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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00733, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Site-1 Protease (S1P) is a Golgi-resident protein required for the activation of regulatory proteins that drive key cellular functions, including, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. While disruptions in S1P function have been widely characterized in animal models, to date, the implications of disrupted S1P function in human disease states are not completely known. METHODS: The patient and both parents underwent whole exome and mitochondrial DNA sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the mutation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence studies were performed on either proband-derived fibroblasts or on an established cell line to assess protein expression and cellular localization of the mutated S1P protein. Quantitative real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assays were used to examine activation of S1P target pathways in the context of the S1P mutation. RESULTS: We describe a female patient with a de novo heterozygous missense mutation in the transmembrane domain of S1P (p. Pro1003Ser). The patient presented to our neuromuscular clinic with episodic, activity-induced, focal myoedema and myalgias with hyperCKemia. Her clinical phenotype was complex and included gastrointestinal hypomotility, ocular migraines, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Molecular analysis using proband-derived fibroblasts and cell lines harboring the Pro1003Ser mutation demonstrated increased activation of UPR and lipid and cholesterol regulatory pathways and localization of S1P Pro1003Ser in the Golgi. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a critical function for S1P in several human organ systems and implicate an important role for S1P in various human disease states.

2.
Bone ; 124: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914273

RESUMO

B4GALT7 encodes beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase which links glycosaminoglycans to proteoglycans in connective tissues. Rare, biallelic variants in B4GALT7 have been associated with spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos and Larsen of Reunion Island syndromes. Thirty patients with B4GALT7-related disorders have been reported to date with phenotypic variability. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified male and female siblings with biallelic, pathogenic B4GALT7 variants and phenotypic features of spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as well as previously unreported skeletal characteristics. We also provide detailed radiological characterization and describe the siblings' responses to growth hormone treatment. Our report extends the phenotypic spectrum of B4GALT7-associated spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and reports results of growth hormone treatment for patients with this rare disorder.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414627

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS), also known as neonatal progeroid syndrome, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. It has been proposed to be autosomal-recessive and is characterized by variable clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction and poor postnatal weight gain, characteristic facial features (triangular appearance to the face, convex nasal profile or pinched nose, and small mouth), widened fontanelles, pseudohydrocephalus, prominent scalp veins, lipodystrophy, and teeth abnormalities. A previous report described a single WRS patient with bi-allelic truncating and splicing variants in POLR3A. Here we present seven additional infants, children, and adults with WRS and bi-allelic truncating and/or splicing variants in POLR3A. POLR3A, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III, is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that transcribes many small noncoding RNAs that regulate transcription, RNA processing, and translation. Bi-allelic missense variants in POLR3A have been associated with phenotypes distinct from WRS: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without oligodontia. Our findings confirm the association of bi-allelic POLR3A variants with WRS, expand the clinical phenotype of WRS, and suggest specific POLR3A genotypes associated with WRS and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3904, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254221

RESUMO

A magnetic atom epitomizes the scaling limit for magnetic information storage. Individual atomic spins have recently exhibited magnetic remanence, a requirement for magnetic memory. However, such memory has been only realized on thin insulating surfaces, removing potential tunability via electronic gating or exchange-driven magnetic coupling. Here, we show a previously unobserved mechanism for single-atom magnetic storage based on bistability in the orbital population, or so-called valency, of an individual Co atom on semiconducting black phosphorus (BP). Ab initio calculations reveal that distance-dependent screening from the BP surface stabilizes the two distinct valencies, each with a unique orbital population, total magnetic moment, and spatial charge density. Excellent correspondence between the measured and predicted charge densities reveal that such orbital configurations can be accessed and manipulated without a spin-sensitive readout mechanism. This orbital memory derives stability from the energetic barrier to atomic relaxation, demonstrating the potential for high-temperature single-atom information storage.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1875-1884, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157302

RESUMO

SMAD2 is a downstream effector in the TGF-ß signaling pathway, which is important for pattern formation and tissue differentiation. Pathogenic variants in SMAD2 have been reported in association with arterial aneurysms and dissections and in large cohorts of subjects with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the molecular cause of CHD and other congenital anomalies in three probands and of an arterial aneurysm in an additional patient. Patients 1 and 2 presented with complex CHD, developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphic features, short stature, and poor weight gain. Patient 3 was a fetus with complex CHD and heterotaxy. The fourth patient is an adult female with aortic root aneurysm and physical features suggestive of a connective tissue disorder. WES identified pathogenic truncating variants, a splice variant, and a predicted deleterious missense variant in SMAD2. We compare the phenotypes and genotypes in our patients with previously reported cases. Our data suggest two distinct phenotypes associated with pathogenic variants in SMAD2: complex CHD with or without laterality defects and other congenital anomalies, and a late-onset vascular phenotype characterized by arterial aneurysms with connective tissue abnormalities.

6.
Pediatr Res ; 84(3): 435-441, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic deleterious variants in RTTN, which encodes rotatin, are associated with primary microcephaly, polymicrogyria, seizures, intellectual disability, and primordial dwarfism in human infants. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed exome sequencing of an infant with primary microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and intractable seizures and his healthy, unrelated parents. We cultured the infant's fibroblasts to determine primary ciliary phenotype. RESULTS: We identified biallelic variants in RTTN in the affected infant: a novel missense variant and a rare, intronic variant that results in aberrant transcript splicing. Cultured fibroblasts from the infant demonstrated reduced length and number of primary cilia. CONCLUSION: Biallelic variants in RTTN cause primary microcephaly in infants. Functional characterization of primary cilia length and number can be used to determine pathogenicity of RTTN variants.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(3): 033902, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604794

RESUMO

We describe the design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at a base temperature of 30 mK in a vector magnetic field. The cryogenics is based on an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) top-loading wet dilution refrigerator that contains a vector magnet allowing for fields up to 9 T perpendicular and 4 T parallel to the sample. The STM is placed in a multi-chamber UHV system, which allows in situ preparation and exchange of samples and tips. The entire system rests on a 150-ton concrete block suspended by pneumatic isolators, which is housed in an acoustically isolated and electromagnetically shielded laboratory optimized for extremely low noise scanning probe measurements. We demonstrate the overall performance by illustrating atomic resolution and quasiparticle interference imaging and detail the vibrational noise of both the laboratory and microscope. We also determine the electron temperature via measurement of the superconducting gap of Re(0001) and illustrate magnetic field-dependent measurements of the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on Pt(111). Finally, we demonstrate spin resolution by imaging the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110).

8.
World J Pediatr ; 14(1): 52-56, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine population-based prevalence and disease contribution of phosphatidylcholine synthetic pathway-associated gene variants in a native southern Chinese cohort. METHODS: We used bloodspots from 2010 that were obtained from the Guangxi Neonatal Screening Center in Nannning China and included the Han (n = 443) and Zhuang (n = 313) ethnic groups. We sequenced the exons of cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (PCYT1B) lysophospholipid acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1), and cholinephosphotransferase (CHPT1) genes, and analyzed both rare and common exonic variants. RESULTS: We obtained five mutations (G199D, A299V, G434C, Y490C, L312S) with eight alleles in the three candidate genes. The collapsed minor allele frequency for candidate genes was not significantly different between the Han and Zhuang populations (0.0045 vs. 0.0064, respectively, P = 0.725). The combined Han and Zhuang pool collapsed carrier frequency of rare mutation allele was found to be 1.06%, which is much higher than previously reported for the Missouri population (0.1%). Further, we detected six exonic common variants (three in LPCAT1 and three in CHPT1), with three non-synonymous variants (F162S, F341L, M427K) among them. Two of the non-synonymous exonic variants (F341L, M427K) were not found in CHB; F341L was also not previously reported in exome sequencing project. CONCLUSIONS: The population-based frequency of mutations in the phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathway-associated genes PCYT1B LPCAT1, CHPT1 is low in southern Chinese newborns and there is no evidence of contribution to population-based disease burden of respiratory distress syndrome. As a population-based study of rare mutations and common variants, this work is valuable in directing future research.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Fosfatidilcolinas/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Peso ao Nascer , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
J Pediatr ; 194: 158-164.e1, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe disease course, histopathology, and outcomes for infants with atypical presentations of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical history, diagnostic studies, explant histology, genetic sequence results, and post-transplant course for 6 infants with atypical ACDMPV who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at St. Louis Children's Hospital. We compared their histology with infants with classic ACDMPV and compared their outcomes with infants transplanted for other indications. RESULTS: In contrast with neonates with classic ACDPMV who present with severe hypoxemia and refractory pulmonary hypertension within hours of birth, none of the infants with atypical ACDMPV presented with progressive neonatal respiratory failure. Three infants had mild neonatal respiratory distress and received nasal cannula oxygen. Three other infants had no respiratory symptoms at birth and presented with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension at 2-3 months of age. Bilateral lung transplantation was performed at 4-20 months of age. Unlike in classic ACDMPV, histopathologic findings were not distributed uniformly and were not diffuse. Three subjects had apparent nonmosaic genetic defects involving FOXF1. Two infants had extrapulmonary anomalies (posterior urethral valves, inguinal hernia). Three transplanted children are alive at 5-16 years of age, similar to outcomes for infants transplanted for other indications. Lung explants from infants with atypical ACDMPV demonstrated diagnostic but nonuniform histopathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: The 1- and 5-year survival rates for infants with atypical ACDMPV are similar to infants transplanted for other indications. Given the clinical and histopathologic spectra, ACDMPV should be considered in infants with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, even beyond the newborn period.

10.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 176, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879171

RESUMO

Significant variability has been observed in the development and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) among neonates exposed to prenatal opioids. Since maternal opioid dose does not appear to correlate directly with neonatal outcome, maternal, placental, and fetal genomic variants may play important roles in NAS. Previous studies in small cohorts have demonstrated associations of variants in maternal and infant genes that encode the µ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and prepronociceptin (PNOC) with a shorter length of hospital stay and less need for treatment in neonates exposed to opioids in utero. Consistently falling genomic sequencing costs and computational approaches to predict variant function will permit unbiased discovery of genomic variants and gene pathways associated with differences in maternal and fetal opioid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and with placental opioid transport and metabolism. Discovery of pathogenic variants should permit better delineation of the risk of developing more severe forms of NAS. This review provides a summary of the current role of genomic factors in the development of NAS and suggests strategies for further genomic discovery.

11.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5660-5665, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782956

RESUMO

Storing and accessing information in atomic-scale magnets requires magnetic imaging techniques with single-atom resolution. Here, we show simultaneous detection of the spin-polarization and exchange force with or without the flow of current with a new method, which combines scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. To demonstrate the application of this new method, we characterize the prototypical nanoskyrmion lattice formed on a monolayer of Fe/Ir(111). We resolve the square magnetic lattice by employing magnetic exchange force microscopy, demonstrating its applicability to noncollinear magnetic structures for the first time. Utilizing distance-dependent force and current spectroscopy, we quantify the exchange forces in comparison to the spin-polarization. For strongly spin-polarized tips, we distinguish different signs of the exchange force that we suggest arises from a change in exchange mechanisms between the probe and a skyrmion. This new approach may enable both nonperturbative readout combined with writing by current-driven reversal of atomic-scale magnets.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1477-1484, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726266

RESUMO

Biallelic GLDN mutations have recently been identified among infants with lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11 (LCCS11). GLDN encodes gliomedin, a protein required for the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and development of the human peripheral nervous system. We report six infants and children from four unrelated families with biallelic GLDN mutations, four of whom survived beyond the neonatal period into infancy, childhood, and late adolescence with intensive care and chronic respiratory and nutritional support. Our findings expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of LCCS11 and demonstrate that the condition may not necessarily be lethal in the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Artrogripose/genética , Genes Letais , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Artrogripose/mortalidade , Biópsia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/ultraestrutura , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4453-4460, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640634

RESUMO

Structure determination and prediction pose a major challenge to computational material science, demanding efficient global structure search techniques tailored to identify promising and relevant candidates. A major bottleneck is the fact that due to the many combinatorial possibilities, there are too many possible geometries to be sampled exhaustively. Here, an innovative computational approach to overcome this problem is presented that explores the potential energy landscape of commensurate organic/inorganic interfaces where the orientation and conformation of the molecules in the tightly packed layer is close to a favorable geometry adopted by isolated molecules on the surface. It is specifically designed to sample the energetically lowest lying structures, including the thermodynamic minimum, in order to survey the particularly rich and intricate polymorphism in such systems. The approach combines a systematic discretization of the configuration space, which leads to a huge reduction of the combinatorial possibilities with an efficient exploration of the potential energy surface inspired by the Basin-Hopping method. Interfacing the algorithm with first-principles calculations, the power and efficiency of this approach is demonstrated for the example of the organic molecule TCNE (tetracyanoethylene) on Au(111). For the pristine metal surface, the global minimum structure is found to be at variance with the geometry found by scanning tunneling microscopy. Rather, our results suggest the presence of surface adatoms or vacancies that are not imaged in the experiment.

14.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 55(5): 716-721, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27374344

RESUMO

Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 gene (ABCA3) result in severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and childhood interstitial lung disease. As most ABCA3 mutations are rare or private, determination of mutation pathogenicity is often based on results from in silico prediction tools, identification in unrelated diseased individuals, statistical association studies, or expert opinion. Functional biologic studies of ABCA3 mutations are needed to confirm mutation pathogenicity and inform clinical decision making. Our objective was to functionally characterize two ABCA3 mutations (p.R288K and p.R1474W) identified among term and late-preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome with unclear pathogenicity in a genetically versatile model system. We performed transient transfection of HEK293T cells with wild-type or mutant ABCA3 alleles to assess protein processing with immunoblotting. We used transduction of A549 cells with adenoviral vectors, which concurrently silenced endogenous ABCA3 and expressed either wild-type or mutant ABCA3 alleles (p.R288K and p.R1474W) to assess immunofluorescent localization, ATPase activity, and organelle ultrastructure. Both ABCA3 mutations (p.R288K and p.R1474W) encoded proteins with reduced ATPase activity but with normal intracellular localization and protein processing. Ultrastructural phenotypes of lamellar body-like vesicles in A549 cells transduced with mutant alleles were similar to wild type. Mutant proteins encoded by ABCA3 mutations p.R288K and p.R1474W had reduced ATPase activity, a biologically plausible explanation for disruption of surfactant metabolism by impaired phospholipid transport into the lamellar body. These results also demonstrate the usefulness of a genetically versatile, human model system for functional characterization of ABCA3 mutations with unclear pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Células A549 , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Lactente , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
15.
World J Pediatr ; 12(2): 190-5, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare mutations in surfactant-associated genes contribute to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. The frequency of mutations in these genes in the Chinese population is unknown. METHODS: We obtained blood spots from the Guangxi Neonatal Screening Center in Nanning, China that included Han (n=443) and Zhuang (n=313) ethnic groups. We resequenced all exons of the surfactant proteins-B (SFTPB), -C (SFTPC), and the ATP-binding cassette member A3 (ABCA3) genes and compared the frequencies of 5 common and all rare variants. RESULTS: We found minor differences in the frequencies of the common variants in the Han and Zhuang cohorts. We did not find any rare mutations in SFTPB or SFTPC, but we found three ABCA3 mutations in the Han [minor allele frequency (MAF)=0.003] and 7 in the Zhuang (MAF=0.011) cohorts (P=0.10). The ABCA3 mutations were unique to each cohort; five were novel. The collapsed carrier rate of rare ABCA3 mutations in the Han and Zhuang populations combined was 1.3%, which is significantly lower than that in the United States (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The population-based frequency of mutations in ABCA3 in south China newborns is significantly lower than that in United States. The contribution of these rare ABCA3 mutations to disease burden in the south China population is still unknown.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Mutação , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Proteína C Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Masculino
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(3): 786-91, 2015 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25521940

RESUMO

Frontier molecular orbitals can be visualized and selectively set to achieve blue phosphorescent metal complexes. For this purpose, the HOMOs and LUMOs of tridentate Pt(II) complexes were measured using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The introduction of electron-accepting or -donating moieties enables independent tuning of the frontier orbital energies, and the measured HOMO-LUMO gaps are reproduced by DFT calculations. The energy gaps correlate with the measured and the calculated energies of the emissive triplet states and the experimental luminescence wavelengths. This synergetic interplay between synthesis, microscopy, and spectroscopy enabled the design and realization of a deep-blue triplet emitter. Finding and tuning the electronic "set screws" at molecular level constitutes a useful experimental method towards an in-depth understanding and rational design of optoelectronic materials with tailored excited state energies and defined frontier-orbital properties.

17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 189(12): 1538-43, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871971

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recessive mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) cause lethal neonatal respiratory failure and childhood interstitial lung disease. Most ABCA3 mutations are private. OBJECTIVES: To determine genotype-phenotype correlations for recessive ABCA3 mutations. METHODS: We reviewed all published and unpublished ABCA3 sequence and phenotype data from our prospective genetic studies of symptomatic infants and children at Washington and Johns Hopkins Universities. Mutations were classified based on their predicted disruption of protein function: frameshift and nonsense mutations were classified as "null," whereas missense, predicted splice site mutations, and insertion/deletions were classified as "other." We compared age of presentation and outcomes for the three genotypes: null/null, null/other, and other/other. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified 185 infants and children with homozygous or compound heterozygous ABCA3 mutations and lung disease. All of the null/null infants presented with respiratory failure at birth compared with 75% of infants with null/other or other/other genotypes (P = 0.00011). By 1 year of age, all of the null/null infants had died or undergone lung transplantation compared with 62% of the null/other and other/other children (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Genotype-phenotype correlations exist for homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ABCA3. Frameshift or nonsense ABCA3 mutations are predictive of neonatal presentation and poor outcome, whereas missense, splice site, and insertion/deletions are less reliably associated with age of presentation and prognosis. Counseling and clinical decision making should acknowledge these correlations.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/deficiência , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Mutação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/cirurgia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Nat Photonics ; 8(5): 375-380, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860615

RESUMO

Optical frequency combs have the potential to revolutionize terabit communications1. Generation of Kerr combs in nonlinear microresonators2 represents a particularly promising option3 enabling line spacings of tens of GHz. However, such combs may exhibit strong phase noise4-6, which has made high-speed data transmission impossible up to now. Here we demonstrate that systematic adjustment of pump conditions for low phase noise4,7-9 enables coherent data transmission with advanced modulation formats that pose stringent requirements on the spectral purity of the comb. In a first experiment, we encode a data stream of 392 Gbit/s on a Kerr comb using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM). A second experiment demonstrates feedback-stabilization of the comb and transmission of a 1.44 Tbit/s data stream over up to 300 km. The results show that Kerr combs meet the highly demanding requirements of coherent communications and thus offer an attractive solution towards chip-scale terabit/s transceivers.

19.
J Pediatr ; 164(6): 1316-21.e3, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24657120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether synonymous variants in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A3 transporter (ABCA3) gene increase the risk for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term and late preterm infants of European and African descent. STUDY DESIGN: Using next-generation pooled sequencing of race-stratified DNA samples from infants of European and African descent at ≥34 weeks gestation with and without RDS (n = 503), we scanned all exons of ABCA3, validated each synonymous variant with an independent genotyping platform, and evaluated race-stratified disease risk associated with common synonymous variants and collapsed frequencies of rare synonymous variants. RESULTS: The synonymous ABCA3 variant frequency spectrum differs between infants of European descent and those of African descent. Using in silico prediction programs and statistical strategies, we found no potentially disruptive synonymous ABCA3 variants or evidence of selection pressure. Individual common synonymous variants and collapsed frequencies of rare synonymous variants did not increase disease risk in term and late-preterm infants of European or African descent. CONCLUSION: In contrast to rare, nonsynonymous ABCA3 mutations, synonymous ABCA3 variants do not increase the risk for neonatal RDS among term and late-preterm infants of European or African descent.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etnologia , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 1(1): e000057, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25553246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating a genetic basis for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have focused on resequencing single genes in IPF kindreds or cohorts to determine the genetic contributions to IPF. None has investigated interactions among the candidate genes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequencies and interactions of mutations in six IPF-associated genes in a cohort of 132 individuals with IPF with those of a disease-control cohort of 192 individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the population represented in the Exome Variant Server. METHODS: We resequenced the genes encoding surfactant proteins A2 (SFTPA2), and C (SFTPC), the ATP binding cassette member A3 (ABCA3), telomerase (TERT), thyroid transcription factor (NKX2-1) and mucin 5B (MUC5B) and compared the collapsed frequencies of rare (minor allele frequency <1%), computationally predicted deleterious variants in each cohort. We also genotyped a common MUC5B promoter variant that is over-represented in individuals with IPF. RESULTS: We found 15 mutations in 14 individuals (11%) in the IPF cohort: (SFTPA2 (n=1), SFTPC (n=5), ABCA3 (n=4) and TERT (n=5)). No individual with IPF had two different mutations, but one individual with IPF was homozygous for p.E292V, the most common ABCA3 disease-causing variant. We did not detect an interaction between any of the mutations and the MUC5B promoter variant. CONCLUSIONS: Rare mutations in SFTPA2, SFTPC and TERT are collectively over-represented in individuals with IPF. Genetic analysis and counselling should be considered as part of the IPF evaluation.

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