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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400355

RESUMO

Analyses of the population genetic structure of schistosomes under the "Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation" (SCORE) contrasting treatment pressure scenarios in Tanzania, Niger, and Zanzibar were performed to provide supplementary critical information with which to evaluate the impact of these large-scale control activities and guide how activities could be adjusted. We predicted that population genetic analyses would reveal information on a range of important parameters including, but not exclusive to, recruitment and transmission of genotypes, occurrence of hybridization events, differences in reproductive mode, and degrees of inbreeding, and hence, the evolutionary potential, and responses of parasite populations under contrasting treatment pressures. Key findings revealed that naturally high levels of gene flow and mixing of the parasite populations between neighboring sites were likely to dilute any effects imposed by the SCORE treatment arms. Furthermore, significant inherent differences in parasite fecundity were observed, independent of current treatment arm, but potentially of major impact in terms of maintaining high levels of ongoing transmission in persistent "biological hotspot" sites. Within Niger, naturally occurring Schistosoma haematobium/Schistosoma bovis viable hybrids were found to be abundant, often occurring in significantly higher proportions than that of single-species S. haematobium infections. By examining parasite population genetic structures across hosts, treatment regimens, and the spatial landscape, our results to date illustrate key transmission processes over and above that which could be achieved through standard parasitological monitoring of prevalence and intensity alone, as well as adding to our understanding of Schistosoma spp. life history strategies in general.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(6): 1234-1242, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441625

RESUMO

In West Africa, Schistosoma spp. are capable of infecting multiple definitive hosts, a lifecycle feature that may complicate schistosomiasis control. We characterized the evolutionary relationships among multiple Schistosoma mansoni isolates collected from snails (intermediate hosts), humans (definitive hosts), and rodents (definitive hosts) in Senegal. On a local scale, diagnosis of S. mansoni infection ranged 3.8%-44.8% in school-aged children, 1.7%-52.6% in Mastomys huberti mice, and 1.8%-7.1% in Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails. Our phylogenetic framework confirmed the presence of multiple S. mansoni lineages that could infect both humans and rodents; divergence times of these lineages varied (0.13-0.02 million years ago). We propose that extensive movement of persons across West Africa might have contributed to the establishment of these various multihost S. mansoni clades. High S. mansoni prevalence in rodents at transmission sites frequented by humans further highlights the implications that alternative hosts could have on future public health interventions.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Horizontal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii occurs primarily via ingestion of environmental oocysts or consumption of undercooked/raw meat containing cyst-stage bradyzoites. The relative importance of these two transmission routes remains unclear. Oocyst infection can be distinguished from bradyzoite infection by identification of IgG antibodies against T. gondii-embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP). These antibodies are, however, thought to persist for only 6-8 months in human sera, limiting the use of TgERP serology to only those patients recently exposed to T. gondii. Yet recent serological survey data indicate a more sustained persistence of anti-TgERP antibodies. Elucidating the duration of anti-TgERP IgG will help to determine whether TgERP serology has epidemiological utility for quantifying the relative importance of different routes of T. gondii transmission. METHODS: We developed a sero-catalytic mathematical model to capture the change in seroprevalence of non-stage-specific IgG and anti-TgERP IgG antibodies with human age. The model was fitted to published datasets collected in an endemic region of Brazil to estimate the duration of anti-TgERP IgG antibodies, accounting for variable age-force of infection profiles and uncertainty in the diagnostic performance of TgERP serology. RESULTS: We found that anti-TgERP IgG persists for substantially longer than previously recognised, with estimates ranging from 8.3 to 41.1 years. The Brazilian datasets were consistent with oocysts being the predominant transmission route in these settings. CONCLUSIONS: The longer than previously recognised duration of anti-TgERP antibodies indicates that anti-TgERP serology could be a useful tool for delineating T. gondii transmission routes in human populations. TgERP serology may therefore be an important epidemiological tool for informing the design of tailored, setting-specific public health information campaigns and interventions.

4.
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2480, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051431

RESUMO

Schistosoma spindale and Schistosoma indicum are ruminant-infecting trematodes of the Schistosoma indicum group that are widespread across Southeast Asia. Though neglected, these parasites can cause major pathology and mortality to livestock leading to significant welfare and socio-economic issues, predominantly amongst poor subsistence farmers and their families. Here we used mitogenomic analysis to determine the relationships between these two sympatric species of schistosome and to characterise S. spindale diversity in order to identify possible cryptic speciation. The mitochondrial genomes of S. spindale and S. indicum were assembled and genetic analyses revealed high levels of diversity within the S. indicum group. Evidence of functional changes in mitochondrial genes indicated adaptation to environmental change associated with speciation events in S. spindale around 2.5 million years ago. We discuss our results in terms of their theoretical and applied implications.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 607, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key component of schistosomiasis control is mass drug administration with praziquantel. While control interventions have been successful in several endemic regions, mass drug administration has been less effective in others. Here we focus on the impact of repeated praziquantel treatment on the population structure and genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS: We examined S. mansoni epidemiology, population genetics, and variation in praziquantel susceptibility in parasites isolated from children across three primary schools in a high endemicity region at the onset of the Ugandan National Control Programme. Children were sampled at 11 timepoints over two years, including one week and four weeks post-praziquantel treatment to evaluate short-term impacts on clearance and evidence of natural variation in susceptibility to praziquantel. RESULTS: Prevalence of S. mansoni was 85% at baseline. A total of 3576 miracidia larval parasites, isolated from 203 individual children, were genotyped at seven loci. Overall, genetic diversity was high and there was low genetic differentiation, indicating high rates of parasite gene flow. Schistosome siblings were found both pre-treatment and four weeks post-treatment, demonstrating adult worms surviving treatment and natural praziquantel susceptibility variation in these populations at the beginning of mass drug administration. However, we did not find evidence for selection on these parasites. While genetic diversity decreased in the short-term (four weeks post-treatment), diversity did not decrease over the entire period despite four rounds of mass treatment. Furthermore, within-host genetic diversity was affected by host age, host sex, infection intensity and recent praziquantel treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that praziquantel treatments have short-term impacts on these parasite populations but impacts were transient and no long-term reduction in genetic diversity was observed. High gene flow reduces the likelihood of local adaptation, so even though parasites surviving treatment were observed, these were likely to be diluted at the beginning of the Ugandan National Control Programme. Together, these results suggest that MDA in isolation may be insufficient to reduce schistosome populations in regions with high genetic diversity and gene flow.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Criança , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Filogenia , Schistosoma mansoni/classificação , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(26): 2519-2528, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the vision of "a world free of schistosomiasis," the World Health Organization (WHO) set ambitious goals of control of this debilitating disease and its elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and 2025, respectively. As these milestones become imminent, and if programs are to succeed, it is important to evaluate the WHO programmatic guidelines empirically. METHODS: We collated and analyzed multiyear cross-sectional data from nine national schistosomiasis control programs (in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in Yemen). Data were analyzed according to schistosome species (Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium), number of treatment rounds, overall prevalence, and prevalence of heavy-intensity infection. Disease control was defined as a prevalence of heavy-intensity infection of less than 5% aggregated across sentinel sites, and the elimination target was defined as a prevalence of heavy-intensity infection of less than 1% in all sentinel sites. Heavy-intensity infection was defined as at least 400 eggs per gram of feces for S. mansoni infection or as more than 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine for S. haematobium infection. RESULTS: All but one country program (Niger) reached the disease-control target by two treatment rounds or less, which is earlier than projected by current WHO guidelines (5 to 10 years). Programs in areas with low endemicity levels at baseline were more likely to reach both the control and elimination targets than were programs in areas with moderate and high endemicity levels at baseline, although the elimination target was reached only for S. mansoni infection (in Burkina Faso, Burundi, and Rwanda within three treatment rounds). Intracountry variation was evident in the relationships between overall prevalence and heavy-intensity infection (stratified according to treatment rounds), a finding that highlights the challenges of using one metric to define control or elimination across all epidemiologic settings. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest the need to reevaluate progress and treatment strategies in national schistosomiasis control programs more frequently, with local epidemiologic data taken into consideration, in order to determine the treatment effect and appropriate resource allocations and move closer to achieving the global goals. (Funded by the Children's Investment Fund Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Iêmen/epidemiologia
8.
Front Genet ; 10: 826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616465

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing is being rapidly applied to the study of helminth genomes, including de novo genome assembly, population genetics, and diagnostic applications. Although late-stage juvenile and adult parasites typically produce sufficient DNA for molecular analyses, these parasitic stages are almost always inaccessible in the live host; immature life stages found in the environment for which samples can be collected non-invasively offer a potential alternative; however, these samples typically yield very low quantities of DNA, can be environmentally resistant, and are susceptible to contamination, often from bacterial or host DNA. Here, we have tested five low-input DNA extraction protocols together with a low-input sequencing library protocol to assess the feasibility of whole-genome sequencing of individual immature helminth samples. These approaches do not use whole-genome amplification, a common but costly approach to increase the yield of low-input samples. We first tested individual parasites from two species spotted onto FTA cards-egg and L1 stages of Haemonchus contortus and miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni-before further testing on an additional five species-Ancylostoma caninum, Ascaridia dissimilis, Dirofilaria immitis, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris muris-with an optimal protocol. A sixth species-Dracunculus medinensis-was included for comparison. Whole-genome sequencing followed by analyses to determine the proportion of on- and off-target mapping revealed successful sample preparations for six of the eight species tested with variation both between species and between different life stages from some species described. These results demonstrate the feasibility of whole-genome sequencing of individual parasites, and highlight a new avenue toward generating sensitive, specific, and information-rich data for the diagnosis and surveillance of helminths.

9.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(10): e1007881, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652296

RESUMO

Do mutations required for adaptation occur de novo, or are they segregating within populations as standing genetic variation? This question is key to understanding adaptive change in nature, and has important practical consequences for the evolution of drug resistance. We provide evidence that alleles conferring resistance to oxamniquine (OXA), an antischistosomal drug, are widespread in natural parasite populations under minimal drug pressure and predate OXA deployment. OXA has been used since the 1970s to treat Schistosoma mansoni infections in the New World where S. mansoni established during the slave trade. Recessive loss-of-function mutations within a parasite sulfotransferase (SmSULT-OR) underlie resistance, and several verified resistance mutations, including a deletion (p.E142del), have been identified in the New World. Here we investigate sequence variation in SmSULT-OR in S. mansoni from the Old World, where OXA has seen minimal usage. We sequenced exomes of 204 S. mansoni parasites from West Africa, East Africa and the Middle East, and scored variants in SmSULT-OR and flanking regions. We identified 39 non-synonymous SNPs, 4 deletions, 1 duplication and 1 premature stop codon in the SmSULT-OR coding sequence, including one confirmed resistance deletion (p.E142del). We expressed recombinant proteins and used an in vitro OXA activation assay to functionally validate the OXA-resistance phenotype for four predicted OXA-resistance mutations. Three aspects of the data are of particular interest: (i) segregating OXA-resistance alleles are widespread in Old World populations (4.29-14.91% frequency), despite minimal OXA usage, (ii) two OXA-resistance mutations (p.W120R, p.N171IfsX28) are particularly common (>5%) in East African and Middle-Eastern populations, (iii) the p.E142del allele has identical flanking SNPs in both West Africa and Puerto Rico, suggesting that parasites bearing this allele colonized the New World during the slave trade and therefore predate OXA deployment. We conclude that standing variation for OXA resistance is widespread in S. mansoni.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Oxamniquine/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cricetinae , Humanos , Níger , Omã , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ratos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Senegal , Caramujos/parasitologia , Tanzânia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(46): 23182-23191, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659025

RESUMO

Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world's largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic-the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal-intensive sampling revealed positive relationships between intermediate host snails (abundance, density, and prevalence) and human urogenital schistosomiasis reinfection (prevalence and intensity in schoolchildren after drug administration). However, we also found that snail distributions were so patchy in space and time that obtaining useful data required effort that exceeds what is feasible in standard monitoring and control campaigns. Instead, we identified several environmental proxies that were more effective than snail variables for predicting human infection: the area covered by suitable snail habitat (i.e., floating, nonemergent vegetation), the percent cover by suitable snail habitat, and size of the water contact area. Unlike snail surveys, which require hundreds of person-hours per site to conduct, habitat coverage and site area can be quickly estimated with drone or satellite imagery. This, in turn, makes possible large-scale, high-resolution estimation of human urogenital schistosomiasis risk to support targeting of both mass drug administration and snail control efforts.

11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 439, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and food-borne trematodiases are not only of major public health concern, but can also have profound implications for livestock production and wildlife conservation. The zoonotic, multi-host nature of many digenean trematodes is a significant challenge for disease control programmes in endemic areas. However, our understanding of the epidemiological role that animal reservoirs, particularly wild hosts, may play in the transmission of zoonotic trematodiases suffers a dearth of information, with few, if any, standardised, reliable diagnostic tests available. We combined qualitative and quantitative data derived from post-mortem examinations, coprological analyses using the Mini-FLOTAC technique, and molecular tools to assess parasite community composition and the validity of non-invasive methods to detect trematode infections in 89 wild Hubert's multimammate mice (Mastomys huberti) from northern Senegal. RESULTS: Parasites isolated at post-mortem examination were identified as Plagiorchis sp., Anchitrema sp., Echinostoma caproni, Schistosoma mansoni, and a hybrid between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis. The reports of E. caproni and Anchitrema sp. represent the first molecularly confirmed identifications for these trematodes in definitive hosts of sub-Saharan Africa. Comparison of prevalence estimates derived from parasitological analysis at post-mortem examination and Mini-FLOTAC analysis showed non-significant differences indicating comparable results between the two techniques (P = 1.00 for S. mansoni; P = 0.85 for E. caproni; P = 0.83 for Plagiorchis sp.). A Bayesian model, applied to estimate the sensitivities of the two tests for the diagnosis of Schistosoma infections, indicated similar median posterior probabilities of 83.1% for Mini-FLOTAC technique and 82.9% for post-mortem examination (95% Bayesian credible intervals of 64.0-94.6% and 63.7-94.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the Mini-FLOTAC could be applied as an alternative diagnostic technique for the detection of the zoonotic S. mansoni and other trematodes in rodent reservoirs. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostics in wildlife would offer numerous advantages over lethal sampling methodologies, with potential impact on control strategies of zoonotic helminthiases in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and on fostering a framework of animal use reduction in scientific practice.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Murinae , Parasitologia/métodos , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Senegal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 441, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sibship reconstruction is a form of parentage analysis that can be used to identify the number of helminth parental genotypes infecting individual hosts using genetic data on only their offspring. This has the potential to be used for estimating individual worm burdens when adult parasites are otherwise inaccessible, the case for many of the most globally important human helminthiases and neglected tropical diseases. Yet methods of inferring worm burdens from sibship reconstruction data on numbers of unique parental genotypes are lacking, limiting the method's scope of application. RESULTS: We developed a novel statistical method for estimating female worm burdens from data on the number of unique female parental genotypes derived from sibship reconstruction. We illustrate the approach using genotypic data on Schistosoma mansoni (miracidial) offspring collected from schoolchildren in Tanzania. We show how the bias and precision of worm burden estimates critically depends on the number of sampled offspring and we discuss strategies for obtaining sufficient sample sizes and for incorporating judiciously formulated prior information to improve the accuracy of estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides a novel approach for estimating individual-level worm burdens using genetic data on helminth offspring. This represents a step towards a wider scope of application of parentage analysis techniques. We discuss how the method could be used to assist in the interpretation of monitoring and evaluation data collected during mass drug administration programmes targeting human helminthiases and to help resolve outstanding questions on key population biological processes that govern the transmission dynamics of these neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Genótipo , Modelos Estatísticos , Schistosoma mansoni/classificação , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
13.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases endemic to Mali. There has been insufficient investigation of the morbidity burden in highly endemic irrigated rice areas with the ongoing mass drug administration with praziquantel. In February 2005, a year after an initial mass drug administration in 2004, we performed the first cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis in the Kokry-Bozo village in the Office du Niger rice irrigation region. In the fourteen years since this survey, there has been almost no research into schistosomiasis morbidity in Mali due to lack of funding. Therefore, the 2005 survey supplies near-baseline data for any future research into the treatment impacts in the area. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-four children aged 6-14 years from two schools were assessed for bladder pathology by ultrasound, and for anaemia and micro-haematuria by laboratory tests. Schistosoma eggs were examined microscopically in fresh stool and urine samples. Multivariate logistic regression analysis quantified the association of Schistosoma infections with anaemia, bladder pathology and micro-haematuria. Akaike's information criterion was used to test the assumption of linear effects of infection intensity classes and used to compare across models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in 189 school children was 97%; 17% (33/189) had a single infection (S. mansoni,13%, or S. haematobium, 4%) and 80% (156/189) were co-infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni with light infection was 27% (53/194), moderate infection was 24% (47/194) and heavy infection was 42% (81/194). Of the 194 of children investigated for S. haematobium 59% (114/194) had light infection and 26% (50/194) had heavy infection. No hookworm eggs were detected. The level of abnormal bladder pathology was 18% (35/189) with the highest found in 10-14 year old children. The prevalence of anaemia was 91% (172/189) and was twice as likely to be associated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9) with S. mansoni infections than in children without infection. As infection intensity with S. mansoni increased the risk of anaemia (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9) also increased. As infection intensity with S. haematobium increased bladder pathology (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3-4.5), haematuria (OR 6.7, 95%CI 3.3-13.6) and micro-haematuria increased (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3-4.5). CONCLUSION: Our research contributes an important micro-geographical assessment of the heavy burden of schistosomiasis and associated morbidity in children who live in the rice irrigation regions. Our literature review found that there has been very limited research conducted on the impact of the treatment to control morbidity in the ON. Therefore, there is a need to do a comparable, but more extensive, study to identify any changes in morbidity and to indicate current requirements for the control programme. Our results from 2005 called for routine integration of iron supplementation, food fortification and diet diversification into the deworming program.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Irrigação Agrícola , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Morbidade , Oryza , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105048, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173738

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains one of the world's most significant neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in terms of socioeconomic impact. In 2014, China proposed the goal of schistosomiasis japonicum elimination by 2025. However, one major challenge is the widely distributed, and in certain cases potentially increasing, habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Therefore, an understanding of population genetics of O. hupensis in new or re-emerged habitats, together with that of the established habitats with snail persistence, would be valuable in controlling and predicting the future transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis in China. Using nine microsatellite loci, we conducted population genetic analyses of snails sampled from one habitat where snails were detected for the first time, one (previously eliminated) habitat with re-emerged snails, and one habitat with established snail persistence. Results showed lower diversities, in terms of number of observed alleles per locus (Na), number of effective alleles per locus (NeA), observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He), in snails from new or re-emerged snail habitats than from the habitat with snail persistence. The smallest effective population size was inferred in the re-emerged snail habitat, but the largest was in the new habitat rather than in the habitat with snail persistence. No bottleneck effects were detected in new or re-merged habitats. No or low sub-structure was inferred in new and persistent snail habitats. Snails from the three sites were clearly separated and low gene flow was estimated between sites. We propose that snails at the new habitat may have been introduced through immigration, whereas snails at the re-emerged habitat may be the consequence of those few snails remaining subsequently expanding through reproduction. We discuss our results in terms of their theoretical and applied implications.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(10): 2127-2142, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251352

RESUMO

Introgression among parasite species has the potential to transfer traits of biomedical importance across species boundaries. The parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis in humans across sub-Saharan Africa. Hybridization with other schistosome species is assumed to occur commonly, because genetic crosses between S. haematobium and livestock schistosomes, including S. bovis, can be staged in the laboratory, and sequencing of mtDNA and rDNA amplified from microscopic miracidia larvae frequently reveals markers from different species. However, the frequency, direction, age, and genomic consequences of hybridization are unknown. We hatched miracidia from eggs and sequenced the exomes from 96 individual S. haematobium miracidia from infected patients from Niger and the Zanzibar archipelago. These data revealed no evidence for contemporary hybridization between S. bovis and S. haematobium in our samples. However, all Nigerien S. haematobium genomes sampled show hybrid ancestry, with 3.3-8.2% of their nuclear genomes derived from S. bovis, providing evidence of an ancient introgression event that occurred at least 108-613 generations ago. Some S. bovis-derived alleles have spread to high frequency or reached fixation and show strong signatures of directional selection; the strongest signal spans a single gene in the invadolysin gene family (Chr. 4). Our results suggest that S. bovis/S. haematobium hybridization occurs rarely but demonstrate profound consequences of ancient introgression from a livestock parasite into the genome of S. haematobium, the most prevalent schistosome species infecting humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Hibridização Genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Schistosoma/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Adv Parasitol ; 104: 247-326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030770

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem globally, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged populations. Detection of STH infections is often challenging, requiring a combination of diagnostic techniques to achieve acceptable sensitivity and specificity, particularly in low infection-intensity situations. The microscopy-based Kato-Katz remains the most widely used method but has low sensitivity in the detection of, for instance, Strongyloides spp. infections, among others. Antigen/antibody assays can be more sensitive but are parasite species-specific. Highly sensitive PCR methods have been developed to be multiplexed to allow multi-species detection. Novel diagnostic tests for all STH species are needed for effective monitoring, evaluation of chemotherapy programmes, and to assess the potential emergence of parasite resistance. This review discusses available diagnostic methods for the different stages of STH control programmes, which vary in sensitivity and spectrum of detection requirements, and tools to evaluate drug efficacy and resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Saúde Pública , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Solo/parasitologia
17.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 8: 164-170, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834193

RESUMO

Trematodes of the genus Plagiorchis have a wide geographical distribution and can exploit a variety of hosts. The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Plagiorchis spp. have been characterised across several countries in Asia; in contrast, information on Plagiorchis parasites in Africa remains anecdotal. We isolated a previously undescribed Plagiorchis species from the biliary tract and small intestine of 201 out of 427 small mammals collected in the region of Lake Guiers, Senegal, with local prevalence ranging from 38.6% to 77.0%. Conversely, Plagiorchis isolates were not observed in the 244 small mammals sampled in and around the town of Richard Toll, Senegal. Molecular phylogenetics of the internal transcribed spacer region, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, mitochondrial DNA, supported the monophyly and multi-host spectrum of this newly discovered West African Plagiorchis species. Sequencing of individual cercariae shed by Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) suggested that these freshwater snails may act as suitable first intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis yielded a highly resolved topology indicating two different clades, one composed by Plagiorchis spp. infecting rodents, insectivores, and birds, while the other included parasites of bats. Our findings showed the low host specificity and high prevalence of the isolated Plagiorchis sp. in the Lake Guiers region, with Hubert's multimammate mice (Mastomys huberti) appearing to play a primary role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The results raise concern about the zoonotic potential of Plagiorchis sp. in local communities of the Lake Guiers region, and highlight food-borne trematodiases and their link to land-use change as a neglected public health issue in regions of West Africa.

18.
Parasitology ; 146(3): 299-304, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152308

RESUMO

Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a recently resurrected genus including species seldom investigated in sub-Saharan Africa. We surveyed wild small mammal populations in the areas of Richard Toll and Lake Guiers, Senegal, with the objective to evaluate their potential role as intermediate hosts of larval taeniid stages (i.e. metacestodes). Based on genetic sequences of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), we identified Hydatigera parva metacestodes in 19 out of 172 (11.0%) Hubert's multimammate mice (Mastomys huberti) and one out of six (16.7%) gerbils (Taterillus sp.) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto metacestodes in one out of 215 (0.5%) Nile rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). This study reports epidemiological and molecular information on H. parva and H. taeniaeformis in West African rodents, further supporting the phylogeographic hypothesis on the African origin of H. parva. Our findings may indicate significant trophic interactions contributing to the local transmission of Hydatigera spp. and other parasites with similar life-cycle mechanisms. We therefore propose that further field investigations of rodent population dynamics and rodent-borne infectious organisms are necessary to improve our understanding of host-parasite associations driving the transmission risks of rodent parasites in West Africa.

19.
Parasitology ; 145(13): 1739-1747, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806576

RESUMO

Adult schistosomes live in the blood vessels and cannot easily be sampled from humans, so archived miracidia larvae hatched from eggs expelled in feces or urine are commonly used for population genetic studies. Large collections of archived miracidia on FTA cards are now available through the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). Here we describe protocols for whole genome amplification of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosome haematobium miracidia from these cards, as well as real time PCR quantification of amplified schistosome DNA. We used microgram quantities of DNA obtained for exome capture and sequencing of single miracidia, generating dense polymorphism data across the exome. These methods will facilitate the transition from population genetics, using limited numbers of markers to population genomics using genome-wide marker information, maximising the value of collections such as SCAN.


Assuntos
Genoma Helmíntico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Criança , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 62: 86-94, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679744

RESUMO

The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato causes serious public-health problems in Northeast Thailand and Southeast Asian countries. A hypothesis has been proposed that O. viverrini represents a species complex with varying levels of genetic differentiation in Thailand and Lao PDR. This study aimed to clarify whether O. viverrini populations can be genetically divided into separate taxa. We collected O. viverrini s.l. from eight different locations in Lao PDR and Thailand. The results of nad1, cox1, CF-int6, Pm-int9, ITS2 and 28S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that sub-structuring occurred between the eight populations. We found that O. viverrini s.l. from Sakon Nakhon (SK), Thailand, shows significant genetic differentiation (P < .05) from all other isolates from different localities in Thailand and Lao PDR. This was supported by haplotype and phylogenetic tree analyses in which the SK isolate was separated from all other isolates. This suggests that O. viverrini s.l. from SK is a cryptic species. The data, however, also confirm the association between genetic groups of O. viverrini s.l. and specific wetland systems, and raise important questions regarding the epidemiological significance of these genetic differences.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Opisthorchis/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/veterinária , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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