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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the consumption of ultra-processed foods according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in three birth cohorts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Data from the 2004, 1993 and 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohorts were used at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively, collected between 2012 and 2015. Outcome was the relative contribution of ultra-processed foods from the total daily energy intake. Maternal-independent variables were self-reported skin colour, schooling, age and family income (obtained in the perinatal study), and variables of the cohort member, sex, skin colour, schooling and current family income (the last two obtained at the 11-, 22- and 30-year follow-ups of the respective cohorts). We calculated crude and adjusted means of the outcome for the whole cohorts and according to the independent variables. PARTICIPANTS: 11-, 22- and 30-year-old individuals. RESULTS: Daily energetic contribution from ultra-processed foods was higher in the younger cohort (33·7, 29·8 and 25·1 % at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively). Maternal schooling and family income at birth showed an inverse dose-response relationship at 11 and 22 years, but a positive dose-response at 30 years. Female sex, lower schooling and family income at 22 years and higher schooling at 30 years were associated to a higher contribution from ultra-processed foods in the daily energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Information from food and nutrition policies needs a higher dissemination, mostly among women and population groups of lower income and schooling, including its promotion in media and health services, aiming for a decreased consumption of ultra-processed foods.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 267: 315-324, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We utilised data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort, a large prospective cohort in southern Brazil, to examine the association of moderate and severe antenatal depression with child birth outcomes and explore interactions with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Data was available for n = 3046 participants and their infants. We measured antenatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, ≥13 for moderate and ≥17 for severe depression). Outcome measures included gestational age, birth weight, length and head circumference, using the Intergrowth-21st standards. We controlled for known confounders including obstetric risk. RESULTS: We did not find differences in childbirth outcomes by maternal depression status for participants with at least moderate depression, although there was an increased risk for female offspring to be small for gestational age (SGA, OR 2.33[1.37,3.97]). For severe depression (EPDS≥17) we found an increased risk for lower APGAR scores (OR 1.63[1.02,2.60]) and being SGA (OR 1.77[1.06,2.97], with an increased risk for female offspring in particular to be in lower weight centiles (-10.71 [-16.83,-4.60]), to be SGA (OR 3.74[1.89, 7.44]) and in the lower 10th centile for length (OR 2.19[1.25,3.84]). LIMITATIONS: include the use of a maternal report questionnaire to ascertain depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this recent large longitudinal cohort in Brazil we did not find independent effects of depression on adverse birth outcomes or interactions with sociodemographic characteristics. We found an increased risk of being SGA for female offspring of women with moderate and severe depression, in line with other research suggesting females may be more susceptible to antenatal disturbances. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust, United Kingdom (095582), the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). EN was supported by the UK Economic and Social Research Council GCRF Postdoctoral Fellowship (ES/P009794/1).

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(2): e00154319, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022176

RESUMO

Although depression and anxiety are known to result in disabilities and workplace and health system losses, population-based studies on this problem are rare in Brazil. The current study assessed the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents, youth, and adults and the relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in five birth cohorts (RPS) in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State), Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State), and São Luís (Maranhão State), Brazil. Major depressive episode, suicide risk, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Bootstrap confidence intervals were estimated and prevalence rates were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status in the R program. The study included 12,350 participants from the cohorts. Current major depressive episode was more prevalent in adolescents in São Luís (15.8%; 95%CI: 14.8-16.8) and adults in Ribeirão Preto (12.9%; 95%CI: 12.0-13.9). The highest prevalence rates for suicide risk were in adults in Ribeirão Preto (13.7%; 95%CI: 12.7-14.7), and the highest rates for social phobia and generalized anxiety were in youth in Pelotas, with 7% (95%CI: 6.3-7.7) and 16.5% (95%CI: 15.4-17.5), respectively. The lowest prevalence rates of suicide risk were in youth in Pelotas (8.8%; 95%CI: 8.0-9.6), social phobia in youth in Ribeirão Preto (1.8%; 95%CI: 1.5-2.2), and generalized anxiety in adolescents in São Luís (3.5%; 95%CI: 3.0-4.0). Mental disorders in general were more prevalent in women and in individuals with lower socioeconomic status, independently of the city and age, emphasizing the need for more investment in mental health in Brazil, including gender and socioeconomic determinants.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(3): e352-e361, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for stratification of social indicators by ethnic groups; however, no recent multicountry analyses on ethnicity and child survival have been done in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys collected between 2010 and 2016, from LMICs that provided birth histories and information on ethnicity or a proxy variable. We calculated neonatal (age 0-27 days), post-neonatal (age 28-364 days), child (age 1-4 years), and under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for each ethnic group within each country. We assessed differences in mortality between ethnic groups using a likelihood ratio test, Theil's index, and between-group variance. We used multivariable analyses of U5MR by ethnicity to adjust for household wealth, maternal education, and urban-rural residence. FINDINGS: We included data from 36 LMICs, which included 2 812 381 livebirths among 415 ethnic groups. In 25 countries, significant differences in U5MR by ethnic group were identified (all p<0·05 likelihood ratio test). In these countries, the median mortality ratio between the ethnic groups with the highest and lowest U5MRs was 3·3 (IQR 2·1-5·2; range 1·5-8·5), whereas among the remaining 11 countries, the median U5MR ratio was 1·9 (IQR 1·7-2·5; range 1·4-10·0). Ethnic gaps were wider for child mortality than for neonatal or post-neonatal mortality. In nearly all countries, adjustment for wealth, education, and place of residence did not affect ethnic gaps in mortality, with the exception of Guatemala, India, Laos, and Nigeria. The largest ethnic group did not have the lowest U5MR in any of the countries studied. INTERPRETATION: Significant ethnic disparities in child survival were identified in more than two-thirds of the countries studied. Regular analyses of ethnic disparities are essential for monitoring trends, targeting, and assessing the impact of health interventions. Such analyses will contribute to the effort towards leaving no one behind, which is at the centre of the SDGs. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, Wellcome Trust, Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 786, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964917

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic with no signs of improvement. Prolonged sitting time is an emerging risk factor that exacerbates the health consequences of physical inactivity. Both behaviours are influenced by various individual and environmental factors but it remains unknown whether early-life exposures "program" these behaviours in later life. The current evidence is limited by a small number of studies which were primarily conducted in high-income countries, and a narrow range of early-life variables examined. Using data from three population-based Brazilian birth cohorts (analytical samples: n = 2740 for 1982 cohort, aged 30 years; n = 3592 for 1993 cohort, aged 18; n = 2603 for 2004 cohort, aged 6), we show that being female and higher family socioeconomic status at birth are strong and consistent predictors of lower physical activity and higher sedentary time from childhood to adulthood. Meanwhile, higher birth weight and lower birth order may also predict lower physical activity and higher sedentary time. Our findings are distinct from evidence from high-income countries, suggesting the importance of broader socioeconomic context in determining individual's activity patterns through the life- course. Such evidence is essential for understanding the biological etiology and socioeconomic context of physical activity and sedentary behaviour at an early stage in life.

6.
Sleep Med ; 67: 83-90, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sleep time window (STW), total sleep time (TST), and sleep percent [SP = (TST/STW) × 100] by accelerometry in a population-based young adult cohort in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis with a 22-year sample (N = 2462). Sleep variables were measured using an accelerometer. The devices were worn on the non-dominant wrist for approximately seven days. A raw data analysis using the GGIR package was performed. The following sleep variables were extracted: TST, STW, and SP. Linear regression was used to adjust averages. All analyses were stratified according to sex. A comparison between weekday and weekend averages was also conducted. RESULTS: The means of TST, STW, and SP for men were 5.9 h, 7.1 h, and 83.1%, respectively. For women, the means of TST, STW, and SP were 6.4 h, 7.6 h, and 84.6%, respectively. Women presented a higher means of all outcomes compared to men (p < 0.001). After adjusting for both sexes, white skin color and not working or studying were associated with higher TST. Individuals not working or studying presented higher means of STW and lower sleep SP. Women with children who were less than two years of age presented lower values of three evaluated outcomes. Regarding behavior and health condition variables, obesity was associated with lower STW only for men. Physical activity was associated with higher SP and risk drinking with lower TST and STW only for women. CONCLUSION: Differences between sexes were observed in TST, STW, and SP. In all outcomes women presented a higher means. Socioeconomic variables were associated with both sexes, but having children and behavior/health conditions differed between sexes.

7.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(1S): S9-S16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Body image-related norms can be imposed by parents and can shape adolescents' body satisfaction in consequential ways, yet evidence on long-term effects is scarce. Longitudinal data from a country with strong body image focus provided a unique opportunity to investigate long-term influences of normative parent-related perceptions. METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression was used on data from a 1993 birth cohort in Brazil to investigate the association of normal-body mass index (BMI) adolescents' perception of their parent's opinion of their weight at age 11 years with their weight control attempts at 18 years, testing a mediating role for body dissatisfaction at age 15 years. All models controlled for body dissatisfaction at age 11 years and BMI change between ages 11 and 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1150 boys and 1336 girls were included. Girls were more likely than boys to diet without nutritionist advice to lose weight (51.5% vs. 34.3% among boys) and use medication to gain weight (12.7% vs. 4.2%). Normal-BMI adolescents who reported at age 11 years that their parents thought they were thin had higher odds of feeling thinner than ideal at age 15 years (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.8-3.2; and odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.5-2.7) among boys and girls, respectively). Feeling thinner than ideal at age 15 years was associated among girls with higher odds of weight gain attempts at age 18 years. Similar patterns appeared among girls reporting that their parents thought they were fat at age 11 years, feeling fatter than ideal at age 15 years and having higher odds of weight loss attempts at age 18 years. Body dissatisfaction was a statistically significant mediator among girls but not boys. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term influence of parent-related perceptions via a likely trajectory of body dissatisfaction is evident among girls.

8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between adiposity, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, and to assess the role of inflammation, diet quality and physical activity in this association. METHODS: We used data from 2,977 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) who attended the 18- and 22-year follow-ups. We assessed general obesity using body mass index, fat mass index, and abdominal obesity using waist circumference. Major Depressive Disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were used as a measure of inflammation; diet quality was estimated using the revised diet quality index, and physical activity was assessed by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, min/day). The association between adiposity and major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was assessed using logistic regression, and the natural indirect effect via the mediators was estimated using G-computation. RESULTS: General obesity assessed by body mass index (OR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.13; 4.85), fat mass index (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.37; 4.83), and abdominal obesity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.18; 5.39) were associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, whereas major depressive disorder was only associated with obesity assessed by body mass index (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.09; 3.46). Obesity and generalized anxiety disorder were not associated. C-reactive protein, diet quality and physical activity did not mediate the effect of obesity on major depressive disorder, and C-reactive protein mediated about 25% of the effect of major depressive disorder on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, but not generalized anxiety disorder, is associated with adiposity in both directions, with a stronger evidence for the direction obesity-depression. Inflammation explains part of the effect of major depressive disorder on obesity but not the other way around. Further research should explore other mechanisms that could be involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Exercício/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 131, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and its correlates in one-year-old children. METHODS: The current study includes participants from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. At age one, PA was assessed in a 24-h protocol during 4 days with a wrist-attached accelerometer (ActiGraph, wGT3X-BT), from which two complete days of data were analyzed, with 5-s epochs. RESULTS: A total of 2974 individuals provided valid accelerometry data. Infants able to walk independently spent on average 19 h per day below 50 mg of acceleration (including sleep time), and those who could not walk spent on average 21 h in this intensity category. Girls spent approximately 10 min more than boys below 50 mg daily in both walking status categories, and less activity than boys on higher intensity categories. Boys and infants whose mothers were more physically active during pregnancy presented more acceleration, regardless of walking status. Among infants who could walk by themselves, those with mothers with one to eight schooling years; adequate length-for-age (z-score); not attending daycare; and more physically active fathers also showed higher levels of acceleration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate higher levels of PA among boys and those children with higher maternal PA during pregnancy, regardless of walking status. Also, among infants able to independently walk, 1-8 years of maternal schooling, adequate length-for-age (z-score), no daycare attendance and higher paternal PA are positive correlates of objectively measured PA early in life.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 410, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of healthcare service use during the pregnancy-postpartum cycle often rely on self-reported data. The reliability of self-reported information is often questioned as administrative data or medical records, such as antenatal care cards, are usually preferred. In this study, we measured the agreement of antenatal care indicators from self-reported information and antenatal care cards of pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil. METHODS: In a sample of 3923 mothers, indicator agreement strengths were estimated from Kappa and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficients. Maternal characteristics associated with indicator agreements were assessed with heterogeneity chi-squared tests. RESULTS: The self-reported questionnaire and the antenatal care card showed a moderate to high agreement in 10 of 21 (48%) antenatal care indicators that assessed care service use, clinical examination and diseases during pregnancy. Counseling indicators performed poorly. Self-reported information presented a higher frequency data and a higher sensitivity but slightly lower specificity when compared to the antenatal card. Factors associated with higher agreement between both data sources included lower maternal age, higher level of education, primiparous status, and being a recipient of health care in the public sector. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported questionnaire and antenatal care cards provided substantially different information on indicator performance. Reliance on only one source of data to assess antenatal care quality may be questionable for some indicators. From a public health perspective, it is recommended that antenatal care programs use multiple data sources to estimate quality and effectiveness of health promotion and disease prevention in pregnant women and their offspring.

11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1901-1911, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692595

RESUMO

Background: A seven-item prescreening questionnaire (gender, age, pack-years smoking, dyspnea, sputum, cough, previous spirometry data) was developed for COPD detection in the primary care setting (PUMA Study) of four Latin America countries. Objectives: To validate the PUMA prescreening COPD questionnaire externally in two different populations (primary care and general). Methods: The PUMA prescreening COPD questionnaire score was applied to subjects from the Hospital Maciel, Montevideo (primary care), case-finding program and the PLATINO population (general) using PUMA study inclusion criteria. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 and lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria were used to define COPD. Area under the received operator curve (ROCAUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive and negative values (PNV), number needed to treat (NNT), and best cut-points of the score were calculated. Results: 974 individuals from Hospital Maciel and 2512 from the PLATINO population were eligible, using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70, 45.1% and 18.7% had COPD, respectively, and using LLN 38.4% and 15.4% had COPD, respectively. From Hospital Maciel (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70), the best cut-point of ≥6 had moderate discriminatory power (ROCAUC 0.70), sensitivity 69.9%, specificity 62.1%, PNV 70.9%, and NNT of 3. The discriminatory power was 0.73 (ROCAUC) in the PLATINO population with three potential cut-points (Youden's index): ≥3 (sensitivity 85.4%, specificity 46.9%), ≥4 (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 66.5%), and ≥5 (sensitivity 51.5%, specificity 81.6%); the PNV at each cut-point was 93.3%, 89.9%, and 88.0%, respectively. The NNT was 5 for scores ≥3 and ≥4, and 4 for ≥5. The mean accuracy using the LLN for Hospital Maciel and PLATINO was 0.67 and 0.70, respectively. Conclusion: External validation of the PUMA prescreening questionnaire in two Latin American populations (general and primary care) suggests moderate accuracy, similar to the original study in which the questionnaire was developed.

12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 156, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is a renewed commitment of tackling the varied challenges of undernutrition, particularly stunting (SDG 2.2). Health equity is also a priority in the SDG agenda and there is an urgent need for disaggregated analyses to identify disadvantaged subgroups. We compared time trends in socioeconomic inequalities obtained through stratification by wealth quintiles and deciles for stunting prevalence. METHODS: We used 37 representative Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster surveys from nine Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries conducted between 1996 and 2016. Stunting in children under-5 years was assessed according to the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and stratified by wealth quintiles and deciles. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities were measured through concentration index (CIX) and slope index of inequality (SII). We used variance-weighted least squares regression to estimate annual changes. RESULTS: Eight out of nine countries showed a statistical evidence of reduction in stunting prevalence over time. Differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles in most of countries and at every point in time. However, when using summary measures of inequality, there were no differences in the estimates of SII with the use of deciles and quintiles. In absolute terms, there was a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in Peru, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Belize, Suriname and Colombia. In relative terms, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequalities in Peru, Bolivia, Haiti, Honduras and Guatemala. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries have made substantial progress in terms of reducing stunting,. Nevertheless, renewed actions are needed to improve equity. Particularly in those countries were absolute and relative inequalities did not change over time such Bolivia and Guatemala. Finer breakdowns in wealth distribution are expected to elucidate more differences between subgroups; however, this approach is relevant to cast light on those subgroups that are still lagging behind within populations and inform equity-oriented health programs and practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , América do Sul
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001495, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543985

RESUMO

Introduction: The private sector accounts for an important share of health services available in South Asia. It is not known to what extent socioeconomic and urban-rural inequalities in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions are being affected by the presence of private providers. Methods: Nationally representative surveys carried out from 2009 to 2015 were analysed for seven of the eight countries in South Asia, as data for Sri Lanka were not available. The outcomes studied included antenatal care (four or more visits), institutional delivery, early initiation of breast feeding, postnatal care for babies, and careseeking for diarrhoea and pneumonia. Results were stratified according to quintiles of household wealth and urban-rural residence. Results: At regional level, the public sector played a larger role than the private sector in providing antenatal (24.8% vs 15.6% coverage), delivery (51.9% vs 26.8%) and postnatal care (15.7% vs 8.2%), as well as in the early initiation of breast feeding (26.1% vs 11.1%). The reverse was observed in careseeking for diarrhoea (15.0% and 46.2%) and pneumonia (18.2% and 50.5%). In 28 out of 37 possible analyses of coverage by country, socioeconomic inequalities were significantly wider in the private than in the public sector, and in only four cases the reverse pattern was observed. In 20 of the 37 analyses, the public sector was also more likely to be used by the wealthiest women and children. Conclusion: The private sector plays a substantial role in delivering MNCH interventions in South Asia but is more inequitable than the public sector.

14.
Front Public Health ; 7: 206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417889

RESUMO

Background: Some individuals appear prone to multiple adverse outcomes, including poor health, school dropout, risky behavior and early reproduction. This clustering remains poorly understood. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we hypothesized that maternal investment in early life would predict the developmental trajectory and adult phenotype of female offspring. Specifically, we predicted that daughters receiving low investment would prioritize the life history functions of "reproduction" and "defense" over "growth" and "maintenance," increasing the risk of several adverse outcomes. Methods: We investigated 2,091 mother-daughter dyads from a birth cohort in Pelotas, Brazil. We combined data on maternal height, body mass index, income, and education into a composite index of "maternal capital." Daughter outcomes included reproductive status at 18 years, growth, adult anthropometry, body composition, cardio-metabolic risk, educational attainment, work status, and risky behavior. We tested whether daughters' early reproduction (<18 years) and exposure to low maternal capital were associated with adverse outcomes, and whether this accounted for the clustering of adverse outcomes within individuals. Results: Daughters reproducing early were shorter, more centrally adipose, had less education and demonstrated more risky behavior compared to those not reproducing. Low maternal capital was associated with greater likelihood of the daughter reproducing early, smoking and having committed violent crime. High maternal capital was positively associated with the daughter's birth weight and adult size, and the likelihood of being in school. Associations of maternal capital with cardio-metabolic risk were inconsistent. Daughters reproducing early comprised 14.8% of the population, but accounted for 18% of obesity; 20% of violent crime, low birth weight and short stature; 32% of current smoking; and 52% of school dropout. Exposure to low maternal capital contributed similarly to the clustering of adverse outcomes among daughters. Outcomes were worst among daughters characterized by both low maternal capital and early reproduction. Conclusion: Consistent with life history theory, daughters exposed to low maternal capital demonstrate "future discounting" in behavior and physiology, prioritizing early reproduction over growth, education, and health. Trade-offs associated with low maternal capital and early reproduction contribute to clustering of adverse outcomes. Our approach provides new insight into inter-generational cycles of disadvantage.

15.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 23: 01-26, fev.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025374

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to systematically examine the literature on physical activity and sleep in non-clinical and population-based settings. The inclusion criteria were original studies testing the association between physical activity (as exposure) and sleep (as outcome) in representative samples of the general population, workers, or undergraduate students. Sleep health included sleep duration, sleep quality and insomnia. Studies evaluating samples including only individuals with some dis-ease or a health condition were excluded. A search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, CINAHL, and SPORTdiscus databases in March 2018. Data extraction was performed using the following items: year, author, country, population, age group, sample size, study design, sleep meas-urement/definition, physical activity measurement/definition, adjustment and main results. A total of 57 studies were selected, which markedly used heterogeneous instruments to measure physical activity and sleep. The majority were conducted in high-income countries and with cross-sectional design. Physical activity was associated with lower odds of insomnia (observed in 10 of 17 studies), poor sleep quality (observed in 12 of 19 studies) and long sleep duration (observed in 7 of 11 studies). The results about short sleep or continuous sleep duration remain unclear. Physical activity seems to be associated with sleep quality and insomnia, especially among adult and elderly populations in which these outcomes are more usually measured. The short- and long-term effects of physical activity intensities and dose-response on sleep should be better evaluated


Examinar sistematicamente a literatura sobre atividade física e sono em amostras não clínicas e de base populacional. Foram incluídos artigos originais testando a associação entre atividade física (como exposição) e sono (como desfecho) em amostras representativas da população em geral, de trabalhadores ou de univer-sitários. Os desfechos incluídos foram duração do sono, qualidade do sono e insônia. Estudos que avaliaram amostras que incluíram somente indivíduos com alguma doença ou condição de saúde foram excluídos. A busca foi realizada em março de 2018 nas seguintes bases: PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, CINAHL e SPORTdis-cus. As informações extraídas dos dados foram ano, autor, país, população, faixa etária, tamanho da amostra, delineamento, mensuração e definição das variáveis de desfecho e exposição, variáveis de ajuste e principais resultados. Foram selecionados 57 estudos. A maioria foi conduzida em países de renda alta e com delinea-mento tranversal. Atividade física foi associada a menor odds de insônia (10 de 17 estudos), qualidade ruim do sono (12 de 19 estudos) e longa duração (7 de 11 estudos). Os resultados sobre curta duração ou duração avaliada de forma contínua permanecem inconclusivos. Os estudos selecionados usaram instrumentos hete-rogêneos tanto para atividade física quanto sono. Atividade física parece estar associada com qualidade do sono e insônia especialmente entre adultos e idosos onde estes desfechos foram mais frequentemente avaliados. Os efeitos a curto e longo prazo da atividade física em diferentes intensidades ainda precisam ser melhor explorados em futuros estudos originais


Assuntos
Sono , Epidemiologia , Atividade Motora
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219077, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247010

RESUMO

The objective was to verify the association between body composition from 18 to 22 years and pulmonary function at 22 years of age. This longitudinal analysis was conducted with a Brazilian birth cohort data. The outcomes were the forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity (FVC), measured at 22 years follow-up. Main exposures: obesity (body mass index ≥ 30kg/m2), and highest tertiles of fat mass (FM) and fat mass index (air displacement plethysmography) measured at 18 and 22 years-old follow-ups. The reference category (not exposed) was defined by those individuals who were not classified in the highest adiposity categories mentioned, in both ages. Multivariable linear regressions stratified by sex were used. The sample comprised 3,511 participants. Those who belonged to the highest adiposity categories in 18 and 22 years follow-ups showed lower pulmonary function at 22 years when compared to those who were not classified in the higher adiposity categories in both ages (reference category); those in the highest tertile of FM showed a mean FVC -313mL (95%CI -421; -206) and -259mL (95%CI -336; -182) in men and women, compared to the reference category, respectively. Those who changed from the higher to the lower adiposity categories (from 18 to 22 years) showed pulmonary function similar to the reference, and those who presented the opposite body composition trajectory, showed decreased pulmonary function results at 22 years, mainly among women. We concluded that high body adiposity in two follow-ups and especially contemporary adiposity was associated with lower pulmonary function at 22 years.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pletismografia , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e023852, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body composition in adulthood and explore the causality of this association. DESIGN: Birth cohort. SETTING: Population-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: All newborn infants in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982 and 1993. At a mean age of 30.2 and 22.6 years, the 1982 and 1993 cohorts, respectively, followed the subjects and 7222 subjects were evaluated. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index, android to gynoid fat ratio, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, lean mass index and height. RESULTS: Prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 35.1% and 32.6%, in 1982 and 1993 cohorts, respectively. Offspring of smoking mothers showed higher mean BMI (ß: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.12 kg/m2), fat mass index (ß: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.64 kg/m2), android to gynoid fat ratio (ß: 0.016; 95% CI: 0.010 to 0.023), waist circumference (ß: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.33 cm), waist to height ratio (ß: 0.013; 95% CI: 0.010 to 0.017) and lean mass index (ß: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.42 kg/m2), whereas height was lower (ß: -0.95; -1.26 to -0.65). Weight gain in the first 2 years captured most of the association of maternal smoking with BMI (96.2%), waist circumference (86.1%) and fat mass index (71.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with offspring body composition measures in adulthood.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 253: 303-307, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of maternal depression on child health-care services utilization. METHODOLOGY: Data from The Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort collected at birth and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups were used. Four outcomes occurring in the second year of life were investigated: number of well-baby visits, number of medical appointments, number of visits to emergency rooms, and number of hospitalizations. The main exposure was maternal depression symptoms at 12-month post-partum as assessed by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of mothers with depressive symptoms was 27.6% (95% CI: 26.2-29.0%). These mothers showed a 10% lower probability of taking their children to well-baby visits (0.90; 0.85-0.95; p = 0.001); 16% higher probability to seek medical consultations (1.16; 1.09-1.25, p = 0.001); and they sought emergency services for their children more often (1.30; 1.17-1.45, p < 0.001) as compared to mothers who did not present depressive symptoms. Although the PR for hospitalizations was 26% higher for children from mothers with depressive symptoms, the association did not achieve statistical significance (1.26; 0.98-1.63; p = 0.072). CONCLUSION: Children from mothers with depressive symptoms attend fewer number of preventive consultations. In contrast, they are taken to medical and emergency care more often, suggesting that these children are given healthcare when they are at more advanced stages of their illnesses.

19.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 16: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962811

RESUMO

Background: Differences in total body and regional adiposity according to sex are observed from an early age, but these differences become more evident after puberty due to hormonal changes. We aimed to assess the evolution of total body and regional adiposity from 18 to 22 years of age and the associated sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics. Methods: In total, 3274 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort study followed up at 18 and 22 years of age. Measures of total body and regional adiposity were assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the TC2 Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanner. We used fat mass index obtained from DXA as a measure of total body adiposity, and android and gynoid fat mass percentages (android or gynoid fat mass [kg]/total fat mass [kg])*100) as measures of regional adiposity. In addition, waist, hip and thigh circumferences from the photonic scanner were also used as measures of regional adiposity. We evaluated these measurements at 18 and 22 years of age by sex and estimated differences between them according to sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics. Results: While men and women did not differ in terms of BMI, females exhibited a higher fat mass index, gynoid fat mass percentage, and hip and thigh circumferences; men exhibited higher android fat mass percentage and waist circumference at both time points. Increases in all body measurements from age 18 to 22 were observed in men and women, except for gynoid fat mass percentage, which decreased in both sexes. Socioeconomic position and race were the independent variables most associated with adiposity rising from age 18 to 22 in women, with black women and women of lower socioeconomic positions exhibiting larger increases in adiposity. Conclusion: There was an increase in adiposity and a centralization of body shape from late adolescence to early adulthood, indicating possible early risks for noncommunicable diseases in this cohort.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i16-i25, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil experienced important progress in maternal and child health in recent decades. We aimed at describing secular trends as well as socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in reproductive history indicators (birth spacing, previous adverse perinatal outcome, parity and multiple births) over a 33-year span. METHODS: Four population-based birth cohort studies included all hospital births in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on reproductive history was collected through interviews. Indicators were stratified by family income quintiles and skin colour. Absolute and relative measures of inequality were calculated. RESULTS: From 1982 to 2015, the proportion of primiparae increased from 39.2% to 49.6%, and median birth interval increased by 23.2 months. Poor women were more likely to report short intervals and higher parity, although reductions were observed in all income and ethnic groups. History of previous low birthweight was inversely related to income and increased by 7.7% points (pp) over time-more rapidly in the richest (12.1 pp) than in the poorest quintile (0.4 pp). Multiple births increased from 1.7% to 2.7%, with the highest increase observed among the richest quintile and for white women (220% and 70% increase, respectively). Absolute and relative income and ethnic-related inequalities for short birth intervals increased, whereas inequalities for previous low birthweight decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: In this 33-year period there were increases in birth intervals, multiple births and reports of previous low-birthweight infants. These trends may be explained by increased family planning coverage, assisted reproduction and a rise in preterm births, respectively. Our results show that socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in health are dynamic and vary over time, within the same location.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prole de Múltiplos Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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