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Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203997


Diet is one of the strongest modifiable risk factors for hypertension. In this study, we described the associations between dietary factors and blood pressure; and explored how weight status moderated these associations in a sample of New Zealand male adolescents. We collected demographics information, anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary data from 108 male adolescents (15-17 years old). Mixed effects and logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between dietary variables, blood pressure, and hypertension. Moderation effects of overweight status on the relationship between hypertension and diet were explored through forest plots. One-third (36%) of the sample was classified as hypertensive. Fruit intake was related to significantly lower systolic (-2.4 mmHg, p = 0.005) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 mmHg, p = 0.001). Vegetable and milk intake was related to significantly lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.4 mmHg, p = 0.047) and (-2.2 mmHg, p = 0.003), respectively. In overweight participants, greater vegetable and milk, and lower meat intake appeared to reduce the odds of hypertension. Certain dietary factors may have more prominent effects on blood pressure depending on weight status.

Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
Food Chem ; 319: 126529, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199146


Claims in the lay literature suggest soaking nuts enhances mineral bioavailability. Research on legumes and grains indicate soaking reduces phytate levels, however, there is no evidence to support or refute these claims for nuts. We assessed the effects of different soaking regimes on phytate and mineral concentrations of whole and chopped almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and walnuts. The treatments were: 1. Raw; 2. soaked for 12 h in salt solution; 3. soaked for 4 h in salt solution; 4. soaked for 12 h in water. Phytate concentrations were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and minerals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Differences in phytate concentrations between treated and untreated nuts were small, ranging from -12% to +10%. Overall, soaking resulted in lower mineral concentrations, especially for chopped nuts, and did not improve phytate:mineral molar ratios. This research does not support claims that 'activating' nuts results in greater nutrient bioavailability.

Arachis/química , Nozes/química , Rosanae/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/química
Eur J Nutr ; 57(8): 2771-2783, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956139


PURPOSE: Recommendations to soak nuts prior to consumption to reduce phytate concentrations and improve gastrointestinal tolerance have received much attention in the popular press. This is despite no supporting scientific evidence for the practice. There is also a lack of information about how soaking nuts might affect consumer acceptability. This study primarily assessed the effects of soaking almonds on consumer acceptance and secondly assessed effects on gastrointestinal tolerance. METHODS: In this 8-week randomised crossover trial, 76 participants were allocated in balanced order to receive 30 g/day of four different preparations of almonds for 12 days: whole unsoaked, whole soaked, sliced unsoaked, and sliced soaked. Ratings of overall liking, desire to consume, and likelihood of future consumption, and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms were measured daily on visual analogue scales. The phytate concentrations were measured in all four nut types using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Mean acceptance ratings of all nut types were above the neutral point indicating they were acceptable. However, sliced soaked almonds were rated significantly lower overall for all three acceptance scales compared to the other treatments (all P ≤ 0.003). The sliced unsoaked almonds were rated lower than both whole nut treatments (all P ≤ 0.006), while there were no significant differences between the two whole nut treatments (all P ≥ 0.511). Gastrointestinal symptoms were minimal, but flatulence was rated significantly higher for all time points combined for soaked whole nuts compared to unsoaked whole nuts (P = 0.005). Compared to the whole unsoaked nuts (mean [SD] 531 [9] mg/100 g), phytate concentration was higher for the whole soaked almonds (563 [38] mg/100 g, P = 0.016), with no evidence of a difference for the sliced soaked almonds (548 [27] mg/100 g, P = 0.197) and no difference between the soaked forms (P = 0.262). CONCLUSIONS: This research supports previous results suggesting nuts, including different forms, are an acceptable food. They are also well tolerated gastrointestinally, but soaking does not improve gastrointestinal tolerance or acceptance as claimed in the lay literature.

Comportamento do Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nozes/química , Prunus dulcis/química , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Feminino , Flatulência , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Fítico/análise , Adulto Jovem