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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are pivotal safety net primary care providers for the medically underserved. FQHCs have complex organizational designs, with many FQHCs providing care at multiple physical locations ("sites"). The number of sites, however, varies considerably between FQHCs, which can have important implications for differential access that may perpetuate disparities in quality of care. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to explore the organizational and environmental antecedents of the number of sites operated by each FQHC. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of FQHCs' expansion that has vital implications for cost and access outcomes. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study is based on data between the years 2012 and 2018. Using multivariate growth curve modeling, we analyzed the final sample, consisting of 5,482 FQHC-years. RESULTS: The level of competition, measured as the number of FQHC sites in the Primary Care Service Area (PCSA) and the number of primary care physicians per 1,000 PCSA residents, was positively associated with the number of FQHC sites. The number of patients, the level of federal grant, and the year were also positively associated with the number of FQHC sites, whereas percentage of Medicaid patients; workforce supply, measured as primary care physician assistants per 1,000 PCSA residents; Medicaid expansion; and state/local funding available for FQHCs were not. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study indicate that competition, especially between peer FQHCs, is significantly associated with FQHC expansion. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This result suggests that FQHC managers and policymakers may closely monitor cost, access, and quality implications of competition and FQHC expansion.

2.
Med Care ; 60(1): 37-43, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanic older adults face substantial health disparities compared with non-Hispanic-White (hereafter "White") older adults. To the extent that these disparities stem from cultural and language barriers faced by Hispanic people, they may be compounded by residence in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate possible interactions between Hispanic ethnicity and rural residence in predicting the health care experiences of older adults in the United States, and whether disparities in care for rural Hispanic older adults differ in Medicare Advantage versus Medicare Fee-for-Service. SUBJECTS: Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years and older who responded to the 2017-2018 nationally representative Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) surveys. METHODS: We fit a series of linear, case-mix-adjusted models predicting Medicare CAHPS measures of patient experience (rescaled to a 0-100 scale) from ethnicity, place of residence, and Medicare coverage type. RESULTS: In all residential areas, Hispanic beneficiaries reported worse experiences with getting needed care (-3 points), getting care quickly (-4 points), and care coordination (-1 point) than White beneficiaries (all P's<0.001). In rural areas only, Hispanic beneficiaries reported significantly worse experiences than White beneficiaries on doctor communication and customer services (-3 and -9 points, respectively, P<0.05). Tests of a 3-way interaction between ethnicity, rural residence, and coverage type were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve access to care and care coordination for Hispanic beneficiaries overall and doctor-patient communication and customer service for rural Hispanic beneficiaries. Strategies for addressing deficits faced by rural Hispanics may involve cultural competency training and provision of language-appropriate services for beneficiaries (perhaps as telehealth services).


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Geriatria/métodos , Geriatria/normas , Geriatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708322

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer incidence in the USA remains higher among certain groups, regions, and communities, and there are variations based on nativity. Research has primarily focused on specific groups and types of cancer. This study expands on previous studies to explore the relationship between country of birth (nativity) and all cancer site incidences among USA and foreign-born residents using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of (unweighted n = 22,554; weighted n = 231,175,933) participants between the ages of 20 and 80 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2018. Using weighted logistic regressions, we analyzed the impact of nativity on self-reported cancer diagnosis controlling for routine care, smoking status, overweight, race/ethnicity, age, and gender. We ran a partial model, adjusting only for age as a covariate, a full model with all other covariates, and stratified by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: In the partial and full models, our findings indicate that US-born individuals were more likely to report a cancer diagnosis compared to their foreign-born counterparts (OR 2.34, 95% CI [1.93; 2.84], p < 0.01) and (OR 1. 39, 95% CI [1.05; 1.84], p < 0.05), respectively. This significance persisted only among non-Hispanic Blacks when stratified by race. Non-Hispanic Blacks who were US-born were more likely to report a cancer diagnosis compared to their foreign-born counterparts (OR 2.30, 95% [CI 1.31; 4.02], p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A variety of factors may reflect lower self-reported cancer diagnosis in foreign-born individuals in the USA other than a healthy immigrant advantage. Future studies should consider the factors behind the differences in cancer diagnoses based on nativity status, particularly among non-Hispanic Blacks.

4.
J Patient Saf ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States, hospitals face challenges in providing safe and high-quality care to minority patients. Cultural competency fostered through engagement in diversity programs can be used as a resourceful strategy to provide safe care and improve the patient safety culture. This article examined the association of cultural competency and employee's perceived attributes of safety culture. METHODS: A longitudinal study design was used with 283 unique hospital observations from 2014 to 2016. The dependent variables were percent composite scores for 4 attributes of perceived safety culture: (1) management support for patient safety, (2) teamwork across units, (3) communication openness, and (4) nonpunitive response to an error. The independent variable was an engagement in diversity programs, considered in 3 categories: (1) high, (2) medium, and (3) low. Controls included hospital characteristics, market characteristics, and percent. Ordinal logistic regression was used for imputation, whereas multiple linear regression was used for analyses. RESULTS: Results indicate that hospitals with high engagement have 4.64% higher perceptions of management support for safety, 3.17% higher perceptions of teamwork across units, and 3.97% higher perceptions of nonpunitive response, as compared with hospitals that have a low engagement in diversity programs (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Culturally competent hospitals have better safety culture than their counterparts. Cultural competency is an important resource to build a safety culture so that safe care for patients from minority and diverse backgrounds can be delivered.

5.
Pediatr Qual Saf ; 6(5): e470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589644

RESUMO

Theoretically, the application of reliability principles in healthcare can improve patient safety outcomes by informing process design. As preventable harm continues to be a widespread concern in healthcare, evaluating the association between integrating high-reliability practices and patient harms will inform a patient safety strategy across the healthcare landscape. This study evaluated the association between high-reliability practices and hospital-acquired conditions. Methods: Twenty-five pediatric organizations participating in the Children's Hospitals Solutions for patient safety collaborative participated in this nonexperimental design study. A survey utilizing the high-reliability healthcare maturity model assessed the extent of implementing high-reliability practices at each participating site. We analyzed responses for each component and a composite score of high reliability against an aggregate measure of hospital-acquired conditions. Results: Of the 95 invited sites, 49 responded and 25 were included in the final results. There was a significant inverse relationship between the culture of safety component score and the Serious Harm Index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.95, P = 0.03). There was no association between the overall high-reliability score (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.78-1.05, P = 0.19), the Leadership component score (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.33, P = 0.84), or the robust process improvement (RPI) component score (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.28, P = 0.26) and the Serious Harm Index. Conclusion: The integration of high-reliability principles within healthcare may support improved patient safety in the hospital setting. Further research is needed to articulate the breadth and magnitude of the impact of integrating high-reliability principles into healthcare.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As large numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 and 2021, the United States faced a shortage of critical care providers. Intensivists are physicians specializing in providing care in the ICU. Although studies have explored the clinical and financial benefits associated with the use of intensivists, little is known about the organizational and market factors associated with a hospital administrator's strategic decision to use intensivists. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to use the resource dependence theory to better understand the organizational and market factors associated with a hospital administrator's decision to use intensivists. METHODOLOGY: The sample consisted of the national acute care hospitals (N = 4,986) for the period 2007-2017. The dependent variable was the number of full-time equivalent intensivists staffed in hospitals. The independent variables were organizational and market-level factors. A negative binomial regression model with state and year fixed effects, clustered at the hospital level, was used to examine the relationship between the use of intensivists and organizational and market factors. RESULTS: The results from the analyses show that administrators of larger, not-for-profit hospitals that operate in competitive urban markets with relatively high levels of munificence are more likely to utilize intensivists. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: When significant strains are placed on ICUs like what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative that hospital administrators understand how to best staff their ICUs. With a better understanding of the organizational and market factors associated with the use of intensivists, practitioners and policymakers alike can better understand how to strategically utilize intensivists in the ICU, especially in the face of a continuing pandemic.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 606364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829006

RESUMO

Racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare have been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Nursing Home COVID-19 Public File, this study examined the relationship between nursing home racial/ethnic mix and COVID-19 resident mortality. As of October 25, 2020, high minority nursing homes reported 6.5 COVID-19 deaths as compared to 2.6 deaths for nursing homes that had no racial/ethnic minorities. After controlling for interstate differences, facility-level resident characteristics, resource availability, and organizational characteristics, high-minority nursing homes had 61% more COVID-19 deaths [Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.61; p < 0.001] as compared to nursing facilities with no minorities. From a policy perspective, nursing homes, that serve primarily minority populations, may need additional resources, such as, funding for staffing and personal protective equipment in the face of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has sharpened the focus on healthcare disparities and societal inequalities in the delivery of long-term care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Grupos Minoritários , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Medicare , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Health Serv Manage Res ; 34(3): 158-166, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085543

RESUMO

Hospitalists, or specialists of hospital medicine, have long been practicing in Canada and Europe. However, it was not until the mid-1990s, when hospitals in the U.S. started widespread adoption of hospitalists. Since then, the number of hospitalists has grown exponentially in the U.S. from a few hundred to over 50,000 in 2016. Prior studies on hospitalists have well documented benefits hospitals gain from adopting this innovative staffing strategy. However, there is a dearth of research documenting predictors of hospitals' adoption of hospitalists. To fill this gap, this longitudinal study (2003-2015) purposes to determine organizational and market characteristics of U.S. hospitals that utilize hospitalists. Our findings indicate that private not-for-profit, system affiliated, teaching, and urban hospitals, and those located in higher per capita income markets have a higher probability of utilizing hospitalists. Additionally, large or medium, profitable hospitals, and those that treat sicker patients have a higher probability of adoption. Finally, hospitals with a high proportion of Medicaid patients have a lower probability of utilizing hospitalists. Our results suggest that hospitals with greater slack resources and those located in munificent counties are more likely to use hospitalists, while their under-resourced counterparts may experience more barriers in adopting this innovative staffing strategy.


Assuntos
Médicos Hospitalares , Canadá , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
9.
J Palliat Med ; 24(5): 689-696, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021460

RESUMO

Background: A major goal of hospice care is to provide individually tailored emotional and spiritual support to caregivers of hospice patients. Objectives: Examine the association between reported emotional support and caregivers' overall rating of hospice care, overall and by race/ethnicity/language. Subjects: We analyzed survey data corresponding to 657,805 decedents/caregivers who received care from 3160 hospice programs during January 2017-December 2018. Measurements: Linear regression models examined the association between caregiver-reported receipt of emotional and spiritual support ("too little" vs. "right amount" vs. "too much") and overall rating of the hospice (0 vs. 100 rating). Interaction terms assessed variation in this association by race/ethnicity/language. Results: "Too much" emotional support was less common than "too little," except for caregivers of Hispanic decedents responding in Spanish. "Too little" support was strongly associated with lower hospice ratings for all groups (compared to "right amount" of support, p < 0.001). In contrast, the negative association between "too much" support and hospice rating was much smaller (p < 0.001) among caregivers of white and black decedents. "Too much" support was associated with more positive ratings among caregivers of Hispanic decedents (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Receipt of "too much" support is a less common and much weaker driver of poor hospice ratings than receipt of "too little" support for all groups, and is not always viewed negatively. This suggests that for hospice evaluation, "too much" support should not be scored equivalently to "too little" support and that providing enough support should be a hospice priority.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Afro-Americanos , Cuidadores , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Health Serv Manage Res ; 34(4): 199-207, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient safety is an important aspect of quality of care. Physicians' alignment with hospitals by means of financial integration may possibly help hospitals achieve their quality goals. Most research examines the effects of financial integration on financial performance. There is a need to understand whether financial integration has an effect on quality and safety. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the association between hospital physician financial integration (employment, joint ventures, and ownership) and Adverse Incident Rate.Methodology: A longitudinal panel study design was used. A random effects model with hospital, year, and state effects was used. Our sample contained 3,528 hospitals observations within U.S. from 2013-2015. FINDINGS: Contrary to our hypotheses, hospital physician financial integration does not influence AIR. Besides financial integration, hospitals need to have a high commitment towards quality and safety to influence a lower AIR.

11.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 46(4): 266-277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privatization is one of the strategies that public hospitals may adopt to remain competitive. Privatized hospitals may implement nurse staffing cuts as a cost-saving mechanism and to increase financial performance. A better understanding of how privatization may affect nurse staffing is important given its association with patient and organizational outcomes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of not-for-profit (NFP) and for-profit (FP) privatizations of public hospitals on nurse staffing. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on secondary data sets from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Impact Files, and the Area Health Resources File, this study used a nonexperimental longitudinal design consisting of negative binomial and linear regression models with hospital level and year fixed effects. Our sample consisted of nonfederal and noncritical access, acute care, public hospitals (n = 492) followed from 1997 to 2013 (8,335 hospital-year observations). Nurse staffing was measured as full-time equivalents (FTEs) and skill mix. Privatization was defined as conversion from public to either private NFP or private FP status. RESULTS: FP privatization was associated with greater decreases in registered nurse (RN) staffing FTEs (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.93, p = .004) and total nurse staffing FTEs (IRR = 0.93, p = .001), compared with NFP privatization: RN staffing FTEs (IRR = 0.95, p = .003) and total nurse staffing FTEs (IRR = 0.96, p = .007). CONCLUSION: Overall, privatization was associated with decreased RN FTEs and total nurse staffing FTEs and no changes in licensed practical nurse FTEs and RN skill mix. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A close monitoring of nurse staffing level, after privatization, is encouraged to prevent potential deterioration in quality of care.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Privatização , Idoso , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
12.
Med Care Res Rev ; 78(4): 361-370, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865856

RESUMO

This study assessed the impact of public hospitals' privatization on payer-mix. We used a national sample of nonfederal, acute care, public hospitals in 1997 and followed them through 2013, resulting in a cohort of 492 hospitals (8,335 hospital-year observations). Privatization to for-profit (FP) status was associated with a greater increase in Medicare payer-mix (ß = 0.13; p ≤ .001), compared with a smaller increase for privatization to not-for-profit (NFP) status (ß = 0.02; p ≤ .05). FP privatization was associated with a greater decrease in Medicaid payer-mix (ß = -0.09; p ≤ .001), compared with NFP privatization (nonsignificant). There is a larger change in payer-mix after FP privatization than after NFP privatization.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Privatização , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing homes face increased risk of closure because of poor financial performance. PURPOSE: Using resource dependency theory, Porter's Five Forces of Competition framework, and Altman's Z-score model, this study examines the relationship between market factors and nursing home financial distress. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study utilizes Medicare Cost Reports, LTCFocus, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting, Online Survey Certification and Reporting, and the Area Health Resource File to examine an average of 10,454 nursing homes per year from 2000 to 2015. Using Porter's framework, market factors were conceptualized as the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers, threat of substitutes and new entrants, and industry rivalry. Organizational control variables include occupancy, payer mix, size, and chain affiliation. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression with robust clustering, year, and state fixed effects. RESULTS: Distressed nursing homes (Relative Risk Ratios [RRR] = 0.991) were less likely to be in counties with higher Medicaid concentration. Distressed (RRR = 0.717) and at-risk-of-distress nursing homes (RRR = 0.807) were less likely to be in markets with home health agencies, and nursing homes at risk of distress (RRR = 1.005) were more likely to be in markets with a higher number of hospital-based skilled nursing facility beds compared to healthy organizations. The organizational-level variables, occupancy, payer mix, size, and chain affiliation had a significant impact on nursing home financial distress. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of external market forces on nursing home financial distress were limited; however, organizational-level variables had a significant impact on nursing home financial distress. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Study findings can inform policy makers on specific factors associated with nursing home financial distress and provide greater insight as it relates to designing new policies and interventions.

14.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2103-2114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116990

RESUMO

Purpose: Due to a limited number of studies with generalizable findings on the relationships between market conditions and RN staffing levels in hospitals, this study examined such relationships employing a longitudinal design with a representative national sample. Materials and Methods: We used longitudinal panel datasets from 2006 to 2010, drawn from various datasets including the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database and the Area Health Resource File. A random-effects linear regression model was used to measure the influence of market conditions on RN staffing levels. Results: The results of this study showed that market conditions were significantly associated with RN staffing levels in hospitals. First, an increase in per capita income and being located in urban rather than rural areas were associated with a greater number of RNs per 1,000 inpatient days and a higher ratio of RNs to LPNs and nursing aides. In addition, an increase in the number of physician specialists was associated with an increase in the number of RNs per 1,000 inpatient days. Second, an increase in Medicare HMO penetration in the environment was related to an increase in the RNs to LPNs and nursing aides ratio. Lastly, an increase in market competition was associated with an increase in the number RNs per 1,000 inpatient days and the ratio of RNs to LPNs and nursing aides. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that staffing decision makers in hospitals should consider how to best align their RN staffing levels with their operating environment. In addition, health policy makers may improve the levels the RN supply in communities that needs more RNs by modulating external environmental forces (eg, specialist resources) that influence RN staffing levels in hospitals.

15.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(6): 477-483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare beneficiaries annually select fee-for-service Medicare or a private Medicare insurance (managed care) plan; information about plan performance on quality measures can inform their decisions. Although there is drill-down information available regarding quality variation by race and ethnicity, there remains a dearth of evidence regarding the extent to which care varies by other key beneficiary characteristics, such as gender. We measured gender differences for six patient experience measures and how gender gaps differ across Medicare plans. METHODS: We used data from 300,979 respondents to the 2015-2016 Medicare Advantage Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We fit case mix-adjusted linear mixed-effects models to estimate gender differences and evaluate heterogeneity in differences across health plans. RESULTS: Nationally, women's experiences were better than men's (p < .05) by 1 percentage point on measures involving interactions with administrative staff (+1.6 percentage point for customer service) and timely access to care (+1.1 percentage point for getting care quickly), but worse on a measure that may involve negotiation with physicians (getting needed care). Gender gaps varied across plans, particularly for getting care quickly and getting needed care, where plan-level differences of up to 5 to 6 percentage points were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although the average national differences in patient experience by gender were generally small, gender gaps were larger in some health plans and for specific measures. This finding indicates opportunities for health plans with larger gender gaps to implement quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
16.
Ethn Dis ; 30(4): 603-610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989360

RESUMO

Introduction: Almost 40% of the 63 million Americans who speak a language other than English have limited English proficiency (LEP). This communication barrier can result in poor quality care and potentially adverse health outcomes. Of particular interest is that the greatest proportion of LEP adults are aged >65 years and will face barriers and delays in accessing high-quality care. Age cohort variation of LEP burden has not been widely addressed. Culturally and linguistically appropriate hospital care delivery can mitigate these barriers. Methods: In order to test whether culturally competent services reduced length-of-stay (LOS), we linked organizational cultural competence surveys across two-states (CA+FL) for comparison across Medicare acute care LOS. Using the 2013 American Hospital Association Database, and Hospital Compare Data from CMS (N=184), we compared hospital structure with culturally and linguistically appropriate services related to improved care delivery for LEP populations and aging LEP populations. We utilized Kruskal-Wallis to test group differences and a negative binomial regression to model median LOS. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC). Results: Median LOS across all hospitals was 4.7 days (mean 5.7, standard deviation 6.3). Most hospitals were not-for-profit (46.7%), small (<150 beds, 54.4%), Joint Commission accredited (67.9%), and in urban areas. We found shorter median LOS when hospital units identified cultural or language needs at admission (Wald χ 23.82, P=.0506). Hospitals' identification of these needs at discharge had no impact on LOS. Hospitals that accommodated patient cultural or ethnic dietary needs also reported lower median LOS (Wald χ 2 12.93, P=.0003). Structurally, public hospitals, accredited hospitals, and hospitals that reported system membership were predictive of a lower median LOS. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that patient outcomes are responsive to culturally and linguistically appropriate services. Further, our findings suggest understanding of culturally competent care in hospitals is lacking. A larger and multi-level sample across the United States could yield a greater understanding of the role of culturally and linguistically appropriate care for a rapidly growing population of diverse older adults.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Competência Cultural , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idioma , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , California , Bases de Dados Factuais , Florida , Humanos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Healthc Manag ; 65(5): 330-343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925532

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The United States is experiencing another wave of hospital mergers. Whether patients benefit from these mergers, however, remains an open issue for many interested stakeholders. One measure of the potential benefit of hospital mergers is how they affect patient experience. This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the relationship between hospital mergers and four different Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) ratings (i.e., overall, physician communication, nurse communication, and staff responsiveness). The study findings showed an association between hospitals that experienced a merger and slower growth in HCAHPS scores for two of the four HCAHPS domains (overall and nurse communication) when compared to matching hospitals that did not merge. Findings from this study can guide and inform hospital administrators, health system boards, state and federal government regulators and policymakers, and others across the spectrum of healthcare stakeholders.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Associadas de Saúde/organização & administração , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
18.
J Healthc Manag ; 65(5): 366-377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925536

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: An increasing number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals openly acknowledge their identity; however, the fear of discrimination prevents many from seeking healthcare-an issue challenged by a lack of culturally competent LGBT healthcare providers. With more than 4% of American adults identifying as LGBT individuals, greater attention to their needs is imperative to improve care and access for this population. This study examined organizational and market factors associated with hospitals achieving the "Leader in LGBT Healthcare Equality" (Healthcare Equality Index, HEI; HEI Leader) designation and reported patient experience scores. We found that system-affiliated hospitals have 4.16 greater odds and teaching hospitals have 2.86 greater odds of earning the HEI Leader designation compared to nonsystem and nonteaching hospitals, respectively. Governmental hospitals have 2.47 greater odds of achieving HEI Leader status, while for-profit hospitals have 86% lower odds of having HEI Leader status compared to not-for-profit hospitals. Hospitals located in a metropolitan area have 3.19 greater odds of being an HEI Leader. The percentage of minorities and per capita income in a county also demonstrated a positive association with being an HEI Leader, with odds ratios of 1.00 and 1.02, respectively, while lower education was associated with 4% lower odds of being an HEI Leader. The main finding of this study was that HEI Leader-designated hospitals reported significantly higher overall hospital rating patient experience scores (B = 1.785; p ≤ .001) as compared to non-HEI Leader hospitals. As such, participation in the HEI may be viewed as a motivation for hospitals attaining HEI Leader designation.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Liderança , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
19.
Med Care ; 58(11): 981-987, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health care experiences of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the health care experiences of AIAN Medicare beneficiaries relative to non-Hispanic Whites using national survey data pooled over 5 years. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,193,248 beneficiaries who responded to the nationally representative 2012-2016 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) surveys. METHODS: Linear regression models predicted CAHPS measures from race and ethnicity. Scores on the CAHPS measures were linearly transformed to a 0-100 range and case-mix adjusted. Three AIAN groups were compared with non-Hispanic Whites: single-race AIANs (n=2491; 0.4% of the total sample), multiple-race AIANs (n=15,502; 1.3%), and Hispanic AIANs (n=2264; 0.2%). RESULTS: Among AIAN groups, single-race AIANs were most likely to live in rural areas and areas served by the Indian Health Service; Hispanic AIANs were most likely to be Spanish-language-preferring (P's<0.05). Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, single-race AIANs reported worse experiences with getting needed care (adjusted disparity of -5 points; a "large" difference), getting care quickly (-4 points; a "medium" difference), doctor communication (-2 points; a "small" difference), care coordination (-2 points), and customer service (-7 points; P<0.001 for all comparisons). Disparities were similar for Hispanic AIANs but more limited for multiple-race AIANs. CONCLUSIONS: Quality improvement efforts are needed to reduce disparities faced by older AIANs. These findings may assist in developing targeted efforts to address cultural, communication, and health system factors presumed to underlie disparities in health care access and customer service.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , United States Indian Health Service/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Patient Exp ; 7(2): 263-269, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851150

RESUMO

This study examined the association between interdepartmental transfers and the perceptions of care received by adult patients who were admitted and discharged from a 300-bed, not-for-profit community tertiary hospital in the Midwest. Transfers of patient care are daily and frequent hospital processes. However, limited attention has focused on the effect that intrahospital transfers of care have on the patient experience. Understanding this relationship is important, since value-based purchasing models directly tie patient experience measures into hospital reimbursements. The key finding of this study indicates that as patients' transfers increase, their perceptions of care decrease. Therefore, by reducing the frequency of interdepartmental transfers, patient satisfaction may increase. This research provides clinicians and administrators a better understanding of the relationship between a frequent and a daily hospital process (ie, interdepartmental transfers) and its influence on patients' perceptions of their experience.

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