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1.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the efficacy of adjuvant therapy (AT) in patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN). This single center retrospective cohort study aims to assess the impact of AT on survival in these patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery for invasive IPMN between 1993 and 2018 were included in the study. We compared the clinicopathologic features and evaluated overall survival (OS) using multivariate Cox regression adjusting for adjuvant therapy, age, T and N stage, perineural and lymphovascular invasion. We also assessed survival differences between surgery alone and AT in node negative (N0) and node positive (N+) subgroups. RESULTS: 103 patients were included in the study; 69 underwent surgery alone while 34 also received AT. Patients in the AT group were significantly younger, presented at higher T and N stages and had more perineural and lymphovascular invasion. Median OS in the surgery alone group was 134 months and 65 months in the AT group, p = 0.052. On multivariate analysis, AT was not associated with improved OS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03 (0.52-2.05). In N0 patients, compared to surgery alone, AT was associated with a worse median OS (65 vs 167 months, p = 0.03), whereas in N+ patients there was a non-significant improvement (50.5 vs 20.4 months, p = 0.315). CONCLUSION: AT did not improve survival in the overall cohort even after multivariate analysis. N0 patients have excellent survival, and AT should probably be avoided in them, whereas it may be considered in patients with N+ disease.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1877-1885, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ctDNA offers a promising, noninvasive approach to monitor therapeutic efficacy in real-time. We explored whether the quantitative percent change in ctDNA early after therapy initiation can predict treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 138 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers and tumor profiling by next-generation sequencing had serial blood draws pretreatment and at scheduled intervals during therapy. ctDNA was assessed using individualized droplet digital PCR measuring the mutant allele fraction in plasma of mutations identified in tumor biopsies. ctDNA changes were correlated with tumor markers and radiographic response. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients enrolled. A total of 101 patients were evaluable for ctDNA and 68 for tumor markers at 4 weeks. Percent change of ctDNA by 4 weeks predicted partial response (PR, P < 0.0001) and clinical benefit [CB: PR and stable disease (SD), P < 0.0001]. ctDNA decreased by 98% (median) and >30% for all PR patients. ctDNA change at 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks, also predicted CB (P < 0.0001). Four-week change in tumor markers also predicted response (P = 0.0026) and CB (P = 0.022). However, at a clinically relevant specificity threshold of 90%, 4-week ctDNA change more effectively predicted CB versus tumor markers, with a sensitivity of 60% versus 24%, respectively (P = 0.0109). Patients whose 4-week ctDNA decreased beyond this threshold (≥30% decrease) had a median PFS of 175 days versus 59.5 days (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.55-7.00; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serial ctDNA monitoring may provide early indication of response to systemic therapy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer prior to radiographic assessments and may outperform standard tumor markers, warranting further evaluation.

4.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1415-1421, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501609

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, tumor heterogeneity can drive the evolution of multiple tumor subclones harboring unique resistance mechanisms in an individual patient1-3. Previous case reports and small case series have suggested that liquid biopsy (specifically, cell-free DNA (cfDNA)) may better capture the heterogeneity of acquired resistance4-8. However, the effectiveness of cfDNA versus standard single-lesion tumor biopsies has not been directly compared in larger-scale prospective cohorts of patients following progression on targeted therapy. Here, in a prospective cohort of 42 patients with molecularly defined gastrointestinal cancers and acquired resistance to targeted therapy, direct comparison of postprogression cfDNA versus tumor biopsy revealed that cfDNA more frequently identified clinically relevant resistance alterations and multiple resistance mechanisms, detecting resistance alterations not found in the matched tumor biopsy in 78% of cases. Whole-exome sequencing of serial cfDNA, tumor biopsies and rapid autopsy specimens elucidated substantial geographic and evolutionary differences across lesions. Our data suggest that acquired resistance is frequently characterized by profound tumor heterogeneity, and that the emergence of multiple resistance alterations in an individual patient may represent the 'rule' rather than the 'exception'. These findings have profound therapeutic implications and highlight the potential advantages of cfDNA over tissue biopsy in the setting of acquired resistance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Biópsia Líquida , Autopsia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Estudos de Coortes , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(7): 1020-1027, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145418

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically poor outcomes. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach is warranted. Objective: To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) and losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-arm phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital from August 22, 2013, to May 22, 2018, among 49 patients with previously untreated locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer as determined by multidisciplinary review. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 17.1 months (range, 5.0-53.7) among 27 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions: Patients received FOLFIRINOX and losartan for 8 cycles. Patients with radiographically resectable tumor after chemotherapy received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 GyE × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy with a vascular boost to 58.8 Gy) with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures: R0 resection rate. Results: Of the 49 patients (26 women and 23 men; median age 63 years [range, 42-78 years]), 39 completed 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX and losartan; 10 patients had fewer than 8 cycles due to progression (5 patients), losartan intolerance (3 patients), and toxicity (2 patients). Seven patients (16%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy while 38 (84%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two (86%) patients underwent attempted surgery, with R0 resection achieved in 34 of 49 patients (69%; 95% CI, 55%-82%). Overall median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9-22.7) and median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 18.1-38.5). Among patients who underwent resection, median progression-free survival was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.6-28.2), and median overall survival was 33.0 months (95% CI, 31.4 to not reached). Conclusions and Relevance: Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, losartan, and chemoradiotherapy provides downstaging of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is associated with an R0 resection rate of 61%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01821729.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Losartan/administração & dosagem , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Losartan/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: e219-e226, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099664

RESUMO

Most health care professionals spend a substantial amount of their time at the workplace. Our interactions with team members can define our daily experiences, impact our work performance, and influence our overall job satisfaction. Over the last years, how we interact with colleagues and patients has changed with the introduction of social media, a tenser political climate, and an evolving health care system. In oncology, a team can be composed of medical students, clinicians, and support and administrative staff within a heavy emotional environment where some of our patients are facing the risk of early mortality and most are dealing with the unmeasurable burden of cancer. Many of these factors can increase the risk for professionalism lapses. We discuss common challenges faced in the practice of cancer care, including the generational gap between medical trainees and senior members, gender disparities, and microaggressions. Microaggressions represent verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, and negative slights that insult a target person or group. Microaggressions should not be accepted as the norm in the workplace. It is essential to recognize these negative behaviors and manage them effectively to reduce or even prevent the long-term toxicities that these behaviors can bring to the workplace environment. Ultimately, we must acknowledge that these issues exist and remember that education and collaboration are the pillars of an inclusive workplace. We owe such efforts to our patients who deserve good care, to our partners in the care of patients so that they feel supported and included, and to ourselves.


Assuntos
Meio Social , Desempenho Profissional , Local de Trabalho , Cultura , Análise Fatorial , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Profissionalismo , Fatores Sexuais
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(33): 3298-3306, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This first-in-human study evaluated telisotuzumab vedotin (Teliso-V), formerly called ABBV-399, an antibody-drug conjugate of the anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ABT-700 and monomethyl auristatin E. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For dose escalation, three to six patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in eight cohorts (0.15 to 3.3 mg/kg). The dose-expansion phase enrolled patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with c-Met-overexpressing tumors (c-Met positive; immunohistochemistry membrane H-score ≥ 150). Patients received Teliso-V monotherapy intravenously on day 1 once every 3 weeks. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose were determined. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 65 years; 35.4% NSCLC; median four prior therapies). One patient each in the 3.0-mg/kg (n = 9) and 3.3-mg/kg (n = 3) cohorts experienced dose-limiting toxicities. Although the maximum tolerated dose was not formally identified, the recommended phase II dose was defined as 2.7 mg/kg on the basis of overall safety and tolerability. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (any grade) were fatigue (42%), nausea (27%), constipation (27%), decreased appetite (23%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (21%), diarrhea (19%), peripheral edema (19%), and neuropathy (17%). The most frequent Teliso-V-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events were fatigue, anemia, neutropenia, and hypoalbuminemia (4% each). Teliso-V and total antibody pharmacokinetics were approximately dose proportional, with a mean harmonic half-life of 2 to 4 days each. Prospective screening identified 35 (60%) of 58 patients with c-Met-positive NSCLC. Of 16 patients with c-Met-positive NSCLC who were treated with Teliso-V 2.4 to 3.0 mg/kg, three (18.8%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 45.7%) achieved a partial response (median response duration, 4.8 months; median progression-free survival, 5.7 months; 95% CI, 1.2 months to 15.4 months). No other patients experienced a response. CONCLUSION: Teliso-V monotherapy demonstrated favorable safety and tolerability profiles, with encouraging evidence of antitumor activity in patients with c-Met-positive NSCLC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Oncologist ; 23(12): 1409-e140, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139840

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: The maximum tolerated dose of the combination of linsitinib and irinotecan is linsitinib 450 mg daily on days 1-3 every 7 days and irinotecan 125 mg/m2 days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.The adverse effects associated with the combination are not significantly increased beyond what is expected of each drug as a single agent.Multiple negative trials of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitors performed in unselected patient populations led to the early discontinuation of linistinib development and this trial.Earlier integration of assessment of potential predictive biomarkers into clinical trials, as was planned in this study, is vital to the development of targeted therapies in oncology. BACKGROUND: This phase I dose-escalation study was designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the combination of irinotecan and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor linsitinib in patients with advanced cancer refractory to standard therapy. METHODS: Dose escalation in three specified dose levels was performed according to a standard 3 + 3 design. Dose levels were as follows: (a) linsitinib 400 mg and irinotecan 100 mg/m2, (b) linsitinib 450 mg and irinotecan 100 mg/m2, and (c) linsitinib 450 mg and irinotecan 125 mg/m2. Linisitinib was administered once daily on days 1-3, 8-10, and 15-17, and irinotecan on days 1 and 8. Assessment of a candidate predictive biomarker was planned in all patients, with further evaluation in an expansion cohort of advanced colorectal cancer. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were treated, with 1 patient in both cohort 2 and 3 experiencing dose-limiting toxicity. Linsitinib 450 mg and irinotecan 125 mg/m2 was the maximum tolerated dose. Sixteen (94%) patients experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event. Neutropenia was the only grade >3 toxicity (4%). No significant hyperglycemia or QT interval prolongation was noted. No objective responses were observed; 47% (n = 8) had stable disease with median duration of 5.25 months. CONCLUSION: Although the combination was determined safe, the study was halted due to termination of linsitinib development, and biomarker testing was not performed.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/efeitos dos fármacos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinas/farmacologia
9.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 82(2): 339-351, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MINT1526A is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 (α5ß1) with its extracellular matrix ligands. This phase I study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: MINT1526A was administered every 3 weeks (Q3W) as monotherapy (arm 1) or in combination with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, Q3W (arm 2). Each arm included a 3 + 3 dose-escalation stage and a dose-expansion stage. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in arm 1 (dose range 2-30 mg/kg) and 30 patients were enrolled in arm 2 (dose range 3-15 mg/kg). Monocyte α5ß1 receptor occupancy was saturated at a dose of 15 mg/kg. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in either arm. The most common adverse events, regardless of causality, included abdominal pain (25%), diarrhea (25%), nausea (21%), vomiting (21%), and fatigue (21%) in arm 1 and nausea (40%), fatigue (33%), vomiting (30%), dehydration (30%), headache (30%), and hypertension (30%) in arm 2. No grade ≥ 3 bleeding events were observed in either arm. No confirmed partial responses (PR) were observed in arm 1. In arm 2, one patient with thymic carcinoma experienced a confirmed PR and two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experienced durable minor radiographic responses. CONCLUSIONS: MINT1526A, with or without bevacizumab, was well-tolerated. Preliminary evidence of combination efficacy, including in patients with HCC, was observed, but cannot be distinguished from bevacizumab monotherapy in this phase I study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/imunologia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Integrina alfa5beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Integrina alfa5beta1/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia
11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 15(8): 1028-1061, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784865

RESUMO

Ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants account for most pancreatic malignancies. High-quality multiphase imaging can help to preoperatively distinguish between patients eligible for resection with curative intent and those with unresectable disease. Systemic therapy is used in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant pancreatic cancer setting, as well as in the management of locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease. Clinical trials are critical for making progress in treatment of pancreatic cancer. The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma focus on diagnosis and treatment with systemic therapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
Br J Cancer ; 116(5): 575-583, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binimetinib (MEK162; ARRY-438162) is a potent and selective oral MEK 1/2 inhibitor. This phase 1 study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and preliminary anti-tumour activity of binimetinib in patients with advanced solid tumours, with expansion cohorts of patients with biliary cancer or KRAS- or BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer. METHODS: Binimetinib was administered twice daily. Expansion cohorts were enroled after MTD determination following a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Pharmacokinetic properties were determined from plasma samples. Tumour samples were assessed for mutations in RAS, RAF, and other relevant genes. Pharmacodynamic properties were evaluated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients received binimetinib (dose-escalation phase, 19; expansion, 74). The MTD was 60 mg twice daily, with dose-limiting adverse events (AEs) of dermatitis acneiform and chorioretinopathy. The dose for expansion patients was subsequently decreased to 45 mg twice daily because of the frequency of treatment-related ocular toxicity at the MTD. Common AEs across all dose levels included rash (81%), nausea (56%), vomiting (52%), diarrhoea (51%), peripheral oedema (46%), and fatigue (43%); most were grade 1/2. Dose-proportional increases in binimetinib exposure were observed and target inhibition was demonstrated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. Three patients with biliary cancer had objective responses (one complete and two partial). CONCLUSIONS: Binimetinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile, target inhibition, and dose-proportional exposure. The 45 mg twice daily dose was identified as the recommended phase 2 dose. The three objective responses in biliary cancer patients are encouraging and support further evaluation in this population.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/farmacocinética , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas ras/genética
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(4): 6742-6762, 2017 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039486

RESUMO

Increased expression of CD147 in pancreatic cancer has been proposed to play a critical role in cancer progression via CD147 chaperone function for lactate monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Here, we show for the first time that CD147 interacts with membrane transporters beyond MCTs and exhibits a protective role for several of its interacting partners. CD147 prevents its interacting partner's proteasome-dependent degradation and incorrect plasma membrane localization through the CD147 transmembrane (TM) region. The interactions with transmembrane small molecule and ion transporters identified here indicate a central role of CD147 in pancreatic cancer metabolic reprogramming, particularly with respect to amino acid anabolism and calcium signaling. Importantly, CD147 genetic ablation prevents pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in conjunction with metabolic rewiring towards amino acid anabolism, thus paving the way for future combined pharmacological treatments.


Assuntos
Basigina/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Basigina/genética , Sinalização do Cálcio , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Camundongos Nus , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Interferência de RNA , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Carga Tumoral
14.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 8(4): 366-79, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096032

RESUMO

The emergence of the "precision-medicine" paradigm in oncology has ushered in tremendous improvements in patient outcomes in a wide variety of malignancies. However, pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has remained an obstinate challenge to the oncology community and continues to be associated with a dismal prognosis with 5-year survival rates consistently less than 5%. Cytotoxic chemotherapy with gemcitabine-based regimens has been the cornerstone of treatment in PDAC especially because most patients present with inoperable disease. But in recent years remarkable basic science research has improved our understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of PDAC. Whole genomic analysis has exemplified the genetic heterogeneity of pancreas cancer and has led to ingenious efforts to target oncogenes and their downstream signaling cascades. Novel stromal depletion strategies have been devised based on our enhanced recognition of the complex architecture of the tumor stroma and the various mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment that sustain tumorigenesis. Immunotherapy using vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has also risen to the forefront of therapeutic strategies against PDAC. Furthermore, adoptive T cell transfer and strategies to target epigenetic regulators are being explored with enthusiasm. This review will focus on the recent advances in molecularly targeted therapies in PDAC and offer future perspectives to tackle this lethal disease.

15.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 77(4): 693-701, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26886016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Addition of either nab-paclitaxel or erlotinib to gemcitabine to treat advanced pancreatic cancer has demonstrated overall survival benefit. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerability and safety of combining all three drugs and assess preliminary evidence of efficacy. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 1b study, patients with previously untreated, advanced pancreatic cancer were treated in 28-day cycles with intravenous gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15, and once daily oral erlotinib. A standard "3 + 3" design was used. Dose level 1 (DL1) for gemcitabine (mg/m(2))/nab-paclitaxel (mg/m(2))/erlotinib (mg) was 1000/125/100, respectively, with de-escalation to DL-1 (1000/100/100), DL-2b (1000/75/100), and DL-3 (1000/75/75). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined by occurrence of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in ≤1 of six patients within the first cycle. Efficacy was assessed with CT scans performed at two-cycle intervals. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were enrolled. DLTs occurred in two patients at DL1, three patients at DL-1, two patients at DL-2b, and one patient at DL-3. The MTD for the combination of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel/erlotinib was DL-3 (1000/75/75). In analyses of efficacy among 14 evaluable patients, partial responses were observed in four of six patients at DL1, one of two patients at DL-2b, and two of six patients at DL-3. CONCLUSION: The addition of erlotinib to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel is not tolerable at standard single-agent dosing of all drugs. However, significant clinical activity was noted, even at DL-3. Further study of the combination will need to incorporate reduced dosing.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Albuminas/farmacocinética , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade
16.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 15(3): 439-47, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823490

RESUMO

DMOT4039A, a humanized anti-mesothelin mAb conjugated to the antimitotic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), was given to patients with pancreatic and ovarian cancer every 3 weeks (0.2-2.8 mg/kg; q3w) or weekly (0.8-1.2 mg/kg). A 3+3 design was used for dose escalation followed by expansion at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics. Antitumor response was evaluated per RECIST 1.1 and serum CA19-9 or CA125 declines. Tumor mesothelin expression was determined by IHC. Seventy-one patients (40 pancreatic cancer; 31 ovarian cancer) were treated with DMOT4039A. For the q3w schedule (n = 54), the MTD and RP2D was 2.4 mg/kg, with dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 hyperglycemia and grade 3 hypophosphatemia at 2.8 mg/kg. For the weekly schedule (n = 17), the maximum assessed dose was 1.2 mg/kg, with further dose escalations deferred because of toxicities limiting scheduled retreatment in later cycles, and therefore the RP2D level for the weekly regimen was determined to be 1 mg/kg. Across both schedules, the most common toxicities were gastrointestinal and constitutional. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 6 patients; 4 patients continued treatment following dose reductions. Drug exposure as measured by antibody-conjugated MMAE and total antibody was generally dose proportional over all dose levels on both schedules. A total of 6 patients had confirmed partial responses (4 ovarian; 2 pancreatic) with DMOT4039A at 2.4 to 2.8 mg/kg i.v. q3w. DMOT4039A administered at doses up to 2.4 mg/kg q3w and 1.0 mg/kg weekly has a tolerable safety profile and antitumor activity in both pancreatic and ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Platina/uso terapêutico , Retratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 12(8): 1083-93, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099441

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2014 NCCN Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Panel meeting. The panel discussion focused mainly on the management of borderline resectable and locally advanced disease. In particular, the panel discussed the definition of borderline resectable disease, role of neoadjuvant therapy in borderline disease, role of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, and potential role of newer, more active chemotherapy regimens in both settings.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
18.
Invest New Drugs ; 32(4): 653-60, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24604265

RESUMO

The human monoclonal antibody MNRP1685A targets the VEGF binding domain of neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a multi-domain receptor necessary for neural development and blood vessel maturation. In nonclinical studies, MNRP1685A prevents vascular maturation by keeping blood vessels in an immature, highly VEGF-dependent state. We explored the safety and tolerability of MNRP1685A in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients were treated with MNRP1685A given intravenously every 3 weeks using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design with 7 dose-escalation cohorts. Twenty-four of 35 patients (69 %) experienced drug-related adverse events (AEs) of infusion-related reaction on the day of MNRP1685A administration. With premedication including dexamethasone, infusions were well-tolerated with main symptoms of pruritus and rash. Outside the day of infusion, most common (≥ 2 patients) related AEs were fatigue (17 %), pruritus (9 %), myalgia and thrombocytopenia (both 6 %) (all were Grade 1-2). MNRP1685A-related Grade ≥ 3 AEs consisted of one dose-limiting toxicity of Grade 3 upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one related Grade 3 thrombocytopenia, coinciding with unrelated Grade 3 fungemia and duodenal obstruction. MNRP1685A showed nonlinear PK with more-than-dose proportional increases in exposure, consistent with broad target expression. Transient platelet count reductions (≥ 30 % from predose) were observed in 56 % of evaluable patients. Nine patients were on study for ≥ 4 cycles, one colorectal cancer patient for one year. MNRP1685A was generally well-tolerated. The primary MNRP1685A-related AE was infusion-related reaction, which were attenuated by premedication including dexamethasone. Transient platelet count reductions were frequent but did not impact MNRP1685A dosing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropilina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo
19.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 73(5): 951-60, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24633809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MNRP1685A is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-B, and placental growth factor 2 to neuropilin-1 resulting in vessel immaturity and VEGF dependency. The safety of combining MNRP1685A with bevacizumab, with or without paclitaxel, was examined. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors received escalating doses of MNRP1685A (7.5, 15, 24, and 36 mg/kg) with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks in Arm A (n = 14). Arm B (n = 10) dosing consisted of MNRP1685A (12 and 16 mg/kg) with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg (every 2 weeks) and paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) (weekly, 3 of 4 weeks). Objectives were to determine safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and the maximum tolerated dose of MNRP1685A. RESULTS: Infusion reactions (88 %) and transient thrombocytopenia (67 %) represent the most frequent study drug-related adverse events (AEs). Drug-related Grade 2 or 3 proteinuria occurred in 13 patients (54 %). Additional study drug-related AEs occurring in >20 % of patients included neutropenia, alopecia, dysphonia, fatigue, and nausea. Neutropenia occurred only in Arm B. Grade ≥3 study drug-related AEs in ≥3 patients included neutropenia (Arm B), proteinuria, and thrombocytopenia. Two confirmed and three unconfirmed partial responses were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profiles were consistent with the single-agent profiles of all study drugs. However, a higher than expected rate of clinically significant proteinuria was observed that does not support further testing of MNRP1685A in combination with bevacizumab.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropilina-1/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Bevacizumab , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neuropilina-1/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 20(6): 1656-65, 2014 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24493827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and antitumor activity of an oral formulation of rigosertib, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) pathway inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced solid malignancies received rigosertib twice daily continuously in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated until intolerable grade ≥2 toxicities, at which point the previous dose level was expanded to define the MTD. All patients were assessed for safety, PK, and response. Urinary PK were performed at the MTD. Archival tumors were assessed for potential molecular biomarkers with multiplex mutation testing. A subset of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) underwent exome sequencing. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy at 5 dose levels. Rigosertib exposure increased with escalating doses. Dose-limiting toxicities were hematuria and dysuria. The most common grade ≥2 drug-related toxicities involved urothelial irritation. The MTD is 560 mg twice daily. Activity was seen in head and neck SCCs (1 complete response, 1 partial response) and stable disease for ≥12 weeks was observed in 8 additional patients. Tumors experiencing ≥partial response had PI3K pathway activation, inactivated p53, and unique variants in ROBO3 and FAT1, two genes interacting with the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended phase II dose of oral rigosertib is 560 mg twice daily given continuously. Urinary toxicity is the dose-limiting and most common toxicity. Alterations in PI3K, p53, and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway signaling should be investigated as potential biomarkers of response in future trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonas/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
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