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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6979, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379938

RESUMO

Biological nitrogen fixation is a major important source of nitrogen for low-nutrient surface oceanic waters. Nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacteria are believed to be the primary contributors to this process, but the contribution of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophic organisms in oxygenated surface water, while hypothesized to be important, has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we used simultaneous 15N-dinitrogen and 13C-bicarbonate incubations combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis to screen tens of thousands of mostly particle-associated, cell-like regions of interest collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. These dual isotope incubations allow us to distinguish between non-cyanobacterial and cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and to measure putative cell-specific nitrogen fixation rates. With this approach, we detect nitrogen fixation by putative non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs in the oxygenated surface ocean, which are associated with organic-rich particles (<210 µm size fraction) at two out of seven locations sampled. When present, up to 4.1% of the analyzed particles contain at least one active putative non-cyanobacterial diazotroph. The putative non-cyanobacterial diazotroph nitrogen fixation rates (0.76 ± 1.60 fmol N cell-1 d-1) suggest that these organisms are capable of fixing dinitrogen in oxygenated surface water, at least when attached to particles, and may contribute to oceanic nitrogen fixation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Água do Mar/química , Nitrogênio , Água , Oceano Pacífico
2.
Limnol Oceanogr ; 67(7): 1470-1483, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248197

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial biomass forecasts currently cannot predict the concentrations of microcystin, one of the most ubiquitous cyanotoxins that threaten human and wildlife health globally. Mechanistic insights into how microcystin production and biodegradation by heterotrophic bacteria change spatially and throughout the bloom season can aid in toxin concentration forecasts. We quantified microcystin production and biodegradation during two growth seasons in two western Lake Erie sites with different physicochemical properties commonly plagued by summer Microcystis blooms. Microcystin production rates were greater with elevated nutrients than under ambient conditions and were highest nearshore during the initial phases of the bloom, and production rates were lower in later bloom phases. We examined biodegradation rates of the most common and toxic microcystin by adding extracellular stable isotope-labeled microcystin-LR (1 µg L-1), which remained stable in the abiotic treatment (without bacteria) with minimal adsorption onto sediment, but strongly decreased in all unaltered biotic treatments, suggesting biodegradation. Greatest biodegradation rates (highest of -8.76 d-1, equivalent to the removal of 99.98% in 18 h) were observed during peak bloom conditions, while lower rates were observed with lower cyanobacteria biomass. Cell-specific nitrogen incorporation from microcystin-LR by nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry showed that a small percentage of the heterotrophic bacterial community actively degraded microcystin-LR. Microcystin production and biodegradation rates, combined with the microcystin incorporation by single cells, suggest that microcystin predictive models could be improved by incorporating toxin production and biodegradation rates, which are influenced by cyanobacterial bloom stage (early vs. late bloom), nutrient availability, and bacterial community composition.

3.
Plant J ; 111(4): 995-1014, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699388

RESUMO

Even subtle modifications in growth conditions elicit acclimation responses affecting the molecular and elemental makeup of organisms, both in the laboratory and in natural habitats. We systematically explored the effect of temperature, pH, nutrient availability, culture density, and access to CO2 and O2 in laboratory-grown algal cultures on growth rate, the ionome, and the ability to accumulate Fe. We found algal cells accumulate Fe in alkaline conditions, even more so when excess Fe is present, coinciding with a reduced growth rate. Using a combination of Fe-specific dyes, X-ray fluorescence microscopy, and NanoSIMS, we show that the alkaline-accumulated Fe was intracellularly sequestered into acidocalcisomes, which are localized towards the periphery of the cells. At high photon flux densities, Zn and Ca specifically over-accumulate, while Zn alone accumulates at low temperatures. The impact of aeration was probed by reducing shaking speeds and changing vessel fill levels; the former increased the Cu quota of cultures, the latter resulted in a reduction in P, Ca, and Mn at low fill levels. Trace element quotas were also affected in the stationary phase, where specifically Fe, Cu, and Zn accumulate. Cu accumulation here depends inversely on the Fe concentration of the medium. Individual laboratory strains accumulate Ca, P, and Cu to different levels. All together, we identified a set of specific changes to growth rate, elemental composition, and the capacity to store Fe in response to subtle differences in culturing conditions of Chlamydomonas, affecting experimental reproducibility. Accordingly, we recommend that these variables be recorded and reported as associated metadata.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas , Oligoelementos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3773, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773279

RESUMO

Trace metals have been an important ingredient for life throughout Earth's history. Here, we describe the genome-guided cultivation of a member of the elusive archaeal lineage Caldarchaeales (syn. Aigarchaeota), Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis, and its growth dependence on tungsten. A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of W. gerlachensis encodes putative tungsten membrane transport systems, as well as pathways for anaerobic oxidation of sugars probably mediated by tungsten-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases that are expressed during growth. Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) show that W. gerlachensis preferentially assimilates xylose. Phylogenetic analyses of 78 high-quality Wolframiiraptoraceae MAGs from terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems suggest that tungsten-associated enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of extant Wolframiiraptoraceae. Our observations imply a crucial role for tungsten-dependent metabolism in the origin and evolution of this lineage, and hint at a relic metabolic dependence on this trace metal in early anaerobic thermophiles.


Assuntos
Archaea , Tungstênio , Anaerobiose , Archaea/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Filogenia
5.
New Phytol ; 236(1): 210-221, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633108

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help mitigate plant responses to water stress, but it is unclear whether AMF do so by indirect mechanisms, direct water transport to roots, or a combination of the two. Here, we investigated if and how the AMF Rhizophagus intraradices transported water to the host plant Avena barbata, wild oat. We used two-compartment microcosms, isotopically labeled water, and a fluorescent dye to directly track and quantify water transport by AMF across an air gap to host plants. Plants grown with AMF that had access to a physically separated compartment containing 18 O-labeled water transpired almost twice as much as plants with AMF excluded from that compartment. Using an isotopic mixing model, we estimated that water transported by AMF across the air gap accounted for 34.6% of the water transpired by host plants. In addition, a fluorescent dye indicated that hyphae were able to transport some water via an extracytoplasmic pathway. Our study provides direct evidence that AMF can act as extensions of the root system along the soil-plant-air continuum of water movement, with plant transpiration driving water flow along hyphae outside of the hyphal cell membrane.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Fungos , Hifas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia
6.
Appl Opt ; 61(9): F47-F54, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333225

RESUMO

Soil is a scattering medium that inhibits imaging of plant-microbial-mineral interactions that are essential to plant health and soil carbon sequestration. However, optical imaging in the complex medium of soil has been stymied by the seemingly intractable problems of scattering and contrast. Here, we develop a wavefront shaping method based on adaptive stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization with a Hadamard basis to focus light through soil mineral samples. Our approach allows a sparse representation of the wavefront with reduced dimensionality for the optimization. We further divide the used Hadamard basis set into subsets and optimize a certain subset at once. Simulation and experimental optimization results demonstrate our method has an approximately seven times higher convergence rate and overall better performance compared to that with optimizing all pixels at once. The proposed method can benefit other high-dimensional optimization problems in adaptive optics and wavefront shaping.


Assuntos
Óptica e Fotônica , Solo , Simulação por Computador , Imagem Óptica
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(8): 2527-2540, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989058

RESUMO

Associations between soil minerals and microbially derived organic matter (often referred to as mineral-associated organic matter or MAOM) form a large pool of slowly cycling carbon (C). The rhizosphere, soil immediately adjacent to roots, is thought to control the spatial extent of MAOM formation because it is the dominant entry point of new C inputs to soil. However, emphasis on the rhizosphere implicitly assumes that microbial redistribution of C into bulk (non-rhizosphere) soils is minimal. We question this assumption, arguing that because of extensive fungal exploration and rapid hyphal turnover, fungal redistribution of soil C from the rhizosphere to bulk soil minerals is common, and encourages MAOM formation. First, we summarize published estimates of fungal hyphal length density and turnover rates and demonstrate that fungal C inputs are high throughout the rhizosphere-bulk soil continuum. Second, because colonization of hyphal surfaces is a common dispersal mechanism for soil bacteria, we argue that hyphal exploration allows for the non-random colonization of mineral surfaces by hyphae-associated taxa. Third, these bacterial communities and their fungal hosts determine the chemical form of organic matter deposited on colonized mineral surfaces. Collectively, our analysis demonstrates that omission of the hyphosphere from conceptual models of soil C flow overlooks key mechanisms for MAOM formation in bulk soils. Moving forward, there is a clear need for spatially explicit, quantitative research characterizing the environmental drivers of hyphal exploration and hyphosphere community composition across systems, as these are important controls over the rate and organic chemistry of C deposited on minerals.


Assuntos
Hifas , Solo , Bactérias , Carbono , Minerais , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(3): 1994-2008, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029104

RESUMO

Imaging biogeochemical interactions in complex microbial systems─such as those at the soil-root interface─is crucial to studies of climate, agriculture, and environmental health but complicated by the three-dimensional (3D) juxtaposition of materials with a wide range of optical properties. We developed a label-free multiphoton nonlinear imaging approach to provide contrast and chemical information for soil microorganisms in roots and minerals with epi-illumination by simultaneously imaging two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). We used fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and time gating to correct CARS for the autofluorescence background native to soil particles and fungal hyphae (TG-CARS) using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). We combined TPEF, TG-CARS, and FLIM to maximize image contrast for live fungi and bacteria in roots and soil matrices without fluorescence labeling. Using this instrument, we imaged symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structures within unstained plant roots in 3D to 60 µm depth. High-quality imaging was possible at up to 30 µm depth in a clay particle matrix and at 15 µm in complex soil preparation. TG-CARS allowed us to identify previously unknown lipid droplets in the symbiotic fungus, Serendipita bescii. We also visualized unstained putative bacteria associated with the roots of Brachypodium distachyon in a soil microcosm. Our results show that this multimodal approach holds significant promise for rhizosphere and soil science research.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Solo , Minerais , Rizosfera , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2349: 91-136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718993

RESUMO

High-resolution imaging with secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) has become a standard method in systems biology and environmental biogeochemistry and is broadly used to decipher ecophysiological traits of environmental microorganisms, metabolic processes in plant and animal tissues, and cross-kingdom symbioses. When combined with stable isotope-labeling-an approach we refer to as nanoSIP-nanoSIMS imaging offers a distinctive means to quantify net assimilation rates and stoichiometry of individual cell-sized particles in both low- and high-complexity environments. While the majority of nanoSIP studies in environmental and microbial biology have focused on nitrogen and carbon metabolism (using 15N and 13C tracers), multiple advances have pushed the capabilities of this approach in the past decade. The development of a high-brightness oxygen ion source has enabled high-resolution metal analyses that are easier to perform, allowing quantification of metal distribution in cells and environmental particles. New preparation methods, tools for automated data extraction from large data sets, and analytical approaches that push the limits of sensitivity and spatial resolution have allowed for more robust characterization of populations ranging from marine archaea to fungi and viruses. NanoSIMS studies continue to be enhanced by correlation with orthogonal imaging and 'omics approaches; when linked to molecular visualization methods, such as in situ hybridization and antibody labeling, these techniques enable in situ function to be linked to microbial identity and gene expression. Here we present an updated description of the primary materials, methods, and calculations used for nanoSIP, with an emphasis on recent advances in nanoSIMS applications, key methodological steps, and potential pitfalls.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Archaea , Biologia , Fungos , Marcação por Isótopo , Microbiota
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 208, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Winter carbon loss in northern ecosystems is estimated to be greater than the average growing season carbon uptake and is primarily driven by microbial decomposers. Viruses modulate microbial carbon cycling via induced mortality and metabolic controls, but it is unknown whether viruses are active under winter conditions (anoxic and sub-freezing temperatures). RESULTS: We used stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted metagenomics to reveal the genomic potential of active soil microbial populations under simulated winter conditions, with an emphasis on viruses and virus-host dynamics. Arctic peat soils from the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site in Alaska were incubated under sub-freezing anoxic conditions with H218O or natural abundance water for 184 and 370 days. We sequenced 23 SIP-metagenomes and measured carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux throughout the experiment. We identified 46 bacterial populations (spanning 9 phyla) and 243 viral populations that actively took up 18O in soil and respired CO2 throughout the incubation. Active bacterial populations represented only a small portion of the detected microbial community and were capable of fermentation and organic matter degradation. In contrast, active viral populations represented a large portion of the detected viral community and one third were linked to active bacterial populations. We identified 86 auxiliary metabolic genes and other environmentally relevant genes. The majority of these genes were carried by active viral populations and had diverse functions such as carbon utilization and scavenging that could provide their host with a fitness advantage for utilizing much-needed carbon sources or acquiring essential nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there was a stark difference in the identity and function of the active bacterial and viral community compared to the unlabeled community that would have been overlooked with a non-targeted standard metagenomic analysis. Our results illustrate that substantial active virus-host interactions occur in sub-freezing anoxic conditions and highlight viruses as a major community-structuring agent that likely modulates carbon loss in peat soils during winter, which may be pivotal for understanding the future fate of arctic soils' vast carbon stocks. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Congelamento , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura
11.
New Phytol ; 231(5): 1746-1757, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077566

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient that limits plant growth in many ecosystems. Here we investigate an overlooked component of the terrestrial N cycle - subsurface ammonia (NH3 ) gas transport and its contribution to plant and mycorrhizal N acquisition. We used controlled mesocosms, soil incubations, stable isotopes, and imaging to investigate edaphic drivers of NH3 gas efflux, track lateral subsurface N transport originating from 15 NH3 gas or 15 N-enriched organic matter, and assess plant and mycorrhizal N assimilation from this gaseous transport pathway. NH3 is released from soil organic matter, travels belowground, and contributes to root and fungal N content. Abiotic soil properties (pH and texture) influence the quantity of NH3 available for subsurface transport. Mutualisms with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can substantially increase plant NH3 -N uptake. The grass Brachypodium distachyon acquired 6-9% of total plant N from organic matter-N that traveled as a gas belowground. Colonization by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis was associated with a two-fold increase in total plant N acquisition from subsurface NH3 gas. NH3 gas transport and uptake pathways may be fundamentally different from those of more commonly studied soil N species and warrant further research.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Amônia , Ecossistema , Fungos , Gases , Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas , Solo
12.
ISME J ; 14(12): 3068-3078, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814866

RESUMO

In nitrogen-limited boreal forests, associations between feathermoss and diazotrophic cyanobacteria control nitrogen inputs and thus carbon cycling, but little is known about the molecular regulators required for initiation and maintenance of these associations. Specifically, a benefit to the cyanobacteria is not known, challenging whether the association is a nutritional mutualism. Targeted mutagenesis of the cyanobacterial alkane sulfonate monooxygenase results in an inability to colonize feathermosses by the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, suggesting a role for organic sulfur in communication or nutrition. Isotope probing paired with high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) demonstrated bidirectional elemental transfer between partners, with carbon and sulfur both being transferred to the cyanobacteria, and nitrogen transferred to the moss. These results support the hypothesis that moss and cyanobacteria enter a mutualistic exosymbiosis with substantial bidirectional material exchange of carbon and nitrogen and potential signaling through sulfur compounds.


Assuntos
Nostoc , Simbiose , Nitrogênio , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nostoc/genética , Enxofre
13.
ISME J ; 14(1): 91-103, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551530

RESUMO

Dust is an important iron (Fe) source to the ocean, but its utilization by phytoplankton is constrained by rapid sinking and slow dissolution dust-bound iron (dust-Fe). Colonies of the globally important cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium, overcome these constraints by efficient dust capturing and active dust-Fe dissolution. In this study we examined the ability of Trichodesmium colonies to maximize their Fe supply from dust by selectively collecting Fe-rich particles. Testing for selectivity in particle collection, we supplied ~600 individual colonies, collected on multiple days from the Gulf of Aqaba, with natural dust and silica minerals that were either cleaned of or coated with Fe. Using a stereoscope, we counted the number of particles retained by each colony shortly after addition and following 24 h incubation with particles, and documented translocation of particles to the colony core. We observed a strong preference for Fe-rich particles over Fe-free particles in all tested parameters. Moreover, some colonies discarded the Fe-free particles they initially collected. The preferred collection of Fe-rich particles and disposal of Fe-free particles suggest that Trichodesmium can sense Fe and selectively choose Fe-rich dust particles. This ability assists Trichodesmium obtain Fe from dust and facilitate its growth and subsequent contribution to nutrient cycling and productivity in the ocean.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Trichodesmium/química , Poeira/análise , Minerais
14.
Ecology ; 101(2): e02928, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715005

RESUMO

Humid tropical forests are among the most productive ecosystems globally, yet they often occur on soils with high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, lowering P availability to biota. Short-term anoxic events are thought to release sorbed P and enhance its acquisition by soil microbes. However, the actual effects of anoxic conditions on microbial P acquisition in humid tropical forest soils are surprisingly poorly studied. We used laboratory incubations of bulk soils, NanoSIMS analysis of single microbial cells, and landscape-scale measurements in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico to test the hypothesis that anoxic conditions increase microbial P acquisition in humid tropical forests. In laboratory and field experiments, we found that microbial P uptake generally decreased under anoxic conditions, leading to high microbial carbon (C) to P ratios in anoxic soils. The decreased P acquisition under anoxic conditions was correlated with lower microbial C use efficiency (CUE), an index of microbial energy transfer in ecosystems. Phosphorus amendments to anoxic soils led to increased microbial P uptake and higher CUE suggesting that microbes were less able to access and utilize P under natural low redox conditions. Under oxic conditions, microbial C:P ratios and CUE did not respond to changes in substrate stoichiometry. These results challenge the existing paradigm by showing that anoxic conditions can decrease microbial P uptake and ultimately constrain microbial CUE. Our findings indicate that soil redox conditions tightly couple soil P and C cycles and advance our understanding of controls on P cycling in humid tropical forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Carbono , Ecossistema , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Porto Rico , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
J Biol Chem ; 294(46): 17626-17641, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527081

RESUMO

Exposing cells to excess metal concentrations well beyond the cellular quota is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of metal homeostasis. Such improved understanding may enable bioengineering of organisms with improved nutrition and bioremediation capacity. We report here that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can accumulate manganese (Mn) in proportion to extracellular supply, up to 30-fold greater than its typical quota and with remarkable tolerance. As visualized by X-ray fluorescence microscopy and nanoscale secondary ion MS (nanoSIMS), Mn largely co-localizes with phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca), consistent with the Mn-accumulating site being an acidic vacuole, known as the acidocalcisome. Vacuolar Mn stores are accessible reserves that can be mobilized in Mn-deficient conditions to support algal growth. We noted that Mn accumulation depends on cellular polyphosphate (polyP) content, indicated by 1) a consistent failure of C. reinhardtii vtc1 mutant strains, which are deficient in polyphosphate synthesis, to accumulate Mn and 2) a drastic reduction of the Mn storage capacity in P-deficient cells. Rather surprisingly, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, EPR, and electron nuclear double resonance revealed that only little Mn2+ is stably complexed with polyP, indicating that polyP is not the final Mn ligand. We propose that polyPs are a critical component of Mn accumulation in Chlamydomonas by driving Mn relocation from the cytosol to acidocalcisomes. Within these structures, polyP may, in turn, escort vacuolar Mn to a number of storage ligands, including phosphate and phytate, and other, yet unidentified, compounds.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons/química , Manganês/toxicidade , Fósforo/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2046: 71-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407297

RESUMO

Chip-SIP is a stable isotope probing (SIP) method for linking microbial identity and function in mixed communities and is capable of analyzing multiple isotopes (13C, 15N, and 18O) simultaneously. This method uses a high-density microarray to separate taxon-specific 16S (or 18S) rRNA genes and a high sensitivity magnetic sector secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) to determine the relative isotope incorporation of the rRNA at each probe location. Using a maskless array synthesizer (MAS), we synthesize multiple unique sequences to target hundreds of taxa at the ribosomal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level on an array surface, and then analyze it with a NanoSIMS 50, using its high-spatial resolution imaging capability to generate isotope ratios for individual probes. The Chip-SIP method has been used in diverse systems, including surface marine and estuarine water, rhizosphere, and peat soils, to quantify taxon-specific relative incorporation of different substrates in complex microbial communities. Depending on the hypothesis and experimental design, Chip-SIP allows the user to compare the same community incorporating different substrates, different communities incorporating the same substrate(s), or quantify how a community responds to treatment effects, such as temperature or nutrient concentrations.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Bactérias/genética , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Classificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise em Microsséries , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Software
17.
Anal Chem ; 91(18): 11598-11605, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310094

RESUMO

Until recently, the analysis and identification of nuclear fuel pellets in the context of a nuclear forensics investigation have been mainly focused on macroscopic characteristics, such as fuel pellet dimensions, uranium enrichment, and other reactor-specific features. Here, we report microscale isotopic heterogeneity observed in different fuel pellet fragments that were characterized in situ by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The materials analyzed include fuel fragments obtained as part of the Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) organized by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG), as well as a fuel pellet fragment from a commercial power reactor. Although the commercial fuel pellet showed a homogeneous 235U/238U ratio across the sample (within analytical error), NanoSIMS imaging of the CMX-4 fuel pellet fragments showed distinct microscale variations in the uranium isotopic composition. The average 235U enrichments were 2.2 and 2.9% for the two samples; however, the measured 235U/238U ratios varied between 0.0081 and 0.035 (0.79-3.3 atom % 235U) and between 0.0090 and 0.045 (0.89-4.3 atom % 235U). The measurement of 236U in one of the CMX-4 samples suggested the use of at least three uranium oxide powders of different isotopic compositions ("source terms") in the production of the pellets. These variations were not detected using the conventional bulk, macroscopic techniques applied to these materials. Our study highlights the importance of characterizing samples on the microscale for heterogeneities that would otherwise be overlooked and demonstrates the potential use of NanoSIMS in guiding further nuclear forensic analysis.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214143

RESUMO

Light plays a central role on primary productivity of aquatic systems. Yet, its potential impact on the degradation of photosynthetically produced biomass is not well understood. We investigated the patterns of light-induced particle breakdown and bacterial assimilation of detrital C and N using 13C and 15N labeled freeze-thawed diatom cells incubated in laboratory microcosms with a marine microbial community freshly collected from the Pacific Ocean. Particles incubated in the dark resulted in increased bacterial counts and dissolved organic carbon concentrations compared to those incubated in the light. Light also influenced the attached and free-living microbial community structure as detected by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. For example, Sphingobacteriia were enriched on dark-incubated particles and taxa from the family Flavobacteriaceae and the genus Pseudoalteromonas were numerically enriched on particles in the light. Isotope incorporation analysis by phylogenetic microarray and NanoSIMS (a method called Chip-SIP) identified free-living and attached microbial taxa able to incorporate N and C from the particles. Some taxa, including members of the Flavobacteriaceae and Cryomorphaceae, exhibited increased isotope incorporation in the light, suggesting the use of photoheterotrophic metabolisms. In contrast, some members of Oceanospirillales and Rhodospirillales showed decreased isotope incorporation in the light, suggesting that their heterotrophic metabolism, particularly when occurring on particles, might increase at night or may be inhibited by sunlight. These results show that light influences particle degradation and C and N incorporation by attached bacteria, suggesting that the transfer between particulate and free-living phases are likely affected by external factors that change with the light regime, such as time of day, water column depth and season.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2682, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920997

RESUMO

Characterizing and quantifying in situ metabolisms remains both a central goal and challenge for environmental microbiology. Here, we used a single-cell, multi-isotope approach to investigate the anabolic activity of marine microorganisms, with an emphasis on natural populations of Thaumarchaeota. After incubating coastal Pacific Ocean water with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-amino acids, we used nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to isotopically screen 1,501 individual cells, and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to assess community composition. We established isotopic enrichment thresholds for activity and metabolic classification, and with these determined the percentage of anabolically active cells, the distribution of activity across the whole community, and the metabolic lifestyle-chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic-of each cell. Most cells (>90%) were anabolically active during the incubation, and 4-17% were chemoautotrophic. When we inhibited bacteria with antibiotics, the fraction of chemoautotrophic cells detected via nanoSIMS increased, suggesting archaea dominated chemoautotrophy. With fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nanoSIMS (FISH-nanoSIMS), we confirmed that most Thaumarchaeota were living chemoautotrophically, while bacteria were not. FISH-nanoSIMS analysis of cells incubated with dual-labeled (13C,15N-) amino acids revealed that most Thaumarchaeota cells assimilated amino-acid-derived nitrogen but not carbon, while bacteria assimilated both. This indicates that some Thaumarchaeota do not assimilate intact amino acids, suggesting intra-phylum heterogeneity in organic carbon utilization, and potentially their use of amino acids for nitrification. Together, our results demonstrate the utility of multi-isotope nanoSIMS analysis for high-throughput metabolic screening, and shed light on the activity and metabolism of uncultured marine archaea and bacteria.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202792, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204767

RESUMO

Hypersaline photosynthetic microbial mats are stratified microbial communities known for their taxonomic and metabolic diversity and strong light-driven day-night environmental gradients. In this study of the upper photosynthetic zone of hypersaline microbial mats of Elkhorn Slough, California (USA), we show how metagenome sequencing can be used to meaningfully assess microbial ecology and genetic partitioning in these complex microbial systems. Mapping of metagenome reads to the dominant Cyanobacteria observed in the system, Coleofasciculus (Microcoleus) chthonoplastes, was used to examine strain variants within these metagenomes. Highly conserved gene subsystems indicated a core genome for the species, and a number of variant genes and subsystems suggested strain level differentiation, especially for nutrient utilization and stress response. Metagenome sequence coverage binning was used to assess ecosystem partitioning of remaining microbes to both reconstruct the model organisms in silico and identify their ecosystem functions as well as to identify novel clades and propose their role in the biogeochemical cycling of mats. Functional gene annotation of these bins (primarily of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria) recapitulated the known biogeochemical functions in microbial mats using a genetic basis, and revealed significant diversity in the Bacteroidetes, presumably in heterotrophic cycling. This analysis also revealed evidence of putative phototrophs within the Gemmatimonadetes and Gammaproteobacteria residing in microbial mats. This study shows that metagenomic analysis can produce insights into the systems biology of microbial ecosystems from a genetic perspective and to suggest further studies of novel microbes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Metagenômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , California , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/genética
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