using the contralateral unaffected extremity as reference (paired Student's t test, p < 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to investigate the reliability of the measurements. RESULTS: All patients showed superficial involvement with subcutaneous fat atrophy being the most common finding (13 patients). Bone marrow edema occurred in five patients. Muscle edema affected ten children (moderate in seven, severe in three; k = 0.89), muscle fatty replacement occurred in one case (severe; k = 1.00), and sarcopenia was detected in eight patients (severe in two; k = 0.78). All quantitative parameters were lower on the affected side than on the unaffected contralateral limb (p < 0.05, each) and all measurements showed a high reliability (ICC > 0.750, each). CONCLUSION: Patients with JLS can be affected by sarcopenia and quantitative analyses allow a robust characterization of such finding. KEY POINTS: • Deep involvement in juvenile localized scleroderma is frequently characterized by sarcopenia. • In juvenile localized scleroderma, muscle edema and sarcopenia are mostly moderate while fatty infiltration, even if rare, can be severe. • Sarcopenia can be reliably quantified in children with juvenile localized scleroderma using MRI.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213541

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression result from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Although aberrant gene expression and DNA methylation profiles are considered hallmarks of CRC development, the precise timing at which these are produced during tumor establishment remains elusive. Here we investigated the early transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by Apc inactivation in intestinal crypts. Hyper-activation of the Wnt pathway via Apc inactivation in crypt base columnar (CBC) intestinal stem cells (ISC) led to their rapid accumulation driven by an impaired molecular commitment to differentiation, which was associated with discrete alterations in DNA methylation. Importantly, inhibiting the enzymes responsible for de novo DNA methylation restored the responsiveness of Apc-deficient intestinal organoids to stimuli regulating the proliferation-to-differentiation transition in ISC. This work reveals that early DNA methylation changes play critical roles in the establishment of the impaired fate decision program consecutive to Apc loss-of-function.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197459

RESUMO

On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, Modic type 1 (MT1) endplate changes and infectious spondylodiscitis share similar findings. Therefore, this study investigated vertebral bone marrow and endplate changes to enable their differentiation. The lumbar spine MR examinations of 91 adult patients were retrospectively included: 39 with MT1; 19 with early spondylodiscitis without abscess; and 33 with advanced spondylodiscitis with abscess. The assessment included percentage of bone marrow edema on sagittal short tau inversion recovery images, and the signal ratio of edema to unaffected bone and endplate contour (normal; irregular, yet intact; blurred; destructive) on sagittal unenhanced T1-weighted images. Differences were tested for statistical significance by Chi-square test and mixed model analysis of variance. The MR diagnostic accuracy in differentiating MT1 and spondylodiscitis was assessed by cross-tabulation and receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The endplate contours, edema extents, and T1-signal ratios of MT1 (extent, 31.96%; ratio, 0.83) were significantly different (p < 0.001) from early spondylodiscitis (56.42%; 0.60), and advanced spondylodiscitis (91.84%; 0.61). The highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, 94.87%; specificity, 94.23%; accuracy, 94.51%) in identifying MT1 was provided by an irregular, yet intact endplate contour. This may be a useful MR feature for the differentiation between MT1 and spondylodiscitis, particularly in its early stage.

6.
Pituitary ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the advancement of extended endonasal approaches, the ability to surgically reach parasellar tumor extensions increase. The aim of the study was to propose an optimized imaging protocol for surgical guidance in the cavernous sinus (CS) for proper visualization structures at risk. METHODS: Prospective case control analysis of 20 consecutive pituitary adenoma patients scheduled for endoscopic transnasal surgery. Assessment of the capability of three different MRI sequences (MPRAGE, VIBE, CISS) by 4 investigators to correctly visualize sellar and parasellar structures. Invasiveness and position of the normal pituitary gland were compared with the intraoperative findings. RESULTS: The consensus between the 4 examiners to achieve the same results for all modalities was 40% for MPRAGE, 70% for VIBE and 60% for CISS sequences (p = 0.155). A consensus of Knosp Grade per patient was 80% for MPRAGE, 100% for VIBE and 90% for CISS (overall kappa 0.60). A higher Knosp Grade was found in MPRAGE sequences compared to the other sequences. Intraoperative status of invasiveness was correctly identified in 12/20 (60%) with MPRAGE, 19/20 (95%) with VIBE and 11/20 (55%) with CISS sequences. The position of the normal pituitary gland was most frequent evaluable in 15/20 (75%) and correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) cases. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that VIBE sequences obtain the highest degree of consensus with intraoperative findings of invasiveness and position of the normal pituitary gland. VIBE sequences, due to their high spatial resolution and at the same time fast image acquisition could provide improved imaging for neuronavigation.

7.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of T1-weighted and T2-weighted contrasts generated by the MR data postprocessing software SyMRI (Synthetic MR AB, Linköping, Sweden) for neonatal brain imaging. METHODS: In this study 36 cases of neonatal MRI were retrospectively collected, which included T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences as well as multi-dynamic multi-echo (MDME) sequences. Of the 36 neonates 32 were included in this study and 4 neuroradiologists independently assessed neonatal brain examinations on the basis of conventional and SyMRI-generated T1-weighted and T2-weighted contrasts, in order to determine the presence or absence of lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Compared to conventionally acquired T1 and T2-weighted images, SyMRI-generated contrasts showed a lower sensitivity but a higher specificity (SyMRI sensitivity 0.88, confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.95; specificity 1, CI: 0.89-1/conventional MRI: sensitivity: 0.94, CI: 0.80-0.98; specificity: 0.94, CI: 0.80-0.98). CONCLUSION: The T1-weighted and T2-weighted images generated by SyMRI showed a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of conventionally acquired contrasts. In addition to semiquantitative imaging data, SyMRI provides diagnostic images and leads to a more efficient use of available imaging time in neonatal brain MRI.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 3996-4006, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047039

RESUMO

The future response of the Antarctic ice sheet to rising temperatures remains highly uncertain. A useful period for assessing the sensitivity of Antarctica to warming is the Last Interglacial (LIG) (129 to 116 ky), which experienced warmer polar temperatures and higher global mean sea level (GMSL) (+6 to 9 m) relative to present day. LIG sea level cannot be fully explained by Greenland Ice Sheet melt (∼2 m), ocean thermal expansion, and melting mountain glaciers (∼1 m), suggesting substantial Antarctic mass loss was initiated by warming of Southern Ocean waters, resulting from a weakening Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in response to North Atlantic surface freshening. Here, we report a blue-ice record of ice sheet and environmental change from the Weddell Sea Embayment at the periphery of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which is underlain by major methane hydrate reserves. Constrained by a widespread volcanic horizon and supported by ancient microbial DNA analyses, we provide evidence for substantial mass loss across the Weddell Sea Embayment during the LIG, most likely driven by ocean warming and associated with destabilization of subglacial hydrates. Ice sheet modeling supports this interpretation and suggests that millennial-scale warming of the Southern Ocean could have triggered a multimeter rise in global sea levels. Our data indicate that Antarctica is highly vulnerable to projected increases in ocean temperatures and may drive ice-climate feedbacks that further amplify warming.

9.
J Evol Biol ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064699

RESUMO

The seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) transferred to mating partners along with sperm often play crucial roles in mediating post-mating sexual selection. One way in which sperm donors can maximize their own reproductive success is by modifying the partner's (sperm recipient's) post-copulatory behaviour to prevent or delay re-mating, thereby decreasing the likelihood or intensity of sperm competition. Here, we adopted a quantitative genetic approach combining gene expression and behavioural data to identify candidates that could mediate such a response in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We identified two putative SFPs-Mlig-pro46 and Mlig-pro63-linked to both mating frequency and 'suck' frequency, a distinctive behaviour, in which, upon ejaculate receipt, the worm places its pharynx over its female genital opening and apparently attempts to remove the received ejaculate. We, therefore, performed a manipulative experiment using RNA interference-induced knockdown to ask how the loss of Mlig-pro46 and Mlig-pro63 expression, singly and in combination, affects mating frequency, partner suck propensity and sperm competitive ability. None of the knockdown treatments impacted strongly on the mating frequency or sperm competitive ability, but knockdown of Mlig-pro63 resulted in a significantly decreased suck propensity of mating partners. This suggests that Mlig-pro63 may normally act as a cue in the ejaculate to trigger recipient suck behaviour and-given that other proteins in the ejaculate have the opposite effect-could be one component of an ongoing arms race between donors and recipients over the control of ejaculate fate. However, the adaptive significance of Mlig-pro46 and Mlig-pro63 from a donor perspective remains enigmatic.

11.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061002

RESUMO

Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) is the most sensitive technique for breast cancer detection. Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) is emerging as a possible alternative to CE-MRI. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a low radiation dose contrast-enhanced mammography (L-CEM) in women with suspicious findings on conventional imaging compared to CE-MRI of the breast. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, single center. POPULATION: Women with suspicious findings on mammography, tomosynthesis, or ultrasound, and no contraindications for L-CEM or CE-MRI. Eighty women were included. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 1.5 and 3T CE-MRI, standard protocol for breast, with dedicated coils, according to international guidelines. L-CEM was performed using a dedicated prototype. ASSESSMENT: Three, off-site, blinded readers evaluated the images according to the BI-RADS lexicon in a randomized order, each in two separate reading sessions. Histology served as a gold standard. STATISTICAL TEST: Lesion detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV) were calculated and compared with multivariate statistics. RESULTS: Included were 80 women (mean age, 54.3 years ±11.2 standard deviation) with 93 lesions (32 benign, 61 malignant). The detection rate was significantly higher with CE-MRI (92.5-94.6%; L-CEM 79.6-91.4%, P = 0.014). Sensitivity (L-CEM 65.6-90.2%; CE-MRI 83.6-93.4%, P = 0.086) and NPV (L-CEM 59.6-71.4%; CE-MRI 63.0-76.5%, P = 0.780) did not differ between the modalities. Specificity (L-CEM 46.9-96.9%; CE-MRI 37.5-53.1%, P = 0.001) and PPV (L-CEM 76.4-97.6%; CE-MRI 73.3-77.3%, P = 0.007) were significantly higher with L-CEM. Variations between readers were significant for sensitivity and NPV. The accuracy of L-CEM was as good as CE-MRI (75.3-76.3% vs. 72.0-75.3%, P = 0.514). DATA CONCLUSION: L-CEM showed a high sensitivity and accuracy in women with suspicious findings on conventional imaging. Compared to CE-MRI, L-CEM has the potential to increase specificity and PPV. L-CEM might help to reduce false-positive biopsies while obtaining sensitivity comparable to that of CE-MRI LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): 461-470, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate bipolar radiofrequency renal denervation in patients with hypertension not receiving medications at baseline. BACKGROUND: A blood pressure-reducing effect of renal denervation has been difficult to isolate in clinical investigations. METHODS: REDUCE HTN: REINFORCE (Renal Denervation Using the Vessix Renal Denervation System for the Treatment of Hypertension) was a randomized, sham-controlled multicenter trial. Patients with office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 150 to 180 mm Hg and average 24-h ambulatory SBP of 135 to 170 mm Hg after medication washout underwent bipolar radiofrequency renal denervation or a sham procedure. The planned outcome was 8-week change in 24-h ambulatory SBP. Enrollment was terminated for apparent futility before a sufficient sample for powered efficacy comparisons was enrolled. Safety assessments included all-cause death, renal failure, severe hypotension or syncope, hypertensive crisis, and renal artery stenosis. RESULTS: Baseline 24-h blood pressure was 148.3 ± 10.9/85.7 ± 9.1 mm Hg for the denervation group (n = 34, mean age 58.5 ± 10.1 years, 47% women) and 149.1 ± 7.2/86.4 ± 9.8 mm Hg for the control group (n = 17, mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years, 24% women). At 8 weeks, mean 24-h SBP reductions for the renal denervation and control groups were -5.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.8 to -1.8 mm Hg) and -8.5 mm Hg (95% CI: -13.3 to -3.8 mm Hg), respectively (difference 3.3 mm Hg; 95% CI: -2.8 to 9.3 mm Hg; p = 0.30). Antihypertensive medications could then be added. By 6 months, decreases in SBP were greater for the denervation group, yielding between-group differences of -7.2 mm Hg (95% CI: -15.2 to 0.8 mm Hg; p = 0.08), -9.7 mm Hg (95% CI: -17.7 to -1.7 mm Hg; p = 0.02), and -11.4 mm Hg (95% CI: -19.2 to -3.7 mm Hg; p < 0.01) for 24-h, daytime ambulatory, and office measurements, respectively. Through 12 months, 1 patient (renal denervation group) had a hypertensive urgency requiring immediate management, and 1 experienced progression of renal artery stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies of radiofrequency renal denervation must anticipate delayed treatment effects. (Renal Denervation Using the Vessix Renal Denervation System for the Treatment of Hypertension [REDUCE HTN: REINFORCE]; NCT02392351).

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(3): 289-302, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SPYRAL HTN clinical trial program was initiated with two 80-patient pilot studies, SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED and SPYRAL HTN-ON MED, which provided biological proof of principle that renal denervation has a blood pressure-lowering effect versus sham controls for subjects with uncontrolled hypertension in the absence or presence of antihypertensive medications, respectively. TRIAL DESIGN: Two multicenter, prospective, randomized, sham-controlled trials have been designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation for the reduction of blood pressure in subjects with hypertension in the absence (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal) or presence (SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion) of antihypertensive medications. The primary efficacy endpoint is baseline-adjusted change from baseline in 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure. The primary safety endpoint is incidence of major adverse events at 1 month after randomization (or 6 months in cases of new renal artery stenosis). Both trials utilize a Bayesian design to allow for prespecified interim analyses to take place, and thus, the final sample sizes are dependent on whether enrollment is stopped at the first or second interim analysis. SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal will enroll up to 300 subjects and SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion will enroll up to 221 subjects. A novel Bayesian power prior approach will leverage historical information from the pilot studies, with a degree of discounting determined by the level of agreement with data from the prospectively powered studies. CONCLUSIONS: The Bayesian paradigm represents a novel and promising approach in device-based hypertension trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02439749 (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal) and NCT02439775 (SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion).

14.
Neuroimage ; 210: 116553, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972277

RESUMO

The periventricular crossroads have been described as transient structures of the fetal brain where major systems of developing fibers intersect. The triangular parietal crossroad constitutes one major crossroad region. By combining in vivo and post-mortem fetal MRI with histological and immunohistochemical methods, we aimed to characterize these structures. Data from 529 in vivo and 66 post-mortem MRI examinations of fetal brains between gestational weeks (GW) 18-39 were retrospectively reviewed. In each fetus, the area adjacent to the trigone of the lateral ventricles at the exit of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed with respect to signal intensity, size, and shape on T2-weighted images. In addition, by using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the main fiber pathways that intersect in these areas were identified. In order to explain the in vivo features of the parietal crossroads (signal intensity and developmental profile), we analyzed 23 post-mortem fetal human brains, between 16 and â€‹40 GW of age, processed by histological and immunohistochemical methods. The parietal crossroads were triangular-shaped areas with the base in the continuity of the PLIC, adjacent to the germinal matrix and the trigone of the lateral ventricles, with the tip pointing toward the subplate. These areas appeared hyperintense to the subplate, and corresponded to a convergence zone of the developing external capsule, the PLIC, and the fronto-occipital association fibers. They were best detected between GW 25-26, and, at term, they became isointense to the adjacent structures. The immunohistochemical results showed a distinct cellular, fibrillar, and extracellular matrix arrangement in the parietal crossroads, depending on the stage of development, which influenced the MRI features. The parietal crossroads are transient, but important structures in white matter maturation and their damage may be indicative of a poor prognosis for a fetus with regard to neurological development. In addition, impairment of this region may explain the complex neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants with periventricular hypoxic/ischemic or inflammatory lesions.

15.
Int J Sports Med ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958873

RESUMO

Almost nothing is known about the condition of the knee joints of multistage ultra-marathon (MSUM) runner. This is first image-based investigation of the femoropatellar joint (FPJ) using a mobile 1.5T MRI accompanying the MSUM TransEurope Foot-Race (TEFR) 64 stages over 4486 km. Twenty-two (20 male) subjects got a knee MRI-protocol at defined measurement intervals during TEFR: T2*-mapping (FLASH T2*-GRE), TIRM, and fat saturated PD -sequence. In the FPJ 12 different regions were evaluated regarding cartilage T2* and thickness changes and cartilage lesions in course of TEFR and a test on possible compounding factors (running burden, BMI, age) was done if being appropriate. No significant changes in cartilage thickness- and T2*-values were found during TEFR. In 8 runners, at least one single cartilage lesion (Grade 2-3) was found at baseline, but no significant race-related adjacent T2*-changes or progress of the defects could be detected. Analyses on compounding factors were negative. In knees with MPP (5) significantly lower adjacent T2*-values were found. The extreme running burden of a MSUM seems not to have a relevant negative influence on the FPJ tissues, even if cartilage lesions are present.

16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957121

RESUMO

Conversion of tropical forests is among the primary causes of global environmental change. The loss of their important environmental services has prompted calls to integrate ecosystem services (ES) in addition to socio-economic objectives in decision-making. To test the effect of accounting for both ES and socio-economic objectives in land-use decisions, we develop a new dynamic approach to model deforestation scenarios for tropical mountain forests. We integrate multi-objective optimization of land allocation with an innovative approach to consider uncertainty spaces for each objective. These uncertainty spaces account for potential variability among decision-makers, who may have different expectations about the future. When optimizing only socio-economic objectives, the model continues the past trend in deforestation (1975-2015) in the projected land-use allocation (2015-2070). Based on indicators for biomass production, carbon storage, climate and water regulation, and soil quality, we show that considering multiple ES in addition to the socio-economic objectives has heterogeneous effects on land-use allocation. It saves some natural forest if the natural forest share is below 38%, and can stop deforestation once the natural forest share drops below 10%. For landscapes with high shares of forest (38%-80% in our study), accounting for multiple ES under high uncertainty of their indicators may, however, accelerate deforestation. For such multifunctional landscapes, two main effects prevail: (a) accelerated expansion of diversified non-natural areas to elevate the levels of the indicators and (b) increased landscape diversification to maintain multiple ES, reducing the proportion of natural forest. Only when accounting for vascular plant species richness as an explicit objective in the optimization, deforestation was consistently reduced. Aiming for multifunctional landscapes may therefore conflict with the aim of reducing deforestation, which we can quantify here for the first time. Our findings are relevant for identifying types of landscapes where this conflict may arise and to better align respective policies.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934808

RESUMO

Background: Obstetric imaging, subserving fetal evaluation, may yield incidental maternal findings. Based on prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, this study aims to investigate incidental intervertebral disc degeneration and displacement in young, pregnant women. Methods: This retrospective study included the sagittal 1.5 Tesla, T2-weighted lumbar spine images of 943 pregnant Central Europeans (age range, 18-47 years), who initially had undergone MR imaging because of sonographically suspected fetal abnormalities. Qualitatively, 4715 lumbar intervertebral discs were evaluated for degeneration using a modified Pfirrmann MR classification (nondegenerated, low-grade, moderate, and high-grade degeneration), as well as for displacement. In addition to descriptive statistics, an ordinal regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between degeneration and the women's age, and body weight. Results: With regard to the highest degree of degeneration in each woman, 578 (61.3%) showed low-grade, 211 (22.4%) moderate, and 154 (16.3%) high-grade degeneration, and no woman had entirely nondegenerated discs. For the span from 18 to 47 years of age, moderate and high-grade degeneration increased from 6.7% to 36.7% and from 13.3% to 22.4%, respectively. Of 943 women, 57 (6%) had disc displacements, of which 97% were in conjunction with high-grade degeneration. There was a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.001) between degeneration and age, and between degeneration and body weight. Conclusions: In young pregnant women, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is a ubiquitous, incidental finding, increasing from the late second decade of life onward, which may be part of physiological aging, as opposed to a small percentage of incidental disc displacements.

19.
CNS Drugs ; 34(3): 299-310, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An intranasal formulation of esketamine, combined with an oral antidepressant, is approved in the USA and the European Union for adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Transient cardiovascular stimulatory effects have been reported with ketamine. METHODS: Cardiovascular effects of esketamine nasal spray, combined with an oral antidepressant, were evaluated in 1708 esketamine-treated adults with TRD in six trials (five double-blind, placebo-controlled (486 placebo-treated patients); one open-label) of 4-52 weeks' duration. Patients with established cardiovascular disease, including uncontrolled hypertension (> 140/> 90 mmHg), history of hypertensive crisis, or clinically significant electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, were excluded from enrollment. Effects on cardiac repolarization were assessed in a phase I randomized, positive- and active-controlled thorough corrected QT (QTc) interval study. For adverse events, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] for esketamine/antidepressant versus antidepressant/placebo was calculated. RESULTS: Adverse events related to increased BP were reported in 12.8% of all esketamine-treated patients (in double-blind trials: esketamine/antidepressant 11.6% vs. antidepressant/placebo 3.9%; OR 3.2 [1.9-5.8]). Among the patients without a history of hypertension, new antihypertensive medication was initiated by 2.1% (6/280) of patients in the esketamine/antidepressant group versus 1.2% (2/171) of patients in the antidepressant/placebo group, in the double-blinded studies. Adverse events related to abnormal heart rate were reported in 3.0% of all esketamine-treated patients (in double-blind trials: 1.6% vs. 0.8%; OR 1.9 [0.5-8.6]). Overall, three cardiovascular adverse events related to BP increase were reported as serious and severe, and there was one fatal event considered unrelated (acute cardiac failure). BP increases reached the maximum postdose value within ~ 40 min of esketamine dosing and returned to the predose range by ~ 1.5 h postdose. In two studies (4-week duration, age 18-64 years), the largest mean maximum systolic/diastolic postdose BP increases were 13.3/8.7 mmHg for esketamine/antidepressant and 6.1/4.9 mmHg for antidepressant/placebo, and in a short-term elderly study (age ≥ 65 years) were 16.0/9.5 and 11.1/6.8 mmHg, respectively. Across studies/study phases, < 2% of patients discontinued esketamine due to adverse events of increased BP and tachycardia. No clinically relevant effect on ECG parameters was observed. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of esketamine did not prolong the QTcF (QT corrected by Fridericia's equation) interval (baseline-corrected values of - 2.02 to 2.16 ms, and - 3.51 to 4.89 ms, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: BP elevations following esketamine dosing are generally transient, asymptomatic, and not associated with serious cardiovascular safety sequalae. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular outcomes is warranted.

20.
New Phytol ; 226(2): 492-506, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898330

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) ranks among the most problematic environmental pollutants. Background contamination of soils is nearly ubiquitous, yet plant Pb accumulation is barely understood. In a survey covering 165 European populations of the metallophyte Arabidopsis halleri, several field samples had indicated Pb hyperaccumulation, offering a chance to dissect plant Pb accumulation. Accumulation of Pb was analysed in A. halleri individuals from contrasting habitats under controlled conditions to rule out aerial deposition as a source of apparent Pb accumulation. Several elemental imaging techniques were employed to study the spatial distribution and ligand environment of Pb. Regardless of genetic background, A. halleri individuals showed higher shoot Pb accumulation than A. thaliana. However, dose-response curves revealed indicator rather than hyperaccumulator behaviour. Xylem sap data and elemental imaging unequivocally demonstrated the in planta mobility of Pb. Highest Pb concentrations were found in epidermal and vascular tissues. Distribution of Pb was distinct from that of the hyperaccumulated metal zinc. Most Pb was bound by oxygen ligands in bidentate coordination. A. halleri accumulates Pb whenever soil conditions render Pb phytoavailable. Considerable Pb accumulation under such circumstances, even in leaves of A. thaliana, strongly suggests that Pb can enter food webs and may pose a food safety risk.

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