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1.
Ecol Lett ; 22(3): 506-517, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609108

RESUMO

Earth system models (ESMs) use photosynthetic capacity, indexed by the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), to simulate carbon assimilation and typically rely on empirical estimates, including an assumed dependence on leaf nitrogen determined from soil fertility. In contrast, new theory, based on biochemical coordination and co-optimization of carboxylation and water costs for photosynthesis, suggests that optimal Vcmax can be predicted from climate alone, irrespective of soil fertility. Here, we develop this theory and find it captures 64% of observed variability in a global, field-measured Vcmax dataset for C3 plants. Soil fertility indices explained substantially less variation (32%). These results indicate that environmentally regulated biophysical constraints and light availability are the first-order drivers of global photosynthetic capacity. Through acclimation and adaptation, plants efficiently utilize resources at the leaf level, thus maximizing potential resource use for growth and reproduction. Our theory offers a robust strategy for dynamically predicting photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Adaptação Fisiológica , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase
2.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(6): 1251-1262, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314047

RESUMO

In many biomes, plants are subject to heatwaves, potentially causing irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Field surveys have documented global, temperature-dependent patterns in photosynthetic heat tolerance (PHT ); however, it remains unclear if these patterns reflect acclimation in PHT or inherent differences among species adapted to contrasting habitats. To address these unknowns, we quantified seasonal variations in Tcrit (high temperature where minimal chlorophyll-a fluorescence rises rapidly, reflecting disruption to photosystem II) in 62 species native to 6 sites from 5 thermally contrasting biomes across Australia. Tcrit and leaf fatty acid (FA) composition (important for membrane stability) were quantified in three temperature-controlled glasshouses in 20 of those species. Tcrit was greatest at hot field sites and acclimated seasonally (summer > winter, increasing on average 0.34 °C per °C increase in growth temperature). The glasshouse study showed that Tcrit was inherently higher in species from warmer habitats (increasing 0.16 °C per °C increase in origin annual mean maximum temperature) and acclimated to increasing growth temperature (0.24 °C °C-1 ). Variations in Tcrit were positively correlated with the relative abundance of saturated FAs, with FAs accounting for 40% of Tcrit variation. These results highlight the importance of both plastic adjustments and inherent differences determining contemporary continent-wide patterns in PHT .


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Austrália , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(4): 1538-1547, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030907

RESUMO

Temperature is a crucial factor in determining the rates of ecosystem processes, for example, leaf respiration (R) - the flux of plant respired CO2 from leaves to the atmosphere. Generally, R increases exponentially with temperature and formulations such as the Arrhenius equation are widely used in earth system models. However, experimental observations have shown a consequential and consistent departure from an exponential increase in R. What are the principles that underlie these observed patterns? Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), based on transition state theory (TST) for enzyme-catalyzed kinetics, provides a thermodynamic explanation for the observed departure and the convergent temperature response of R using a global database. Three meaningful parameters emerge from MMRT analysis: the temperature at which the rate of respiration would theoretically reach a maximum (the optimum temperature, Topt ), the temperature at which the respiration rate is most sensitive to changes in temperature (the inflection temperature, Tinf ) and the overall curvature of the log(rate) versus temperature plot (the change in heat capacity for the system, ΔCP‡). On average, the highest potential enzyme-catalyzed rates of respiratory enzymes for R are predicted to occur at 67.0 ± 1.2°C and the maximum temperature sensitivity at 41.4 ± 0.7°C from MMRT. The average curvature (average negative ΔCP‡) was -1.2 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1  K-1 . Interestingly, Topt , Tinf and ΔCP‡ appear insignificantly different across biomes and plant functional types, suggesting that thermal response of respiratory enzymes in leaves could be conserved. The derived parameters from MMRT can serve as thermal traits for plant leaves that represent the collective temperature response of metabolic respiratory enzymes and could be useful to understand regulations of R under a warmer climate. MMRT extends the classic TST to enzyme-catalyzed reactions and provides an accurate and mechanistic model for the short-term temperature response of R around the globe.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Clima , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Respiração , Termodinâmica
4.
Ecol Lett ; 20(6): 730-740, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464375

RESUMO

One of the major challenges in ecology is to understand how ecosystems respond to changes in environmental conditions, and how taxonomic and functional diversity mediate these changes. In this study, we use a trait-spectra and individual-based model, to analyse variation in forest primary productivity along a 3.3 km elevation gradient in the Amazon-Andes. The model accurately predicted the magnitude and trends in forest productivity with elevation, with solar radiation and plant functional traits (leaf dry mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, and wood density) collectively accounting for productivity variation. Remarkably, explicit representation of temperature variation with elevation was not required to achieve accurate predictions of forest productivity, as trait variation driven by species turnover appears to capture the effect of temperature. Our semi-mechanistic model suggests that spatial variation in traits can potentially be used to estimate spatial variation in productivity at the landscape scale.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Árvores , Clima Tropical
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(1): 209-223, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562605

RESUMO

High-temperature tolerance in plants is important in a warming world, with extreme heat waves predicted to increase in frequency and duration, potentially leading to lethal heating of leaves. Global patterns of high-temperature tolerance are documented in animals, but generally not in plants, limiting our ability to assess risks associated with climate warming. To assess whether there are global patterns in high-temperature tolerance of leaf metabolism, we quantified Tcrit (high temperature where minimal chlorophyll a fluorescence rises rapidly and thus photosystem II is disrupted) and Tmax (temperature where leaf respiration in darkness is maximal, beyond which respiratory function rapidly declines) in upper canopy leaves of 218 plant species spanning seven biomes. Mean site-based Tcrit values ranged from 41.5 °C in the Alaskan arctic to 50.8 °C in lowland tropical rainforests of Peruvian Amazon. For Tmax , the equivalent values were 51.0 and 60.6 °C in the Arctic and Amazon, respectively. Tcrit and Tmax followed similar biogeographic patterns, increasing linearly (˜8 °C) from polar to equatorial regions. Such increases in high-temperature tolerance are much less than expected based on the 20 °C span in high-temperature extremes across the globe. Moreover, with only modest high-temperature tolerance despite high summer temperature extremes, species in mid-latitude (~20-50°) regions have the narrowest thermal safety margins in upper canopy leaves; these regions are at the greatest risk of damage due to extreme heat-wave events, especially under conditions when leaf temperatures are further elevated by a lack of transpirational cooling. Using predicted heat-wave events for 2050 and accounting for possible thermal acclimation of Tcrit and Tmax , we also found that these safety margins could shrink in a warmer world, as rising temperatures are likely to exceed thermal tolerance limits. Thus, increasing numbers of species in many biomes may be at risk as heat-wave events become more severe with climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(7): 2783-2800, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859952

RESUMO

Understanding of the extent of acclimation of light-saturated net photosynthesis (An ) to temperature (T), and associated underlying mechanisms, remains limited. This is a key knowledge gap given the importance of thermal acclimation for plant functioning, both under current and future higher temperatures, limiting the accuracy and realism of Earth system model (ESM) predictions. Given this, we analysed and modelled T-dependent changes in photosynthetic capacity in 10 wet-forest tree species: six from temperate forests and four from tropical forests. Temperate and tropical species were each acclimated to three daytime growth temperatures (Tgrowth ): temperate - 15, 20 and 25 °C; tropical - 25, 30 and 35 °C. CO2 response curves of An were used to model maximal rates of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ) at each treatment's respective Tgrowth and at a common measurement T (25 °C). SDS-PAGE gels were used to determine abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme, Rubisco. Leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen (N) and mass per unit leaf area (LMA) were also determined. For all species and Tgrowth , An at current atmospheric CO2 partial pressure was Rubisco-limited. Across all species, LMA decreased with increasing Tgrowth . Similarly, area-based rates of Vcmax at a measurement T of 25 °C (Vcmax25 ) linearly declined with increasing Tgrowth , linked to a concomitant decline in total leaf protein per unit leaf area and Rubisco as a percentage of leaf N. The decline in Rubisco constrained Vcmax and An for leaves developed at higher Tgrowth and resulted in poor predictions of photosynthesis by currently widely used models that do not account for Tgrowth -mediated changes in Rubisco abundance that underpin the thermal acclimation response of photosynthesis in wet-forest tree species. A new model is proposed that accounts for the effect of Tgrowth -mediated declines in Vcmax25 on An , complementing current photosynthetic thermal acclimation models that do not account for T sensitivity of Vcmax25 .


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Florestas , Fotossíntese , Dióxido de Carbono , Folhas de Planta , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Árvores
7.
New Phytol ; 214(3): 1002-1018, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389684

RESUMO

We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (Ma , Na and Pa , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient. Western blots were used to quantify the abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco. Area- and N-based rates of photosynthetic capacity at 25°C were higher in upland than lowland TMFs, underpinned by greater investment of N in photosynthesis in high-elevation trees. Soil [P] and leaf Pa were key explanatory factors for models of area-based Vcmax and Jmax but did not account for variations in photosynthetic N-use efficiency. At any given Na and Pa , the fraction of N allocated to photosynthesis was higher in upland than lowland species. For a small subset of lowland TMF trees examined, a substantial fraction of Rubisco was inactive. These results highlight the importance of soil- and leaf-P in defining the photosynthetic capacity of TMFs, with variations in N allocation and Rubisco activation state further influencing photosynthetic rates and N-use efficiency of these critically important forests.


Assuntos
Altitude , Florestas , Umidade , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Peru , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(14): 3832-7, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001849

RESUMO

Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Respiração Celular/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta
10.
New Phytol ; 210(3): 1130-44, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719951

RESUMO

Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Cinética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
J Exp Bot ; 65(22): 6471-85, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25205579

RESUMO

Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R(dark)), and the short-term T response of R(dark) were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T-response curves of R(dark) measured over the 15-65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R(dark) measured at T <35 °C and that there was no interactive effect of [CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R(dark). However, drought increased R(dark) at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35-45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R(dark) occurred (Tmax) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R(dark) (i.e. proportional rise in R(dark) per 10 °C) over the 15-35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2].


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Secas , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Atmosfera , Austrália , Carboidratos/análise , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escuridão , Eucalyptus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Tree Physiol ; 34(6): 564-84, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24722001

RESUMO

We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Árvores/fisiologia , Respiração Celular , Luz , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Queensland , Floresta Úmida , Temperatura Ambiente , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/efeitos da radiação
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