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1.
Bone ; 130: 115088, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study examined the association of body size (weight and length) at birth and gain in height and weight during childhood and adolescence with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adulthood for women and men. METHODS: 756 members (335 men and 421 women) of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth cohort were studied. Data on weight and length/height were obtained at birth and subsequent follow-ups at 1, 4, 11, 15, 18, and 22 years of age and specific z scores were calculated by sex. The outcome was whole body aBMD (g/cm²) measured at 22 years of age using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of exposures, weight and length/height gain, were analyzed using conditional relative weight (CWh) and conditional length/height (CH). Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders, including mother's educational level, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, breastfeeding and skin color. RESULTS: In the adjusted models, among men greater height gain at 4, 11, and 18 years of age was associated with higher whole body aBMD, and the result with greatest magnitude was at 11 years of age (ß 0.018 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.006; 0.030). Among women, aBMD was associated with height gain at all assessments from 1-15 years, with greatest effect size at 4 years of age (ß 0.017 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.007; 0.027). Regarding to body weight, among men, greater weight at 4 and 15 years were associated with higher aBMD, with the highest coefficients for 15 years of age (ß 0.015 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.003; 0.027); for women, except at birth, all weight gain variables were associated with aBMD and the highest coefficients were observed at 4 years (ß 0.025 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.015; 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In this birth cohort, height and weight gain, especially from 4 to 15 years have important positive implications for aBMD to early adulthood.

2.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(3): e20190223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze symptoms at different times of day in patients with COPD. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional observational study conducted at eight centers in Brazil. We evaluated morning, daytime, and nighttime symptoms in patients with stable COPD. RESULTS: We included 593 patients under regular treatment, of whom 309 (52.1%) were male and 92 (15.5%) were active smokers. The mean age was 67.7 years, and the mean FEV1 was 49.4% of the predicted value. In comparison with the patients who had mild or moderate symptoms, the 183 (30.8%) with severe symptoms were less physically active (p = 0.002), had greater airflow limitation (p < 0.001), had more outpatient exacerbations (p = 0.002) and more inpatient exacerbations (p = 0.043), as well as scoring worse on specific instruments. The most common morning and nighttime symptoms were dyspnea (in 45.2% and 33.1%, respectively), cough (in 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively), and wheezing (in 24.4% and 27.0%, respectively). The intensity of daytime symptoms correlated strongly with that of morning symptoms (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of nighttime symptoms (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), as well as with the COPD Assessment Test score (r = 0.62; p < 0.001), although it showed only a weak correlation with FEV1 (r = -0.205; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dyspnea was more common in the morning than at night. Having morning or nighttime symptoms was associated with greater daytime symptom severity. Symptom intensity was strongly associated with poor quality of life and with the frequency of exacerbations, although it was weakly associated with airflow limitation.

3.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(1S): S51-S57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brazilian society is characterized by deep socioeconomic inequalities. Using data from a population-based birth cohort, we explored how the intersectionality of family income and gender may affect adolescent health and behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Children born in 1993 in the Brazilian city of Pelotas have been followed up prospectively at the age of 15 years when the follow-up rate was 85.7% of the original cohort. Participants answered standardized questionnaires, and anthropometric measures were obtained. Outcomes in five domains were studied: overweight (body mass index above +1 SD of the World Health Organization standard for age and sex), cigarette smoking (in the previous month), violence (fight in which someone was injured, in the past year), self-reported unhappiness (based on a face scale), and psychological symptoms (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Monthly family income was recoded in quintiles. RESULTS: Results were available for more than 4,101-4,334 adolescents, depending on the outcome. Overweight was more common among boys than girls (29.7% and 25.6%; p = .004) and was directly related to family income among boys (p < .001), but not among girls (p = .681). Smoking was less common among boys than girls (12.3% and 21.0%, p < .001) and showed strong inverse association with income among girls (p < .001), but not among boys (p = .099). Reported violence was twice as common among boys than girls (16.4% vs. 8.0%; p < .001); an inverse association with income was present among girls (p < .001), but not for boys (p = .925). Boys and girls were similarly likely to report being unhappy (18.4% and 20.1%; p = .176), with an inverse association with family income in girls. Psychological symptoms were slightly less common among boys than girls (25.3% and 28.3%; p = .014), with strong inverse associations with income in both sexes (p < .001). Adolescent girls from poor families were the group with the highest prevalence for three of the five outcomes: smoking, unhappiness, and psychological problems. CONCLUSIONS: Gender norms influence adolescent health and behavioral outcomes, but the direction and strength of the associations are modified by socioeconomic position. Preventive strategies must take into account the intersectionality of gender and wealth.

4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(10): e00125518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618383

RESUMO

This article aimed to systematically review the association between socioeconomic status according to the life course models and the body mass index (BMI) in adults. A review was performed following the guidelines of the PRISMA. The studies were identified in the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The eligible articles investigated the association between at least one life course model (risk accumulation, critical period or social mobility) and BMI. In order to assess the quality of the selected articles, the NOS checklist was applied to each study. Eleven articles were selected for the systematic review, and seven articles were selected for the meta-analysis. The average score and the median in the NOS checklist were 6.4, within a maximum possible score of 8 points. The most used model was social mobility. Regarding meta-analysis, there was association between lower life course socioeconomic status and BMI among women. BMI mean difference (MD) was higher among those who remained with low socioeconomic status throughout life when compared with those who maintained a high socioeconomic status (MD: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.48; 2.86). Before that, the BMI MD was higher among those with upward mobility, compared with those who maintained a high socioeconomic status throughout life (MD: 1.20, 95%CI: 0.73; 1.68). The risk of overweight was also higher among women who maintained low socioeconomic status (summary RR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.05; 2.74); however, according to the GRADE, the studies presented very low quality evidence. For men, no association was observed. Having low socioeconomic status sometime during life is associated with higher BMI in adulthood.

5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(8): e00192418, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483002

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of milk consumption, dietary calcium intake and nutrient patterns (bone-friendly and unfriendly patterns) from late adolescence to early adulthood, on bone at 22 years of age. Cross-sectional analysis was performed with 3,109 participants from 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort in the follow-ups of 18 and 22 years of age. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, right femur and whole body were assessed at 22 years using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The exposure variables (dietary calcium, milk and nutrient patterns) were created by combining the consumption frequencies between the two follow-ups (always low, moderate, high, increase or decrease). Multiple linear regressions were performed, stratified by sex. In the right femur site, men classified into the "always high" (mean = 1.148g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.116; 1.181) and "increased" categories of milk consumption (mean = 1.154g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.135; 1.174) presented a slightly low BMD comparing with low (mean = 1.190g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.165; 1.215) and moderate (mean = 1.191g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.171; 1.210) categories. In addition, men always classified in the highest tertile of the "bone-unfriendly" pattern presented the lowest mean of whole body BMD (mean = 1.25g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.243; 1.266). No associations were observed between the categories of dietary calcium intake and "bone-friendly" pattern and each of the three BMD outcomes. These results point to the fact that diets composed of inhibiting foods/nutrients can contribute negatively to bone health.

6.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(3): e20180138, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the evolution of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among schoolchildren in Brazil from 2012 to 2015, as well as to identify factors associated with both conditions. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey for 2012 and 2015. To characterize the evolution of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing, we used linear regression with weighted-least-squares estimation and presented the annual percent change (APC). RESULTS: During the study period, there was a reduction in the prevalence of wheezing, from 23.2% in 2012 to 22.4% in 2015 (APC, -0.27). The prevalence of asthma increased from 12.4% in 2012 to 16.0% in 2015 (APC, 1.20). The increase in the prevalence of asthma was greatest in the southern region of the country (APC, 2.17). Having any history of smoking and having consumed alcohol in the last 30 days were factors that influenced the prevalence of wheezing and the prevalence of a self-reported diagnosis of asthma during the two years evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: There has been an increase in the prevalence of asthma in recent years in Brazil. Our data underscore the importance of improving health strategies and policies aimed at the control of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 322, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the association of body composition components and obesity with bone density. METHODS: Prospective study with data on 2968 members of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort from follow-ups at 18 and 22 years of age. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm2) was evaluated for whole body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck at 22 years using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multiple linear regression, stratified by sex, were used to assess the effect of BMI, fat mass (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI), evaluated at 18 and 22 years, and obesity trajectories classified by FMI and categorized as "never", "only at 18 years", "only at 22 years" or "always" on aBMD. RESULTS: Among men, the largest coefficients were observed for BMI, followed by lean mass and fat mass. Compared to fat mass, lean mass presented the largest coefficients for all sites, with the strongest associations observed for the femoral neck (ß: 0.035 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.031; 0.039 for both follow-ups), while the largest effect for FMI was observed for whole-body aBMD at 18 years (ß: 0.019 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.014; 0.024). Among women, the strongest associations were observed for LMI. The largest coefficients for LMI and FMI were observed for femoral neck at age 18, presented ß: 0.030 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.026, 0.034 for LMI and ß: 0.012 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.009; 0.015) for FMI. Men who were "always obese" according to FMI had smallest aBMD for spine (ß: -0.014; 95%CI: - 0.029; - 0.001). Women who were obese "only at 18 years" had smallest aBMD for the whole-body (ß: -0.013; 95%CI: - 0.023; - 0.002), whereas those who were obese "only at 22 years" had larger whole-body and femoral neck aBMD (ß: 0.013; 95%CI: 0.009; 0.017 and ß: 0.027; 95%CI: 0.016; 0.038, respectively) and those "always obese" for whole-body aBMD (ß: 0.005; 95%CI: 0.001; 0.011) compared to the reference category. CONCLUSIONS: The indexes were positively associated with aBMD in this sample. Fat mass had smaller positive influence on these outcomes than lean mass, suggesting the most important body composition component for bone density is the lean mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 127, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of web-based E-epidemiologic studies using online recruitment methods is increasing. However, the optimal online recruitment method in terms of maximizing recruitment rates is still unknown. Our aim was to compare the recruitment rates of three online recruitment methods and to describe how these rates differ according to individual's socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: A total of 2394 members of the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort that provided an e-mail address, a Facebook name, and a WhatsApp number during a face-to-face follow-up were randomly allocated to be recruited by e-mail, Facebook or WhatsApp (798 individuals per method). This was a parallel randomised trial applying a block randomisation (block size = 3). Between January and February 2018, we sent messages inviting them to register into the web-based coortesnaweb platform. Recruitment rates were calculated for each method, and stratified according to the individual's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We also analysed absolute and relative inequalities on recruitment according to schooling and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Out of the 2394 individuals analysed, 642 registered into the platform. The overall recruitment rate was 26.8%. Recruitment rates for women were almost 10 percentage points higher compared to men. Facebook was the most effective recruitment method, as 30.6% of those invited through the social network were recruited. Recruitment rates of e-mail and WhatsApp were similar (recruitment rate = 24.9%). E-mail and Facebook were the most effective recruitment methods to invite highly educated and wealthier individuals. However, sending e-mails to recruit individuals also reflected in the highest inequalities according to schooling and socioeconomic position. In contrast, the lowest inequalities according to socioeconomic position were observed using Facebook. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook was the most effective online recruitment method, also achieving the most equitable sample in terms of schooling and socioeconomic position. The effectiveness of online recruitment methods depends on the characteristics of the sample. It is important to know the profile of the target sample in order to decide which online recruitment method to use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: RBR-3dv7gc , retrospectively registered in 10 April 2018.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature on the relationship between lifestyle behaviors and inflammatory markers is scarce. METHODS: A birth cohort was followed since birth up to 22 years in Southern Brazil. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin were measured in nonfasting blood samples drawn at 18 and 22 years of age. Exposures including smoking, alcohol intake, physical inactivity and obesity, were collected at 15, 18 and 22 years. Cross sectional analyses were based on the number of follow-up visits with these exposures and the association with IL-6, CRP and adiponectin at 22 years old. We also carried out a longitudinal Generalized Least Squares (GLS) random-effects analysis with outcomes at 18 and at 22 years old. All analyses were adjusted for several covariates. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3,479 cohort members at 22 years. The presence of obesity at ≥ 2 follow-ups showed the highest mean values (SE) for IL-6 [2.45 (1.05)] and CRP [3.74 (1.11)] and the lowest mean value for adiponectin [8.60 (0.37)] (adjusted analyses, females) compared with other exposures; the highest mean of IL-6 [1.65 (1.05)] and CRP [1.78 (1.11)] and the lowest mean of adiponectin [9.98 (0.38)] were for the number of follow-ups with ≥2 exposures compared to those with no exposures at any follow-up (adjusted analyses, females). The longitudinal analysis showed an increase in obesity associated with IL-6 and CRP in both sexes and an inverse association with adiponectin in females; smoking (in males) was associated with IL-6 and CRP, harmful alcohol intake was associated with CRP in males, and increased in physical activity was inversely associated with CRP in men. CONCLUSION: We concluded that obesity is the main exposure positively associated with IL-6 and CRP and inversely associated with adiponectin (mainly in females). Smoking is also associated with these markers in the longitudinal analysis (in males).


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(3): 1223-1232, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892541

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the adequacy of prenatal care in Brazil associated with sociodemographic determinants. The study included a data analysis from the National Health Research performed in Brazil in 2013. Two outcomes on the adequacy of prenatal care were assessed: the Kessner index modified by Takeda index that, in addition to the former, assessed whether blood pressure and weight were measured in all appointments, as well as the performance of blood and urine tests and ultrasound. Both quality indicators were assessed for Brazil and for its macro-regions. According to Outcome 1, 80.6% of women received adequate prenatal care. When adding the performance of tests (Outcome 2), the rate dropped to 71.4%. Adequate prenatal care was more frequent among white women who performed prenatal care in the private health sector. The northern region had the lowest rate of adequate prenatal care, while the southeast region showed the highest rates. Despite the extensive coverage, prenatal care in Brazil still presents inequities and low service quality, especially for women from the poorest regions of the country.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Áreas de Pobreza , Gravidez , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(3): e00086918, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864612

RESUMO

This study aims to describe the prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue and their association with socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey conducted in 2013 with 60,202 adults (≥ 18 years old) were used. The outcomes evaluated were self-reported sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue in the last two weeks. Sleep disturbance was defined as the presence of difficulty to fall asleep, frequently waking up during the night or sleeping more than usual; daytime fatigue was defined as the presence of not feeling rested and motivated during the day, feeling tired and lacking energy. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and chronic health aspects were explored as exposures for both outcomes. Prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue were 14.9% (14.4-15.4) and 11.9% (11.4-12.3), respectively. Both outcomes were more common in women, older people, people with no formal education, smokers and among physically inactive individuals. The association with education was inverse (the highest the level of education the lower the prevalence ratio - PR - of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue; adjusted p-value for trend < 0.001). Prevalence of sleep disturbances combined with daytime fatigue was 6.7% (6.4-7.1) and was about 6 times higher among those with three or more chronic health disturbances (PR = 6.2; 95%CI: 5.3-7.2). Strategies to decrease the prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue should be encouraged and focused on chronically ill individuals that share other modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1223-1232, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989580

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação do cuidado pré-natal no Brasil associado a determinantes sociodemográficos. A pesquisa consistiu em uma análise dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada no Brasil em 2013. Foram avaliados dois desfechos sobre a adequação do pré-natal, o índice de Kessner modificado por Takeda que, além de levar em consideração esse índice, avaliou se houve aferição da pressão arterial e do peso em todas as consultas, realização de algum exame de sangue e urina e ultrassom. Ambos indicadores de qualidade foram avaliados para o Brasil e também pelas macrorregiões do país. De acordo com o desfecho 1, 80,6% das mulheres realizaram o pré-natal adequado. Ao adicionarmos a realização de exames (Desfecho 2) o percentual foi 71,4%. O pré-natal adequado foi mais frequente entre as mulheres de cor branca e que realizaram o pré-natal na rede privada. A região norte apresentou as menores frequências de pré-natal adequado, enquanto a região sudeste as maiores. Apesar da ampla cobertura, o pré-natal no Brasil ainda apresenta iniquidades e baixa qualidade no atendimento, especialmente entre mulheres das regiões mais pobre do país.


Abstract This study aimed to assess the adequacy of prenatal care in Brazil associated with sociodemographic determinants. The study included a data analysis from the National Health Research performed in Brazil in 2013. Two outcomes on the adequacy of prenatal care were assessed: the Kessner index modified by Takeda index that, in addition to the former, assessed whether blood pressure and weight were measured in all appointments, as well as the performance of blood and urine tests and ultrasound. Both quality indicators were assessed for Brazil and for its macro-regions. According to Outcome 1, 80.6% of women received adequate prenatal care. When adding the performance of tests (Outcome 2), the rate dropped to 71.4%. Adequate prenatal care was more frequent among white women who performed prenatal care in the private health sector. The northern region had the lowest rate of adequate prenatal care, while the southeast region showed the highest rates. Despite the extensive coverage, prenatal care in Brazil still presents inequities and low service quality, especially for women from the poorest regions of the country.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e011011, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651035

RESUMO

Background Emotional disorders are risk factors for atherosclerosis and consequent cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether emotional symptoms (ESs) have direct effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of early ESs on carotid atherosclerosis in young adults. Methods and Results We tested the association between expression of ESs at 11 and 15 years of age and carotid intima-media thickness at 18 years of age in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (N=5249, n=4336 with complete mental health data). ES s were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Propensity score weighting procedure was run using generalized boosted regression model to adjust for potential confounding between exposure and outcome. We also tested whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors could mediate this relationship. Adjusted high expression of ESs , both at 11 and 15 years of age, led to mean increases in carotid intima-media thickness of 1.84 and 2.58 µm, respectively, at 18 years of age (both P<0.001). Longitudinal effects of ESs on atherosclerosis were direct and not significantly mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Male sex at age 15 years significantly enhanced the effects of ESs on carotid intima-media thickness at age 18 years ( P<0.001 for interaction): although high expression of ESs led to mean increases of 1.14 µm in females ( P<0.05), it led to mean increases of 5.83 µm in males ( P<0.001). Conclusions In this large birth cohort, expression of ESs in adolescence was longitudinally associated with a higher carotid intima-media thickness in young adults. The association is direct and not mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Interactions by sex might have important implications for designing future interventions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/psicologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/psicologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20180138, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012559

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the evolution of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among schoolchildren in Brazil from 2012 to 2015, as well as to identify factors associated with both conditions. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey for 2012 and 2015. To characterize the evolution of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing, we used linear regression with weighted-least-squares estimation and presented the annual percent change (APC). Results: During the study period, there was a reduction in the prevalence of wheezing, from 23.2% in 2012 to 22.4% in 2015 (APC, −0.27). The prevalence of asthma increased from 12.4% in 2012 to 16.0% in 2015 (APC, 1.20). The increase in the prevalence of asthma was greatest in the southern region of the country (APC, 2.17). Having any history of smoking and having consumed alcohol in the last 30 days were factors that influenced the prevalence of wheezing and the prevalence of a self-reported diagnosis of asthma during the two years evaluated. Conclusions: There has been an increase in the prevalence of asthma in recent years in Brazil. Our data underscore the importance of improving health strategies and policies aimed at the control of asthma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a evolução da prevalência de asma e sibilância em escolares brasileiros nos anos de 2012 e 2015, bem como verificar fatores associados a ambas. Métodos: Estudo transversal utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar nos anos de 2012 e 2015. Para verificar a evolução das prevalências de asma e sibilância foi utilizada a regressão linear ponderada pelos quadrados mínimos da variância e apresentada a variação percentual anual (VPA). Resultados: Foi encontrada uma redução da prevalência de sibilância (de 23,2% em 2012 para 22,4% em 2015; VPA: −0,27). A prevalência de asma aumentou de 12,4% em 2012 para 16,0% em 2015 (VPA: 1,20). O maior aumento na prevalência de asma ocorreu na região Sul do país (VPA: 2,17). Ter fumado alguma vez na vida e ter ingerido álcool nos últimos 30 dias foram fatores que influenciaram tanto na prevalência de sibilância quanto na prevalência de diagnóstico referido de asma nos dois anos da pesquisa. Conclusões: Este estudo evidenciou o aumento na prevalência de asma nos últimos anos. Esses dados ressaltam a importância de melhoria das estratégias e políticas de saúde voltadas para o controle da asma.

15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(3): e00086918, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989521

RESUMO

Abstract: This study aims to describe the prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue and their association with socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey conducted in 2013 with 60,202 adults (≥ 18 years old) were used. The outcomes evaluated were self-reported sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue in the last two weeks. Sleep disturbance was defined as the presence of difficulty to fall asleep, frequently waking up during the night or sleeping more than usual; daytime fatigue was defined as the presence of not feeling rested and motivated during the day, feeling tired and lacking energy. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and chronic health aspects were explored as exposures for both outcomes. Prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue were 14.9% (14.4-15.4) and 11.9% (11.4-12.3), respectively. Both outcomes were more common in women, older people, people with no formal education, smokers and among physically inactive individuals. The association with education was inverse (the highest the level of education the lower the prevalence ratio - PR - of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue; adjusted p-value for trend < 0.001). Prevalence of sleep disturbances combined with daytime fatigue was 6.7% (6.4-7.1) and was about 6 times higher among those with three or more chronic health disturbances (PR = 6.2; 95%CI: 5.3-7.2). Strategies to decrease the prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue should be encouraged and focused on chronically ill individuals that share other modifiable risk factors.


Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a prevalência de distúrbios de sono e fadiga durante o dia e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais. Dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada no Brasil em 2013 com 60.202 adultos (≥ 18 anos) foram usados. Os desfechos avaliados foram relatos de distúrbios de sono e fadiga durante o dia nas últimas duas semanas. Distúrbios do sono foram definidos como a presença de dificuldade em cair no sono, acordar com frequência durante a noite ou dormir mais do que o usual e a fadiga durante o dia foi definida como presença de não se sentir descansado e motivado durante o dia, se sentir cansado e falta de energia. Aspectos sociodemográficos, de estilo de vida e aspectos crônicos de saúde foram explorados como exposições para ambos os desfechos. As prevalências de distúrbios de sono e fadiga durante o dia foram 14,9% (14,4-15,4) e 11,9% (11,4-12,3), respectivamente. Ambos os desfechos foram mais comuns em mulheres, idosos, pessoas sem educação formal, fumantes e pessoas que não praticam atividade física. A associação com educação foi reversa (quanto maior a escolaridade, menor a razão de prevalência - RP - de distúrbios de sono e fadiga durante o dia; valor de p ajustado para tendência < 0,001). A prevalência de distúrbios de sono simultaneamente combinados com fadiga durante o dia foi de 6,7% (6,4-7,1) e foi em torno de seis vezes maior para os que tinham três ou mais distúrbios crônicos de saúde (RP = 6,2; IC95%: 5,3-7,2). Deve-se encorajar estratégias para reduzir a prevalência de distúrbios de sono e fadiga durante o dia direcionadas a indivíduos com doenças crônicas que compartilham outros fatores de risco modificáveis.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la prevalencia de los trastornos de sueño y fatiga diurna, y su relación con factores sociodemográficos y de comportamiento. Se manejaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud que se llevó a cabo en Brazil en 2013 con 60.202 adultos (≥ 18 años de edad). En los resultados evaluados se autoinformaron trastornos del sueño y fatiga diurna al menos durante dos semanas. El trastorno del sueño se definió como presencia o dificultad en quedarse dormido, despertarse frecuentemente durante la noche o dormir más de lo normal y sufrir fatiga diurna, así como la sensación de no haber descansado y estar inactivo de día, sintiéndose cansado y falto de energía. Se investigaron aspectos sociodemográficos, estilo de vida y dolencias crónicas como la exposición a ambos resultados. La prevalencia de trastornos de sueño y fatiga diurna fueron 14,9% (14,4-15,4) y 11,9% (11,4-12,3), respectivamente. Ambos resultados fueron más comunes en mujeres, personas con edad avanzada, sin educación formal, fumadores e individuos físicamente inactivos. La asociación con la educación fue inversa (cuanto más alto era el nivel de educación, más bajo era la PR de trastornos del sueño y fatiga diurna; valor de p ajustado para tendencia < 0,001). La prevalencia de trastornos del sueño, combinada concomitantemente con la fatiga diurna, fue 6,7% (6,4-7,1) y casi 6 veces superior entre quienes sufrían tres o más trastornos crónicos de salud (PR = 6,2; 95%CI: 5,3-7,2). Las estrategias para disminuir la prevalencia de los trastornos del sueño y fatiga diurna deberían estar promovidas y centradas en personas enfermas crónicamente que compartan otros factores de riesgo modificables.

16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(8): e00192418, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019620

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of milk consumption, dietary calcium intake and nutrient patterns (bone-friendly and unfriendly patterns) from late adolescence to early adulthood, on bone at 22 years of age. Cross-sectional analysis was performed with 3,109 participants from 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort in the follow-ups of 18 and 22 years of age. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, right femur and whole body were assessed at 22 years using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The exposure variables (dietary calcium, milk and nutrient patterns) were created by combining the consumption frequencies between the two follow-ups (always low, moderate, high, increase or decrease). Multiple linear regressions were performed, stratified by sex. In the right femur site, men classified into the "always high" (mean = 1.148g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.116; 1.181) and "increased" categories of milk consumption (mean = 1.154g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.135; 1.174) presented a slightly low BMD comparing with low (mean = 1.190g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.165; 1.215) and moderate (mean = 1.191g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.171; 1.210) categories. In addition, men always classified in the highest tertile of the "bone-unfriendly" pattern presented the lowest mean of whole body BMD (mean = 1.25g/cm²; 95%CI: 1.243; 1.266). No associations were observed between the categories of dietary calcium intake and "bone-friendly" pattern and each of the three BMD outcomes. These results point to the fact that diets composed of inhibiting foods/nutrients can contribute negatively to bone health.


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo de leite, a ingestão dietética de cálcio e os padrões de nutrientes (favoráveis e desfavoráveis à saúde óssea) do final da adolescência até o início da idade adulta sobre a massa óssea aos 22 anos de idade. Foram realizadas análises transversais em 3.109 participantes da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, nos acompanhamentos realizados aos 18 e 22 anos de idade. Aos 22 anos, foi avaliada a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) da coluna lombar, do fêmur direito e do corpo inteiro, utilizando absorciometria de raios-x de dupla energia (DXA). As variáveis de exposição (cálcio dietético, leite e padrões de nutrientes) foram criadas pela combinação das frequências de consumo entre os dois acompanhamentos (sempre baixo, moderado, sempre alto, aumentado ou diminuído). Foram realizadas análises de regressão linear múltipla, estratificadas por sexo. No fêmur direito, homens classificados nas categorias de consumo de leite "sempre alto" (média = 1,148g/cm²; IC95%: 1,116; 1,181) e "aumentado" (média = 1,154g/cm²; IC95%: 1,135; 1,174) apresentaram DMO ligeiramente baixa, comparado com as categorias de consumo "sempre baixo" (média = 1,190 g/cm²; IC95%: 1,165; 1,215) e "moderado" (média = 1,191g/cm²; IC95%: 1,171; 1,210). Além disso, os homens sempre classificados no tercil mais alto do padrão "favorável à saúde óssea" apresentaram a média mais baixa de DMO de corpo inteiro (média = 1,254g/cm²; IC95%: 1,243; 1,266). Não foram observadas associações entre as categorias de ingestão de cálcio dietético e do padrão "favorável à saúde óssea" e cada um dos três desfechos de DMO. Os resultados corroboram o fato de que dietas constituídas de alimentos e nutrientes inibidores podem afetar negativamente a saúde óssea.


El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto del consumo de leche, ingesta dietética de calcio y patrones nutricionales (beneficiosos y no beneficiosos para los huesos), desde la adolescencia tardía hasta la etapa adulta temprana, en huesos con 22 años de edad. Se realizó un análisis transversal con 3.109 participantes procedentes de la cohorte de nacimiento de 1993 en Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con seguimientos a los 18 y 22 años de edad. Se evaluó la densidad mineral ósea de la columna lumbar, fémur derecho y todo el cuerpo a los 22 años, utilizando densitometría ósea por absorción de rayos X (DXA). Las variables de exposición (calcio dietético, leche y patrones nutricionales) se crearon mediante la combinación de las frecuencias de consumo entre los dos seguimientos (siempre bajo, moderado, alto, incremento o disminución). Se realizaron regresiones múltiples lineales, estratificadas por sexo. En la zona del fémur derecho, los hombres fueron clasificados en "siempre alto" (media = 1,148g/cm²; IC95%: 1,116; 1,181) e "incrementado" en las categorías de consumo de leche (media = 1,154g/cm²; IC95%: 1,135; 1,174) presentó una ligeramente baja densidad mineral ósea (DMO), comparándolas con las categorías bajas (media = 1,190g/cm²; IC95%: 1,165; 1,215) y moderadas (media = 1,191g/cm²; IC95%: 1,171; 1,210). Asimismo, los hombres siempre fueron clasificados en el tercil más alto del patrón "no beneficioso para los huesos", puesto que presentaron la media más baja de todo el cuerpo de DMO (media = 1,254g/cm²; IC95%: 1,243; 1,266). No se observaron asociaciones entre las categorías de ingesta de calcio dietético y los patrones "beneficiosos para los huesos" en cada uno de los tres resultados de DMO. Estos resultados indican el hecho de que las dietas que inhiben alimentos/nutrientes pueden contribuir negativamente en la salud de los huesos.

17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(10): e00125518, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039395

RESUMO

Abstract: This article aimed to systematically review the association between socioeconomic status according to the life course models and the body mass index (BMI) in adults. A review was performed following the guidelines of the PRISMA. The studies were identified in the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The eligible articles investigated the association between at least one life course model (risk accumulation, critical period or social mobility) and BMI. In order to assess the quality of the selected articles, the NOS checklist was applied to each study. Eleven articles were selected for the systematic review, and seven articles were selected for the meta-analysis. The average score and the median in the NOS checklist were 6.4, within a maximum possible score of 8 points. The most used model was social mobility. Regarding meta-analysis, there was association between lower life course socioeconomic status and BMI among women. BMI mean difference (MD) was higher among those who remained with low socioeconomic status throughout life when compared with those who maintained a high socioeconomic status (MD: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.48; 2.86). Before that, the BMI MD was higher among those with upward mobility, compared with those who maintained a high socioeconomic status throughout life (MD: 1.20, 95%CI: 0.73; 1.68). The risk of overweight was also higher among women who maintained low socioeconomic status (summary RR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.05; 2.74); however, according to the GRADE, the studies presented very low quality evidence. For men, no association was observed. Having low socioeconomic status sometime during life is associated with higher BMI in adulthood.


Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão sistemática da associação entre nível socioeconômico de acordo com os modelos de curso de vida e índice de massa corporal (IMC) em adultos. Foi realizada uma revisão com base nas diretrizes PRISMA. Os estudos foram identificados nas bases de dados MELINE/PubMed, LILACS e Web of Science. Os artigos elegíveis investigaram a associação entre pelo menos um modelo de curso de vida (acúmulo de riscos, período crítico ou mobilidade social) e IMC. Para avaliar a qualidade dos artigos selecionados, a lista de critérios NOS foi aplicada a cada estudo. Foram selecionados 11 artigos para a revisão sistemática e sete artigos para a metanálise. A pontuação média e a mediana na lista NOS foram 6,4, dentro de uma pontuação possível de 8. O modelo mais utilizado foi o da mobilidade social. Na metanálise, entre mulheres, houve associação entre nível socioeconômico ao longo da vida e IMC. A diferença média (DM) no IMC foi maior entre indivíduos que permaneceram com nível socioeconômico baixo ao longo da vida, comparado aos que mantiveram nível socioeconômico alto (DM: 2,17; IC95%: 1,48; 2,86). Antes disso, a DM no IMC foi maior entre indivíduos com mobilidade ascendente, comparado àqueles que mantiveram nível socioeconômico alto ao longo da vida (DM: 1,20; IC95%: 0,73; 1,68). O risco de sobrepeso também foi maior entre mulheres que mantiveram nível socioeconômico baixo (RR sumário: 1,70; IC95%: 1,05; 2,74); porém, de acordo com os critérios GRADE, os estudos apresentaram evidências de qualidade muito baixa. Não foi observada associação em homens. O nível socioeconômico baixo em algum momento da vida está associado ao IMC mais alto na vida adulta.


Resumen: Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática de la asociación entre nivel socioeconómico, de acuerdo con los modelos de curso de vida, y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) en adultos. Se realizó una revisión en base a las directrices PRISMA. Los estudios se identificaron en las bases de datos MELINE/PubMed, LILACS y Web of Science. Los artículos elegibles investigaron la asociación entre por lo menos un modelo de curso de vida (acumulación de riesgos, período crítico o movilidad social) e IMC. Para evaluar la calidad de los artículos seleccionados se aplicó la lista de criterios NOS en cada estudio. Se seleccionaron 11 artículos para la revisión sistemática y siete artículos para el metaanálisis. La puntuación media y la mediana en la lista NOS fueron 6,4, dentro de una puntuación posible de 8. El modelo más utilizado fue el de la movilidad social. En el metaanálisis entre mujeres hubo asociación entre nivel socioeconómico a lo largo de la vida e IMC. La diferencia media (DM) en el IMC fue mayor entre individuos que permanecieron con un nivel socioeconómico bajo a lo largo de la vida, comparado a los que mantuvieron un nivel socioeconómico alto (DM: 2,17; IC95%: 1,48; 2,86). Antes de esto, la DM en el IMC fue mayor entre individuos con movilidad ascendente, comparado con aquellos que mantuvieron un nivel socioeconómico alto a lo largo de la vida (DM: 1,20; IC95%: 0,73; 1,68). El riesgo de sobrepeso también fue mayor entre mujeres que mantuvieron un nivel socioeconómico bajo (RR sumario: 1,70; IC95%: 1,05; 2,74); no obstante, de acuerdo con los criterios GRADE, los estudios presentaron evidencias de calidad muy baja. No se observó asociación en hombres. El nivel socioeconómico bajo en algún momento de la vida está asociado al IMC más alto en la vida adulta.

18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 427, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that cytokines play a role in bone remodeling. METHODS: In 1993, all hospital births occurred in Pelotas (Brazil) were identified and a total of 5249 newborns were included in the present cohort. Sub-samples of this cohort were visited during childhood and all members were traced at 11, 15, 18 and 22 years old. At 18 and 22 years the following biomarkers were measured: IL-6, CRP and adiponectin (the last one in a sub-sample) and bone mineral density (BMD-mg/cm2) was evaluated at 22 years. Crude regression analysis as well as adjusted for confounders (birth weight, pregnancy maternal smoking, gestational age, skin color, schooling, income, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, medical diagnosis of asthma, diabetes and hypertension, BMI, height, calcium intake, corticosteroid use, age at menarche, insulin and testosterone) were performed between the three biomarkers and the whole-body, lumbar spine and femoral BMD. RESULTS: No statistical significant association was found between IL-6 and CRP with BMD, in males. Significant inverse association in the adjusted analysis, among females, was found for the highest tertiles of CRP at 22 y (beta - 15.2 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -25.4; - 4.9; p = 004), of CRP and IL-6 at 22 years (beta - 20.0 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -31.7; - 8.3; p = 0.003), and of IL-6 and CRP at both ages (beta - 20.3 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -38.0; - 2.5; p = 0.001) with total body BMD. Significant association, among males, was also found between the highest tertile of adiponectin at 22 y (beta - 23.3 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -35.5; - 11.1; p = < 001; beta - 22.5 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -42.9; - 2.2; p = 0.03; and beta - 31.8 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -55.5; - 9.1; p = 0.006) and total body, lumbar spine and femur neck BMD, respectively; and, among females, - 17.8 mg/cm2; 95% CI: -34.9; - 0.9; p = 0.033, with lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION: CRP at 22 years, in females, seems to be a marker for total body BMD; adiponectin at 22 years is also a marker for BMD at the three sites, in males, and for lumbar spine BMD, in females.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Adolescente , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Asthma Allergy ; 11: 283-291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555245

RESUMO

Purpose: Asthma is a highly prevalent noncommunicable lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal association of obesity/adiposity with wheezing and atopy. Methods: The population of the study was composed of participants from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. The following outcome variables were measured at 22 years: wheezing in the last 12 months, wheezing with atopy, wheezing without atopy, only atopy, and persistent wheezing at 18 and 22 years. Exposure variables were obesity body mass index, percent fat mass (FM), and fat mass index, which were obtained by precise methods (BOD POD and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]). Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used in the analyses. Results: The prevalence of wheezing (with and without atopy), wheezing without atopy, only atopy, and persistent wheezing were 10.6%, 3.9%, 30.9%, and 4.0%, respectively. To be obese or to belong to the highest tertile of obesity/adiposity at two follow-ups showed a cumulative and positive association with wheezing in the adjusted analysis; for atopy there was no significant association. The odds ratio (OR) for wheezing according to the percentage of total FM measured by DXA in the highest tertile at both follow-ups was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.14-2.20) against an OR of 1.16 (95% CI: 0.92-1.47) for atopy. Persistent wheezing was also associated with adiposity, but without statistical significance. Conclusions: We found a positive longitudinal association between several measures of adiposity and wheezing at 22 years old. The effect was higher for cumulative adiposity; the results for atopy were not consistent.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49164

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To measure the prevalence of various care services offered to the elderly with diabetes mellitus in Brazil, and to assess the social inequalities in these services. Methods. This cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in 2013. The care services offered were evaluated in terms of the following eight indicators: recommendations to lower carbohydrates, to measure blood glucose, and to examine the feet; requests made for blood tests, for glycated hemoglobin tests, and for glycemic curve tests; and whether service users had had their eyes or feet examined in the previous year. We used the slope index of inequality and the concentration index to assess the inequalities among wealth quintiles. Results. A total of 1 685 elderly persons with diabetes were evaluated. Overall, 41.7% of them had had their eyes examined in the preceding year, 35.4% had had their feet examined in the preceding year, and 10.9% had been offered all eight of the care services. The largest absolute differences (in percentage points) between the first (poorest) and fifth (richest) wealth quintiles in terms of the care services that were offered to the users were for: a recommendation to measure blood glucose (25.8), a glycated hemoglobin test request (27.4), a glycemic curve test request (31.9), having the eyes examined in the preceding year (29.3), and having the feet examined in the preceding year (27.0). Conclusion. There were notable inequalities in the prevalences of the care services. In the future, measurement of blood glucose and examination of the feet should be emphasized, especially for elderly persons in a lower socioeconomic level.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Medir la prevalencia de los diversos servicios de atención que se ofrecen a las personas mayores con diabetes mellitus en Brasil y evaluar las desigualdades sociales en dichos servicios. Métodos. Este estudio transversal y basado en la población se llevó a cabo en el 2013. Los servicios de atención que se ofrecen se evaluaron en cuanto a los siguientes ocho indicadores: recomendaciones para reducir los carbohidratos, medir la glucemia y revisarse los pies; solicitudes de análisis de sangre, pruebas de glucohemoglobina y pruebas de la curva de glucemia; y si a los usuarios de los servicios les habían examinado los ojos o los pies en el último año. Usamos el índice de pendiente de la desigualdad y el índice de concentración para evaluar las desigualdades entre los quintiles de riqueza. Resultados. Se evaluó en total a 1.685 personas mayores con diabetes. En términos generales, en el último año les habían examinado los ojos a 41,7% de ellos, en el último año les habían examinado los pies a 35,4% y les habían ofrecido los ocho servicios de atención a 10,9%. Las mayores diferencias absolutas en puntos porcentuales entre el primer quintil de riqueza (los más pobres) y el quinto (los más ricos) en cuanto a los servicios de atención ofrecidos a los usuarios se encontraron en la recomendación de medir la glucemia (25,8), la solicitud de pruebas de glucohemoglobina (27,4), la solicitud de pruebas de curvas de glucemia (31,9), el examen de los ojos en el último año (29,3) y el examen de los pies en el último año (27,0). Conclusiones. Hubo notables desigualdades en la prevalencia de los servicios de atención. En el futuro, debe hacerse énfasis en la medición de la glucemia y el examen de los pies, especialmente en las personas mayores de un nivel socioeconómico bajo.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Medir a prevalência de vários serviços de atenção oferecidos a idosos portadores de diabetes mellitus no Brasil e avaliar desigualdades sociais nestes serviços. Métodos. Estudo transversal, de caráter populacional, realizado em 2013. Os serviços de atenção oferecidos foram avaliados quanto aos oito indicadores a seguir: recomendação de diminuir o consumo de carboidratos, medir a glicemia e examinar os pés; pedido de exames de sangue, hemoglobina glicada e curva glicêmica; e realização de exame dos olhos ou pés nos usuários do serviço durante o ano anterior. Foram utilizados o índice absoluto de desigualdade e o índice de concentração para avaliar as desigualdades entre quintis de renda. Resultados. Foram avaliados 1.685 idosos com diabetes. Destes, 41,7% haviam sido submetidos a exame dos olhos no ano anterior, 35,4% a exame dos pés, e a 10,9% haviam sido oferecidos todos os oito serviços de atenção. As maiores diferenças absolutas (em pontos percentuais) entre o primeiro (mais pobre) e quinto (mais rico) quintis de renda foram constatadas para os seguintes serviços de atenção: recomendação de medir a glicemia (25,8), pedido de exame de hemoglobina glicada (27,4), pedido de exame de curva glicêmica (31,9), exame de olhos no ano anterior (29,3) e exame dos pés no ano anterior (27,0). Conclusão. Foram constatadas desigualdades notáveis na prevalência dos serviços de atenção. Futuramente, deve-se dar ênfase à medição da glicemia e do exame dos pés, principalmente em idosos de nível socioeconômico mais baixo.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
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