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1.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814998

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a group of rare, severe neurodevelopmental disorders, where even the most thorough sequencing studies leave 60-65% of patients without a molecular diagnosis. Here, we explore the incompleteness of transcript models used for exome and genome analysis as one potential explanation for a lack of current diagnoses. Therefore, we have updated the GENCODE gene annotation for 191 epilepsy-associated genes, using human brain-derived transcriptomic libraries and other data to build 3,550 putative transcript models. Our annotations increase the transcriptional 'footprint' of these genes by over 674 kb. Using SCN1A as a case study, due to its close phenotype/genotype correlation with Dravet syndrome, we screened 122 people with Dravet syndrome or a similar phenotype with a panel of exon sequences representing eight established genes and identified two de novo SCN1A variants that now - through improved gene annotation - are ascribed to residing among our exons. These two (from 122 screened people, 1.6%) molecular diagnoses carry significant clinical implications. Furthermore, we identified a previously classified SCN1A intronic Dravet syndrome-associated variant that now lies within a deeply conserved exon. Our findings illustrate the potential gains of thorough gene annotation in improving diagnostic yields for genetic disorders.

2.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883110

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the PLCB1 gene, encoding for a phospholipase C beta isoform strongly expressed in the brain, have been reported to cause infantile epileptic encephalopathy in only four children to date. We report here three additional patients to delineate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease. Our three patients were one sporadic case with an intragenic homozygous deletion and two cousins with the homozygous p.(Arg222*) nonsense variant in PLCB1. These patients had severe to profound intellectual disability, epileptic spasms at age 3-5 months concomitant with developmental arrest or regression, other seizure types and drug-resistant epilepsy. With this report, we expand the clinical, radiologic and electroencephalographic knowledge about the extremely rare PLCB1-related encephalopathy. Since the first report in 2010, the overall number of reported patients with our additional patients is currently limited to seven. All seven patients had epileptic encephalopathy, mainly infantile spasms and 6/7 had profound intellectual disability, with one only being able to walk. Truncal hypotonia was the most frequent neurological sign, sometimes associated with pyramidal and/or extrapyramidal hypertonia of limbs. Microcephaly was inconstant. In conclusion, the phenotypical spectrum of PLCB1-related encephalopathy is relatively narrow, comprises infantile spasms and severe to profound intellectual disability, and does not seem to define a recognizable clinical entity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(5): 425-435, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649005

RESUMO

To describe the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and access to antiseizure treatment in Mahenge in Central Tanzania, an onchocerciasis endemic area with a high prevalence of epilepsy. A door-to-door epilepsy prevalence survey was conducted in four rural and two sub-urban villages. Trained community workers used five screening questions to identify persons suspected to have epilepsy. Such individuals were interviewed and examined by a neurologist or a medical doctor with additional training in epilepsy, and were tested for Onchocerca volvulus antibodies. A total of 221 out of 8,062 (2.74%) surveyed individuals were confirmed to have epilepsy. The median age at seizure onset was 12 years (interquartile range: 7-16). Seventy-nine persons with epilepsy (PWE) (36.1%) had a family member with epilepsy, which was a sibling in 52.1%. Tonic-clonic seizures (142 individuals; 64.2%) were the most common seizure type. Nodding seizures were reported in 12.7% of PWE; the majority of them living in rural villages. Persons with nodding seizures reported more frequent seizures, presented with more psychiatric symptoms, and more often had onchocerciasis antibodies than those with other seizure types. The high rate of individuals with a seizure onset at between seven and 16 years is characteristic of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). Of the PWE, 77.9% met the criteria for the clinical case definition of OAE. Eighty-three PWE (37.6%) were not taking any antiepileptic medication. Phenobarbital was the antiepileptic drug most commonly prescribed in 76.1% of treated PWE. The high prevalence of epilepsy in rural villages in Mahenge most likely is related to the high prevalence of OAE. To prevent children developing OAE, strengthening the onchocerciasis elimination programme in Mahenge is urgently needed. Moreover, a decentralised epilepsy treatment programme is also needed to provide uninterrupted access to affordable antiepileptic drugs for the many PWE living in rural villages in the Mahenge area.

4.
Seizure ; 71: 312-317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurological conditions affecting women of reproductive age. Epilepsy management during pregnancy is a clinical conundrum, requiring a balance between seizure control and risk minimization for the women with epilepsy (WWE) as well as for their fetuses. The objective of this comprehensive review is to explore the reproductive health challenges of WWE in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and ways to address them. METHOD: Relevant documentation published until June 2019 were retrieved via literature searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar, as well as a manual search to identify grey literature. RESULTS: WWE in SSA are generally more stigmatized and sexually exploited than women without epilepsy. Contraception use among WWE was reported only in Senegal (51%) and Kenya (14.7%). Only two prospective studies (one in Senegal and one in Nigeria) investigated pregnancy outcomes for a total of 97 WWE. The prevalence of convulsive epilepsy in pregnancy was estimated at 3.33 per 1000. Among pregnant WWE treated with first line anti-epileptic drugs, 16.2% had miscarriages, 41.9% premature births, and 4.1% had babies with malformations. Carbamazepine, which is frequently prescribed to pregnant WWE in SSA, still entails a 2.1-fold increased risk of congenital malformation. No reports were found concerning pre-conceptual counseling and post-natal outcomes in WWE in SSA. CONCLUSION: Our review underscores the need for contextualized evidence-based clinical guidelines and a collaborative approach to treat WWE in SSA. High risks of congenital malformations and drug interactions with first line AED warrant the provision of safer second line alternatives.

5.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(6): 885-900, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444548

RESUMO

Genetic malformations of cortical development (MCDs), such as mild MCDs (mMCD), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), and hemimegalencephaly (HME), are major causes of severe pediatric refractory epilepsies subjected to neurosurgery. FCD2 are characterized by neuropathological hallmarks that include enlarged dysmorphic neurons (DNs) and balloon cells (BCs). Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of germline and somatic variants in a large cohort of surgical MCD cases. We enrolled in a monocentric study 80 children with drug-resistant epilepsy and a postsurgical neuropathological diagnosis of mMCD, FCD1, FCD2, or HME. We performed targeted gene sequencing ( ≥ 2000X read depth) on matched blood-brain samples to search for low-allele frequency variants in mTOR pathway and FCD genes. We were able to elucidate 29% of mMCD/FCD1 patients and 63% of FCD2/HME patients. Somatic loss-of-function variants in the N-glycosylation pathway-associated SLC35A2 gene were found in mMCD/FCD1 cases. Somatic gain-of-function variants in MTOR and its activators (AKT3, PIK3CA, RHEB), as well as germline, somatic and two-hit loss-of-function variants in its repressors (DEPDC5, TSC1, TSC2) were found exclusively in FCD2/HME cases. We show that panel-negative FCD2 cases display strong pS6-immunostaining, stressing that all FCD2 are mTORopathies. Analysis of microdissected cells demonstrated that DNs and BCs carry the pathogenic variants. We further observed a correlation between the density of pathological cells and the variant-detection likelihood. Single-cell microdissection followed by sequencing of enriched pools of DNs unveiled a somatic second-hit loss-of-heterozygosity in a DEPDC5 germline case. In conclusion, this study indicates that mMCD/FCD1 and FCD2/HME are two distinct genetic entities: while all FCD2/HME are mosaic mTORopathies, mMCD/FCD1 are not caused by mTOR-pathway-hyperactivating variants, and ~ 30% of the cases are related to glycosylation defects. We provide a framework for efficient genetic testing in FCD/HME, linking neuropathology to genetic findings and emphasizing the usefulness of molecular evaluation in the pediatric epileptic neurosurgical population.

6.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

7.
Neurology ; 93(3): 114-123, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221716

RESUMO

De novo pathogenic variants in STXBP1 encoding syntaxin1-binding protein (STXBP1, also known as Munc18-1) lead to a range of early-onset neurocognitive conditions, most commonly early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 4 (EIEE4, also called STXBP1 encephalopathy), a severe form of epilepsy associated with developmental delay/intellectual disability. Other neurologic features include autism spectrum disorder and movement disorders. The progression of neurologic symptoms has been reported in a few older affected individuals, with the appearance of extrapyramidal features, reminiscent of early onset parkinsonism. Understanding the pathologic process is critical to improving therapies, as currently available antiepileptic drugs have shown limited success in controlling seizures in EIEE4 and there is no precision medication approach for the other neurologic features of the disorder. Basic research shows that genetic knockout of STXBP1 or other presynaptic proteins of the exocytic machinery leads to widespread perinatal neurodegeneration. The mechanism that regulates this effect is under scrutiny but shares intriguing hallmarks with classical neurodegenerative diseases, albeit appearing early during brain development. Most critically, recent evidence has revealed that STXBP1 controls the self-replicating aggregation of α-synuclein, a presynaptic protein involved in various neurodegenerative diseases that are collectively known as synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease. In this review, we examine the tantalizing link among STXBP1 function, EIEE, and the neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, and suggest that neural development in EIEE could be further affected by concurrent synucleinopathic mechanisms.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 181-192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have described single individuals with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) harboring heterozygous KCNQ3 de novo variants (DNVs). We sought to assess whether pathogenic variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD and to elucidate the associated phenotype and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Patients with NDD and KCNQ3 DNVs were identified through an international collaboration. Phenotypes were characterized by clinical assessment, review of charts, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and parental interview. Functional consequences of variants were analyzed in vitro by patch-clamp recording. RESULTS: Eleven patients were assessed. They had recurrent heterozygous DNVs in KCNQ3 affecting residues R230 (R230C, R230H, R230S) and R227 (R227Q). All patients exhibited global developmental delay within the first 2 years of life. Most (8/11, 73%) were nonverbal or had a few words only. All patients had autistic features, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was diagnosed in 5 of 11 (45%). EEGs performed before 10 years of age revealed frequent sleep-activated multifocal epileptiform discharges in 8 of 11 (73%). For 6 of 9 (67%) recorded between 1.5 and 6 years of age, spikes became near-continuous during sleep. Interestingly, most patients (9/11, 82%) did not have seizures, and no patient had seizures in the neonatal period. Voltage-clamp recordings of the mutant KCNQ3 channels revealed gain-of-function (GoF) effects. INTERPRETATION: Specific GoF variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD, ASD, and abundant sleep-activated spikes. This new phenotype contrasts both with self-limited neonatal epilepsy due to KCNQ3 partial loss of function, and with the neonatal or infantile onset epileptic encephalopathies due to KCNQ2 GoF. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:181-192.

9.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(3): 848-857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054119

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNT1 represent an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy, for which an effective therapy has been elusive. Reports about the effectiveness of quinidine, a candidate precision therapy, have been mixed. We sought to evaluate the treatment responsiveness of patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy. We performed an observational study of 43 patients using a collaborative KCNT1 patient registry. We assessed treatment efficacy based upon clinical seizure reduction, side effects of quinidine therapy, and variant-specific responsiveness to treatment. Quinidine treatment resulted in a > 50% seizure reduction in 20% of patients, with rare patients achieving transient seizure freedom. Multiple other therapies demonstrated some success in reducing seizure frequency, including the ketogenic diet and vigabatrin, the latter particularly in patients with epileptic spasms. Patients with the best quinidine response had variants that clustered distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain of the protein. Half of patients did not receive a quinidine trial. In those who did, nearly half did not achieve therapeutic blood levels. More favorable response to quinidine in patients with KCNT1 variants distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain may suggest a variant-specific response.

10.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

11.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
15.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 22(12): 1017-1028, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gene regulation is the term used to describe the mechanisms by which a cell increases or decreases the amount of a gene product (RNA or protein). In complex organs such as the brain, gene regulation is of the utmost importance; aberrations in the regulation of specific genes can lead to neurological disorders. Understanding these mechanisms can create new strategies for targeting these disorders and progress is being made. Two drugs that function at the RNA level (nusinersen and eteplirsen) have now been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Spinomuscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, respectively; several other compounds for neurological disease are currently being investigated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. Areas covered: We highlight how gene regulation at the level of RNA molecules can be used as a therapeutic strategy to treat neurological disorders. We provide examples of how such an approach is being studied or used and discuss the current hurdles. Expert opinion: Targeting gene expression at the RNA level is a promising strategy to treat genetic neurological disorders. Safe administration, long-term efficacy, and potential side effects, however, still need careful evaluation before RNA therapeutics can be applied on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , RNA/genética , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Morfolinos/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia
16.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(8): 699-708, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the burden of rare genetic variants in genetic generalised epilepsy. METHODS: For this exome-based case-control study, we used three different genetic generalised epilepsy case cohorts and three independent control cohorts, all of European descent. Cases included in the study were clinically evaluated for genetic generalised epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing was done for the discovery case cohort, a validation case cohort, and two independent control cohorts. The replication case cohort underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of the 19 known genes encoding subunits of GABAA receptors and was compared to the respective GABAA receptor variants of a third independent control cohort. Functional investigations were done with automated two-microelectrode voltage clamping in Xenopus laevis oocytes. FINDINGS: Statistical comparison of 152 familial index cases with genetic generalised epilepsy in the discovery cohort to 549 ethnically matched controls suggested an enrichment of rare missense (Nonsyn) variants in the ensemble of 19 genes encoding GABAA receptors in cases (odds ratio [OR] 2·40 [95% CI 1·41-4·10]; pNonsyn=0·0014, adjusted pNonsyn=0·019). Enrichment for these genes was validated in a whole-exome sequencing cohort of 357 sporadic and familial genetic generalised epilepsy cases and 1485 independent controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·05-2·03]; pNonsyn=0·0081, adjusted pNonsyn=0·016). Comparison of genes encoding GABAA receptors in the independent replication cohort of 583 familial and sporadic genetic generalised epilepsy index cases, based on candidate-gene panel sequencing, with a third independent control cohort of 635 controls confirmed the overall enrichment of rare missense variants for 15 GABAA receptor genes in cases compared with controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·02-2·08]; pNonsyn=0·013, adjusted pNonsyn=0·027). Functional studies for two selected genes (GABRB2 and GABRA5) showed significant loss-of-function effects with reduced current amplitudes in four of seven tested variants compared with wild-type receptors. INTERPRETATION: Functionally relevant variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits constitute a significant risk factor for genetic generalised epilepsy. Examination of the role of specific gene groups and pathways can disentangle the complex genetic architecture of genetic generalised epilepsy. FUNDING: EuroEPINOMICS (European Science Foundation through national funding organisations), Epicure and EpiPGX (Sixth Framework Programme and Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission), Research Unit FOR2715 (German Research Foundation and Luxembourg National Research Fund).


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia Generalizada/etnologia , Europa (Continente) , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 1048-1053, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942082

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a frequent feature of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but little is known about genetic differences between NDDs with and without epilepsy. We analyzed de novo variants (DNVs) in 6,753 parent-offspring trios ascertained to have different NDDs. In the subset of 1,942 individuals with NDDs with epilepsy, we identified 33 genes with a significant excess of DNVs, of which SNAP25 and GABRB2 had previously only limited evidence of disease association. Joint analysis of all individuals with NDDs also implicated CACNA1E as a novel disease-associated gene. Comparing NDDs with and without epilepsy, we found missense DNVs, DNVs in specific genes, age of recruitment, and severity of intellectual disability to be associated with epilepsy. We further demonstrate the extent to which our results affect current genetic testing as well as treatment, emphasizing the benefit of accurate genetic diagnosis in NDDs with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Genes Dominantes , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Encéfalo/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Larva/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células de Purkinje/metabolismo , Células de Purkinje/patologia , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Neurology ; 90(4): e332-e341, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize, among European and Han Chinese populations, the genetic predictors of maculopapular exanthema (MPE), a cutaneous adverse drug reaction common to antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of autosomal genotypes, including Class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in 323 cases and 1,321 drug-tolerant controls from epilepsy cohorts of northern European and Han Chinese descent. Results from each cohort were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We report an association between a rare variant in the complement factor H-related 4 (CFHR4) gene and phenytoin-induced MPE in Europeans (p = 4.5 × 10-11; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 7 [3.2-16]). This variant is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a missense variant (N1050Y) in the complement factor H (CFH) gene. In addition, our results reinforce the association between HLA-A*31:01 and carbamazepine hypersensitivity. We did not identify significant genetic associations with MPE among Han Chinese patients. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of genetic predictors of MPE in CFHR4 and CFH, members of the complement factor H-related protein family, suggest a new link between regulation of the complement system alternative pathway and phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity in European-ancestral patients.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteínas/genética , Erupção por Droga/genética , Variação Genética , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Erupção por Droga/etnologia , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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