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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread belief that anxiety causes longer labor, evidence of association is inconsistent. Data gathered as part of a prospective epidemiological longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between antenatal anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress, and labor progression was assessed by duration and use of augmentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant primiparous women completed measures for anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress at 20 weeks' gestation (n = 1145). Birth outcome data were extracted from medical records. Regression analyses and a path analysis assessed associations between antenatal anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress, and indices of labor progression (labor duration and augmentation). RESULTS: Anxiety/pregnancy-specific stress were not directly associated with duration of stage 1 labor (HIGH/LOW anxiety: mean difference = 13.94 minutes, SD = 20.66, 95% CI -26.60 to 54.49, P < .50)/(HIGH/LOW pregnancy-specific stress: mean difference = 12.05 minutes, SD = 16.09, 95% CI -19.52 to 43.63, P < .45). However, anxiety/pregnancy-specific stress were associated with epidural use (HIGH/LOW anxiety: 39% vs 31%, P < .042; HIGH/LOW pregnancy-specific stress: 38% vs 29%, P < .001), which was itself associated with longer labor (mean difference: 158.79 minutes, SD = 16.76, 95% CI 125.89-191.68, P < .001). Anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress were associated with increased likelihood of augmentation but these associations were nonsignificant after accounting for epidural, which was itself highly associated with augmentation. However, path analysis indicated an indirect effect linking pregnancy-specific stress, but not general anxiety, to labor duration and augmentation: elevated pregnancy-specific stress led to greater use of epidural, which was linked to both increased rates of augmentation, and increased labor duration. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to general belief, general anxiety and specific pregnancy stress were not directly linked to longer duration of stage one labor. However specific pregnancy stress was associated with epidural use, which in turn was significantly associated with risk of augmentation, and longer stage one labor. Identification of pregnancy-specific stress could help to identify women for whom psychological interventions could improve birth experience.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral bicarbonate solution is known to improve both maternal and perinatal outcomes among women with abnormal labour (dystocia). Its effectiveness and safety among women with obstructed labour is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect and safety of a single-dose preoperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate on maternal and fetal blood lactate and clinical outcomes among women with obstructed labour (OL) in Mbale hospital. METHODS: We conducted a double blind, randomised controlled trial from July 2018 to September 2019. The participants were women with OL at term (≥37 weeks gestation), carrying a singleton pregnancy with no other obstetric emergency, medical comorbidity or laboratory derangements. INTERVENTION: A total of 477 women with OL were randomized to receive 50ml of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (238 women) or 50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride (239 women). In both the intervention and controls arms, each participant was preoperatively given a single dose intravenous bolus. Every participant received 1.5 L of normal saline in one hour as part of standard preoperative care. OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcome was the mean difference in maternal venous blood lactate at one hour between the two arms. The secondary outcomes were umbilical cord blood lactate levels at birth, neonatal sepsis and early neonatal death upto 7 days postnatal, as well as the side effects of sodium bicarbonate, primary postpartum hemorrhage, maternal sepsis and mortality at 14 days postpartum. RESULTS: The median maternal venous lactate was 6.4 (IQR 3.3-12.3) in the intervention and 7.5 (IQR 4.0-15.8) in the control group, with a statistically non-significant median difference of 1.2 mmol/L; p-value = 0.087. Vargha and Delaney effect size was 0.46 (95% CI 0.40-0.51) implying very little if any effect at all. CONCLUSION: The 4.2g of preoperative intravenous sodium bicarbonate was safe but made little or no difference on blood lactate levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201805003364421.

3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD012754, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), defined as a blood loss of 500 mL or more after birth, is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all women giving birth should receive a prophylactic uterotonic agent. Despite the routine administration of a uterotonic agent for prevention, PPH remains a common complication causing one-quarter of all maternal deaths globally. When prevention fails and PPH occurs, further administration of uterotonic agents as 'first-line' treatment is recommended. However, there is uncertainty about which uterotonic agent is best for the 'first-line' treatment of PPH. OBJECTIVES: To identify the most effective uterotonic agent(s) with the least side-effects for PPH treatment, and generate a meaningful ranking among all available agents according to their relative effectiveness and side-effect profile. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (5 May 2020), and the reference lists of all retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of uterotonic agents with other uterotonic agents for the treatment of PPH were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed all trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed each trial for risk of bias. Our primary outcomes were additional blood loss of 500 mL or more after recruitment to the trial until cessation of active bleeding and the composite outcome of maternal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcomes included blood loss-related outcomes, morbidity outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes. We performed pairwise meta-analyses and indirect comparisons, where possible, but due to the limited number of included studies, we were unable to conduct the planned network meta-analysis. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials, involving 3738 women in 10 countries, were included in this review. All trials were conducted in hospital settings. Randomised women gave birth vaginally, except in one small trial, where women gave birth either vaginally or by caesarean section. Across the seven trials (14 trial arms) the following agents were used: six trial arms used oxytocin alone; four trial arms used misoprostol plus oxytocin; three trial arms used misoprostol; one trial arm used Syntometrine® (oxytocin and ergometrine fixed-dose combination) plus oxytocin infusion. Pairwise meta-analysis of two trials (1787 participants), suggests that misoprostol, as first-line treatment uterotonic agent, probably increases the risk of blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 2.14, moderate-certainty) compared with oxytocin. Low-certainty evidence suggests that misoprostol administration may increase the incidence of additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 2.57, 95% CI 1.00 to 6.64). The data comparing misoprostol with oxytocin is imprecise, with a wide range of treatment effects for the additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.69 to 4.02, low-certainty), maternal death or severe morbidity (RR 1.98, 95% CI 0.36 to 10.72, low-certainty, based on one study n = 809 participants, as the second study had zero events), and the use of additional uterotonics (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.94, low-certainty). The risk of side-effects may be increased with the use of misoprostol compared with oxytocin: vomiting (2 trials, 1787 participants, RR 2.47, 95% CI 1.37 to 4.47, high-certainty) and fever (2 trials, 1787 participants, RR 3.43, 95% CI 0.65 to 18.18, low-certainty). According to pairwise meta-analysis of four trials (1881 participants) generating high-certainty evidence, misoprostol plus oxytocin makes little or no difference to the use of additional uterotonics (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.05) and to blood transfusion (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.17) compared with oxytocin. We cannot rule out an important benefit of using the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination over oxytocin alone, for additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.06, moderate-certainty). We also cannot rule out important benefits or harms for additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34, moderate-certainty, 3 trials, 1814 participants, one study reported zero events), and maternal mortality or severe morbidity (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.39, moderate-certainty). Misoprostol plus oxytocin increases the incidence of fever (4 trials, 1866 participants, RR 3.07, 95% CI 2.62 to 3.61, high-certainty), and vomiting (2 trials, 1482 participants, RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.95, high-certainty) compared with oxytocin alone. For all outcomes of interest, the available evidence on the misoprostol versus Syntometrine® plus oxytocin combination was of very low-certainty and these effects remain unclear. Although network meta-analysis was not performed, we were able to compare the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination with misoprostol alone through the common comparator of oxytocin. This indirect comparison suggests that the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination probably reduces the risk of blood transfusion (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.99, moderate-certainty) and may reduce the risk of additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.89, low-certainty) compared with misoprostol alone. The combination makes little or no difference to vomiting (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.59, high-certainty) compared with misoprostol alone. Misoprostol plus oxytocin compared to misoprostol alone are compatible with a wide range of treatment effects for additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.26, low-certainty), maternal mortality or severe morbidity (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.07 to 4.24, low-certainty), use of additional uterotonics (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.73, low-certainty), and fever (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.17 to 4.77, low-certainty). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests that oxytocin used as first-line treatment of PPH probably is more effective than misoprostol with less side-effects. Adding misoprostol to the conventional treatment of oxytocin probably makes little or no difference to effectiveness outcomes, and is also associated with more side-effects. The evidence for most uterotonic agents used as first-line treatment of PPH is limited, with no evidence found for commonly used agents, such as injectable prostaglandins, ergometrine, and Syntometrine®.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(563)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998967

RESUMO

Postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH), which often follows neonatal sepsis, is the most common cause of pediatric hydrocephalus worldwide, yet the microbial pathogens underlying this disease remain to be elucidated. Characterization of the microbial agents causing PIH would enable a shift from surgical palliation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation to prevention of the disease. Here, we examined blood and CSF samples collected from 100 consecutive infant cases of PIH and control cases comprising infants with non-postinfectious hydrocephalus in Uganda. Genomic sequencing of samples was undertaken to test for bacterial, fungal, and parasitic DNA; DNA and RNA sequencing was used to identify viruses; and bacterial culture recovery was used to identify potential causative organisms. We found that infection with the bacterium Paenibacillus, together with frequent cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection, was associated with PIH in our infant cohort. Assembly of the genome of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate recovered from cultures of CSF samples from PIH cases identified a strain of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus This strain, designated Mbale, was lethal when injected into mice in contrast to the benign reference Paenibacillus strain. These findings show that an unbiased pan-microbial approach enabled characterization of Paenibacillus in CSF samples from PIH cases, and point toward a pathway of more optimal treatment and prevention for PIH and other proximate neonatal infections.

5.
Res Involv Engagem ; 6: 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974053

RESUMO

Background: Maternal and newborn deaths and ill health are relatively common in low income countries, but can adequately be addressed through locally, collaboratively designed, and responsive research. This has the potential to enable the affected women, their families and health workers themselves to explore 'why maternal and newborn adverse outcomes continue to occur. The objectives of the study include; To work with seldom heard groups of mothers, their families, and health workers to identify unanswered research questions for maternal and newborn health in villages and health facilities in rural UgandaTo establish locally responsive research questions for maternal and newborn health that could be prioritised together with the public in UgandaTo support the case for locally responsive research in maternal and newborn health by the ministry of health, academic researchers and funding bodies in Uganda. Methods: The present study will follow the James Lind Alliance (JLA) Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) methodology. The project was initiated by an academic research group and will be managed by a research team at the Sanyu Africa Research Institute on a day to day basis. A steering group with a separate lay mothers' group and partners' group (individuals or organisations with interest in maternal and newborn health) will be recruited. The PSP will be initiated by launch meetings, then a face-to-face initial survey for the collection of raw unanswered questions; followed by data collation. A face-to-face interim prioritisation survey will then be performed to choose questions before the three separate final prioritisation workshops.The PSP will involve many participants from an illiterate, non-internet population in rural eastern Uganda, but all with an interest in strategies to avert maternal and newborn deaths or morbidities in rural eastern Uganda. This includes local rural women, their families, health and social workers, and relevant local groups or organisations.We will generate a top 10 list of maternal and newborn health research priorities from a group with no prior experience in setting a research agenda in rural eastern Uganda. Discussion: The current protocol elaborates the JLA methods for application with a new topic and in a new setting translating the JLA principles not just into the local language, but into a rural, vulnerable, illiterate, and non-internet population in Uganda. The face-to-face human interaction is powerful in eliciting what exactly matters to individuals in this particular context as opposed to online surveys.This will be the first time that mothers and lay public with current or previous experience of maternal or neonatal adverse outcomes will have the opportunity to identify and prioritise research questions that matter to them in Uganda. We will be able to compare how the public would prioritise maternal health research questions over newborn health in this setting.

6.
Evol Appl ; 13(8): 2014-2029, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908601

RESUMO

Habitat fragmentation imperils the persistence of many functionally important species, with climate change a new threat to local persistence due to climate niche mismatching. Predicting the evolutionary trajectory of species essential to ecosystem function under future climates is challenging but necessary for prioritizing conservation investments. We use a combination of population genetics and niche suitability models to assess the trajectory of a functionally important, but highly fragmented, plant species from south-eastern Australia (Banksia marginata, Proteaceae). We demonstrate significant genetic structuring among, and high level of relatedness within, fragmented remnant populations, highlighting imminent risks of inbreeding. Population simulations, controlling for effective population size (N e), suggest that many remnant populations will suffer rapid declines in genetic diversity due to drift in the absence of intervention. Simulations were used to demonstrate how inbreeding and drift processes might be suppressed by assisted migration and population mixing approaches that enhance the size and connectivity of remnant populations. These analyses were complemented by niche suitability models that predicted substantial reductions of suitable habitat by 2080; ~30% of the current distribution of the species climate niche overlaps with the projected distribution of the species climate niche in the geographic region by the 2080s. Our study highlights the importance of conserving remnant populations and establishing new populations in areas likely to support B. marginata in the future, and adopting seed sourcing strategies that can help populations overcome the risks of inbreeding and maladaptation. We also argue that ecological replacement of B. marginata using climatically suited plant species might be needed in the future to maintain ecosystem processes where B. marginata cannot persist. We recommend the need for progressive revegetation policies and practices to prevent further deterioration of species such as B. marginata and the ecosystems they support.

7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013663, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is commonly defined as bleeding from the genital tract of 500 mL or more within 24 hours of birth. It is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide and causes significant physical and psychological morbidity. An earlier Cochrane Review considering any treatments for the management of primary PPH, has been split into separate reviews. This review considers treatment with mechanical and surgical interventions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of mechanical and surgical interventions used for the treatment of primary PPH. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (26 July 2019) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mechanical/surgical methods for the treatment of primary PPH compared with standard care or another mechanical/surgical method. Interventions could include uterine packing, intrauterine balloon insertion, artery ligation/embolism, or uterine compression (either with sutures or manually). We included studies reported in abstract form if there was sufficient information to permit risk of bias assessment. Trials using a cluster-RCT design were eligible for inclusion, but quasi-RCTs or cross-over studies were not. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias, independently extracted data and checked data for accuracy. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine small trials (944 women) conducted in Pakistan, Turkey, Thailand, Egypt (four trials), Saudi Arabia, Benin and Mali. Overall, included trials were at an unclear risk of bias. Due to substantial differences between the studies, it was not possible to combine any trials in meta-analysis. Many of this review's important outcomes were not reported. GRADE assessments ranged from very low to low, with the majority of outcome results rated as very low certainty. Downgrading decisions were mainly based on study design limitations and imprecision; one study was also downgraded for indirectness. External uterine compression versus normal care (1 trial, 64 women) Very low-certainty evidence means that we are unclear about the effect on blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 8.23). Uterine arterial embolisation versus surgical devascularisation plus B-Lynch (1 trial, 23 women) The available evidence for hysterectomy to control bleeding (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.15 to 3.57) is unclear due to very low-certainty evidence. The available evidence for intervention side effects is also unclear because the evidence was very low certainty (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.08 to 15.41). Intrauterine Tamponade Studies included various methods of intrauterine tamponade: the commercial Bakri balloon, a fluid-filled condom-loaded latex catheter ('condom catheter'), an air-filled latex balloon-loaded catheter ('latex balloon catheter'), or traditional packing with gauze. Balloon tamponade versus normal care (2 trials, 356 women) One study(116 women) used the condom catheter. This study found that it may increase blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.00; 113 women), very low-certainty evidence. For other outcomes the results are unclear and graded as very low-certainty evidence: mortality due to bleeding (RR 6.21, 95% CI 0.77 to 49.98); hysterectomy to control bleeding (RR 4.14, 95% CI 0.48 to 35.93); total blood transfusion (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.51); and side effects. A second study of 240 women used the latex balloon catheter together with cervical cerclage. Very low-certainty evidence means we are unclear about the effect on hysterectomy (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.74) and additional surgical interventions to control bleeding (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.12). Bakri balloon tamponade versus haemostatic square suturing of the uterus (1 trial, 13 women) In this small trial there was no mortality due to bleeding, serious maternal morbidity or side effects of the intervention, and the results are unclear for blood transfusion (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.36; very low certainty). Bakri balloon tamponade may reduce mean 'intraoperative' blood loss (mean difference (MD) -426 mL, 95% CI -631.28 to -220.72), very low-certainty evidence. Comparison of intrauterine tamponade methods (3 trials, 328 women) One study (66 women) compared the Bakri balloon and the condom catheter, but it was uncertain whether the Bakri balloon reduces the risk of hysterectomy to control bleeding due to very low-certainty evidence (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.25). Very low-certainty evidence also means we are unclear about the results for the risk of blood transfusion (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.06). A second study (50 women) compared Bakri balloon, with and without a traction stitch. Very low-certainty evidence means we are unclear about the results for hysterectomy to control bleeding (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.97). A third study (212 women) compared the condom catheter to gauze packing and found that it may reduce fever (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.59), but again the evidence was very low certainty. Modified B-Lynch compression suture versus standard B-Lynch compression suture (1 trial, 160 women) Low-certainty evidence suggests that a modified B-Lynch compression suture may reduce the risk of hysterectomy to control bleeding (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.99) and postoperative blood loss (MD -244.00 mL, 95% CI -295.25 to -192.75). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence from RCTs to determine the relative effectiveness and safety of mechanical and surgical interventions for treating primary PPH. High-quality randomised trials are urgently needed, and new emergency consent pathways should facilitate recruitment. The finding that intrauterine tamponade may increase total blood loss > 1000 mL suggests that introducing condom-balloon tamponade into low-resource settings on its own without multi-system quality improvement does not reduce PPH deaths or morbidity. The suggestion that modified B-Lynch suture may be superior to the original requires further research before the revised technique is adopted. In high-resource settings, uterine artery embolisation has become popular as the equipment and skills become more widely available. However, there is little randomised trial evidence regarding efficacy and this requires further research. We urge new trial authors to adopt PPH core outcomes to facilitate consistency between primary studies and subsequent meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Viés , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Pressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Técnicas de Sutura , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Tamponamento com Balão Uterino/métodos
8.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(12): 1700-1709, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609877

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Induction of labor has become an increasingly common obstetric procedure, but in nulliparous women or women with a previous cesarean section, it can pose a clinical challenge. Despite an overall expansion of medical indications for labor induction, there is little international consensus regarding the criteria for induction, or for the recommended methods among nulliparous women. In this light, we assessed variations in the practice of induction of labor among 21 birth units in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior vaginal birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational pilot study of women with induced labor and no prior vaginal birth, across 21 Norwegian birth units. We registered induction indications, methods and outcomes from 1 September to 31 December 2018 using a web-based case record form. Women were grouped into "Nulliparous term cephalic", "Previous cesarean section" and "Other Robson" (Robson groups 6, 7, 8 or 10). RESULTS: More than 98% of eligible women (n=1818) were included and a wide variety of methods was used for induction of labor. In nulliparous term cephalic pregnancies, cesarean section rates ranged from 11.1% to 40.6% between birth units, whereas in the previous cesarean section group, rates ranged from 22.7% to 67.5%. The indications "large fetus" and "other fetal" indications were associated with the highest cesarean rates. Failed inductions and failure to progress in labor contributed most to the cesarean rates. Uterine rupture occurred in two women (0.11%), both in the previous cesarean section group. In neonates, 1.6% had Apgar <7 at 5 minutes, and 0.4% had an umbilical artery pH <7.00. CONCLUSIONS: Cesarean rates and applied methods for induction of labor varied widely in this nationwide cohort of women without a prior vaginal birth. Neonatal outcomes were similar to those of normal birth populations. Results could indicate the need to move towards more standardized induction protocols associated with optimal outcomes for mother and baby.

9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008463, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678817

RESUMO

The arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) and Ae. albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) are both common throughout the Indo-Pacific region, where 70% of global dengue transmission occurs. For Ae. aegypti all Indo-Pacific populations are invasive, having spread from an initial native range of Africa, while for Ae. albopictus the Indo-Pacific includes invasive populations and those from the native range: putatively, India to Japan to Southeast Asia. This study analyses the population genomics of 480 of these mosquitoes sampled from 27 locations in the Indo-Pacific. We investigated patterns of genome-wide genetic differentiation to compare pathways of invasion and ongoing gene flow in both species, and to compare invasive and native-range populations of Ae. albopictus. We also tested landscape genomic hypotheses that genetic differentiation would increase with geographical distance and be lower between locations with high connectivity to human transportation routes, the primary means of dispersal at these scales. We found that genetic distances were generally higher in Ae. aegypti, with Pacific populations the most highly differentiated. The most differentiated Ae. albopictus populations were in Vanuatu, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, the latter two representing potential native-range populations and potential cryptic subspeciation respectively. Genetic distances in Ae. aegypti increased with geographical distance, while in Ae. albopictus they decreased with higher connectivity to human transportation routes. Contrary to the situation in Ae. aegypti, we found evidence of long-distance Ae. albopictus colonisation events, including colonisation of Mauritius from East Asia and of Fiji from Southeast Asia. These direct genomic comparisons indicate likely differences in dispersal ecology in these species, despite their broadly sympatric distributions and similar use of human transport to disperse. Our findings will assist biosecurity operations to trace the source of invasive material and for biocontrol operations that benefit from matching genetic backgrounds of released and local populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Animais , Ásia
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(12): 4202-4209, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding pest incursion pathways is critical for preventing new invasions and for stopping the transfer of alleles that reduce the efficacy of local control methods. The mosquitoes Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are both highly invasive disease vectors, and through a series of ongoing international incursions are continuing to colonize new regions and spread insecticide resistance alleles among established populations. This study uses high-resolution molecular markers and a set of 241 reference genotypes to trace incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus into mainland Australia, where no successful invasions have yet been observed. We contrast these results with incursion pathways of Ae. aegypti, investigated previously. RESULTS: Assignments successfully identified China, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan as source locations. Incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus were entirely different to those of Ae. aegypti, despite broad sympatry of these species throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Incursions of Ae. albopictus appeared to have come predominantly along marine routes from key trading locations, while Ae. aegypti was mostly linked to aerial routes from tourism hotspots. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate how genomics can help decipher otherwise cryptic incursion pathways. The inclusion of reference genotypes from the Americas may help resolve some unsuccessful assignments. While many congeneric taxa will share common incursion pathways, this study highlights that this is not always the case, and incursion pathways of important taxa should be specifically investigated. Species differences in aerial and marine incursion rates may reflect the efficacy of ongoing control programmes such as aircraft disinsection. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402601

RESUMO

The physiology of the third stage of labour is described. Active management reduces the risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), due to the use of a uterotonic agent. Intramuscular Oxytocin 10 IU has the highest efficacy and lowest side effect profile, although ergometrine, carbetocin and misoprostol are also effective. The appropriate uterotonic in different settings such as home birth by unskilled attendants and at caesarean section is discussed. For the latter, there is less consensus on the optimal dose/route of oxytocin, this topic remaining on the research agenda. Delayed cord clamping enables transfusion of blood to the neonate and is recommended rather than early clamping. Controlled cord traction should only be performed by skilled birth attendants and confers minimal advantage in preventing retained placenta. The importance of early recognition of PPH, and preparedness, is emphasised. An approach to medical and surgical management of PPH is presented.


Assuntos
Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Tocologia , Placenta Retida/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Cesárea , Ergonovina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
12.
Mol Ecol ; 29(9): 1628-1641, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246542

RESUMO

Nations throughout the Indo-Pacific region use pyrethroid insecticides to control Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, often without knowledge of pyrethroid resistance status of the pest or origin of resistance. Two mutations (V1016G + F1534C) in the sodium channel gene (Vssc) of Ae. aegypti modify ion channel function and cause target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, with a third mutation (S989P) having a potential additive effect. Of 27 possible genotypes involving these mutations, some allelic combinations are never seen whereas others predominate. Here, five allelic combinations common in Ae. aegypti from the Indo-Pacific region are described and their geographical distributions investigated using genome-wide SNP markers. We tested the hypothesis that resistance allele combinations evolved de novo in populations versus the alternative that dispersal of Ae. aegypti between populations facilitated genetic invasions of allele combinations. We used latent factor mixed-models to detect SNPs throughout the genome that showed structuring in line with resistance allele combinations and compared variation at SNPs within the Vssc gene with genome-wide variation. Mixed-models detected an array of SNPs linked to resistance allele combinations, all located within or in close proximity to the Vssc gene. Variation at SNPs within the Vssc gene was structured by resistance profile, whereas genome-wide SNPs were structured by population. These results demonstrate that alleles near to resistance mutations have been transferred between populations via linked selection. This indicates that genetic invasions have contributed to the widespread occurrence of Vssc allele combinations in Ae. aegypti in the Indo-Pacific region, pointing to undocumented mosquito invasions between countries.

15.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 21(6): 540-546, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196425

RESUMO

Background: Prolonged surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) is generally discouraged after completion of surgery. However, little is known about the pattern of peri-operative antibiotic use in resource-limited settings. We aimed to describe its use at a typical government hospital in Uganda. Methods: A study was originally conducted in a rural Ugandan regional referral and teaching hospital in 2014 and 2015 to improve hand hygiene practice and measure its impact on health-care-associated infections including SSI (WardGel study). This is a secondary analysis of the data from the WardGel study to assess the frequency of peri-operative antibiotic use among surgical patients. Results: Of 3,627 patients enrolled into the original study, 960 (26.5%) underwent surgery at the hospital and 907 patients (94.5%) received antibiotic agents during hospitalization. Of these, 880 patients (97.0%, of 907 patients) received antibiotic agents on the day of surgery. A combination of ceftriaxone and metronidazole was the most common regimen (609/907 patients, 67.1%). Thirty-six of 907 patients (4.0%) started and completed their antibiotic agents on the day of surgery. The mean length of antibiotic use during hospitalization was 3.5 days (standard deviation, 3.3). After adjusting for covariates, linear regression analysis showed an extra 1.9 days of antibiotic use post-operatively (95% confidence interval = 1.7-2.3). During the total 4,960 inpatient-days for those having surgery, there were 6,503 days of therapy (DOTs) of antibiotic agents and 1,649 antibiotic-free days (AFDs). Conclusions: Most patients received prolonged antibiotic therapy after surgery. Antimicrobial stewardship for SAP can play a major role in combating antimicrobial resistance in resource-limited settings.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstructed labour (OL) is an important clinical and public health problem because of the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for OL and its associated obstetric squeal are usually context specific. No epidemiological study has documented the risk factors for OL in Eastern Uganda. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Hospital. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Regional Referral and Teaching Hospital, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 270 cases of women with OL and 270 controls of women without OL. We consecutively enrolled eligible cases between July 2018 and February 2019. For each case, we randomly selected one eligible control admitted in the same 24-hour period. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews and a review of patient notes. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OL. RESULTS: The risk factors for OL were, being a referral from a lower health facility (AOR 6.80, 95% CI: 4.20-11.00), prime parity (AOR 2.15 95% CI: 1.26-3.66) and use of herbal medicines in active labour (AOR 2.72 95% CI: 1.49-4.96). Married participants (AOR 0.59 95% CI: 0.35-0.97) with a delivery plan (AOR 0.56 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) and educated partners (AOR 0.57 95% CI: 0.33-0.98) were less likely to have OL. In the adjusted analysis, there was no association between four or more ANC visits and OL, adjusted odds ratio [(AOR) 0.96 95% CI: 0.57-1.63)]. CONCLUSIONS: Prime parity, use of herbal medicines in labour and being a referral from a lower health facility were identified as risk factors. Being married with a delivery plan and an educated partner were protective of OL. Increased frequency of ANC attendance was not protective against obstructed labour.


Assuntos
Distocia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distocia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 107, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality. Many trials assessing interventions to prevent PPH base their data on low risk women. It is important to consider the impact data collection methods may have on these results. This review aims to assess trials of PPH prophylaxis by grading trials according to the degree of risk status of the population enrolled in these trials and identify differences in the PPH rates of low risk and high risk populations. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Trials were identified through CENTRAL. Trials were assessed for eligibility then graded according to antenatal risk factors and method of birth into five grades. The main outcomes were overall trial rate of minor PPH (blood loss ≥500 ml) and major PPH (> 1000 ml) and method of determining blood loss (estimated/measured). RESULTS: There was no relationship between minor or major PPH rate and risk grade (Kruskal-Wallis: minor - T = 0.92, p = 0.82; major - T = 0.91, p = 0.92). There was no difference in minor or major PPH rates when comparing estimation or measurement methods (Mann-Whitney: minor - U = 67, p = 0.75; major - U = 35, p = 0.72). There was however a correlation between % operative births and minor PPH rate, but not major PPH (Spearman r = 0.32 v. Spearman r = 0.098). CONCLUSIONS: Using data from trials using low risk women to generalise best practice guidelines might not be appropriate for all births, particularly complex births. Although complex births contribute disproportionately to PPH rates, this review showed they are often underrepresented in trials. Despite this, there was no difference in reported PPH rates between studies conducted in high and low risk groups. Method of birth was shown to be an important risk factor for minor PPH and may be a better predictor of PPH than antenatal risk factors. Women with operative births are often excluded from trials meaning a lack of data supporting interventions in these women. More focus on complex births is needed to ensure the evidence base is relevant to the target population.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Risco , Viés de Seleção
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