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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(26): 7772-7785, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several techniques of nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion have been described in the literature with different success rates. AIM: To systematically search the literature and conduct a meta-analysis comparing the success rates, insertion time and complications associated with different techniques of NGT insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients. METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar databases were performed up to October 31, 2019. We included 17 randomized controlled trials with 2500 participants in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: As compared to the conventional method, successful insertion of the NGT on first attempt was higher with modified techniques such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver [relative risk (RR) 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62-2.31], use of a frozen NGT (RR 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.13), inserting the NGT with neck flexion and lateral neck pressure (RR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.10-2.45), endotracheal tube-assisted (RR 1.88; 95%CI: 1.52-2.32) and video-assisted placements (RR 1.60; 95%CI: 1.31-1.95). All the modified techniques also led to comparatively higher insertion success rates than the conventional technique. CONCLUSION: The use of modified techniques of NGT insertion such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure, frozen NGT, endotracheal tube-guided or video-assisted methods result in a significantly better chance of successful tube insertion at first attempt as compared to the conventional technique. All modified techniques also significantly improve the overall chance of successful NGT placement as compared to the conventional method.

2.
Toxicol Res ; 37(4): 459-472, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631503

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential of Mangifera indica L. seed kernel extract, which is highly discarded by the global food processing industry, as a multifunctional bioactive ingredient for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Different extracting solvents were utilized, the extracts were then tested for their antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assays, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Additionally, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and gallic acid content were elucidated using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assays, as well as high performance liquid chromatography. The hydroethanolic extract (KMHE) exhibited the highest percentage yield, with the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high phenolic content. KMHE consisted of 773.66 ± 9.42 mg GAE/g extract in TPC, 36.20 ± 4.20 mg RU/g extract in TFC. Additionally, gallic acid was shown to be a major constituent of KMHE. KMHE was investigated for anti-tyrosinase, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-MMP-2, and anti-MMP-9 activities. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of KMHE were studied in RAW 264.7 cells induced by nitric oxide and KMHE was shown to prevent DNA damage, indicating an inhibitory effect on cellular aging. KMHE showed outstanding anti-tyrosinase activity and was as potent an anti-hyaluronidase as gallic acid. Additionally, our results reveal notable anti-MMP-2 and anti-MMP-9 effects that were not significantly different from those of gallic acid. Furthermore, KMHE demonstrated 61.54 ± 2.39% nitric oxide inhibition, with no cytotoxic effects, in RAW264.7 cells, and also prevented DNA damage in the human fibroblast BJ cell line with no cytotoxic effects. Therefore, KMHE could be a promising, natural multifunctional bioactive compound for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639588

RESUMO

Exploration of urban spatial connections and network structures of urban agglomeration in the Yangtze River Delta, as well as its influencing factors, is of great significance regarding optimization of the development pattern of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and promotion of regional high-quality development. Therefore, based on Baidu index data in 2015 and 2019, this paper first analyzes the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of information-flow connections in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Then it uses social network analysis to explore the information-flow network structure in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and finally explores the influencing factors of information-flow intensity in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The total amount of information flow in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration has had no obvious change, and the coverage of information flow in the central urban circle has expanded. (2) The network hierarchy presents a relatively stable "pyramid" distribution pattern, which tends to develop into a "spindle" pattern. (3) The overall network density of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is high and is increasing. The backbone network is a "triangle" structure. The central cities in the region are stable, and the subgroups are adjacent to each other geographically. (4) Gross Domestic Product, resident population of the region and the number of Internet broadband subscribers all have important effects on the total information flow, among which the number of Internet broadband subscribers has the greatest effect on the total information flow. In addition, urban functions and their positioning, urban events, history and culture, and other factors that are difficult to quantify also have a certain impact on the information-flow network among cities.

4.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654623

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility and value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) and texture parameters of primary lesions and lymph nodes for predicting pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with cervical cancer confirmed by surgical pathology were analyzed retrospectively and 125 patients were enrolled in primary lesions study, 83 patients and 134 lymph nodes were enrolled in lymph nodes study. Patients and lymph nodes were randomly divided into training group and test group at a ratio of 2: 1. The IVIM-DWI parameters and 3D texture features of primary lesions and lymph nodes of all patients were measured. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm, spearman's correlation analysis, independent two-sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to select texture parameters. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to model and evaluate diagnostic performances. RESULTS: In primary lesions study, model 1 was constructed by combining f value, original_shape_Sphericity and original_firstorder_Mean of primary lesions. In lymph nodes study, model 2 was constructed by combining short diameter, circular enhancement and rough margin of lymph nodes. Model 3 was constructed by combining ADC, f value and original_glszm_Small Area Emphasis of lymph nodes. The areas under curve of model 1, 2 and 3 in training group and test group were 0.882, 0.798, 0.907 and 0.862, 0.771, 0.937 respectively. CONCLUSION: Models based on IVIM-DWI and texture parameters of primary lesions and lymph nodes both performed well in diagnosing pelvic lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer and were superior to morphological features of lymph nodes. Especially, parameters of lymph nodes showed higher diagnostic efficiency and clinical significance.

5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1662-1666, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627458

RESUMO

Allergic transfusion reaction (ATR) caused by plasma transfusion is one of the main adverse transfusion reactions, and severe allergic reactions may even endanger the patient's life. Currently, ATR is mainly prevented and controlled by drug prevention and symptomatic treatment, and there still lack of preventive measures such as in vitro experiments. It has been shown that mast cells and basophils are the main effector cells of allergic reactions, and histamine is one of the main mediators of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Some experiments can be used to identify patients with allergies or plasma components containing allergens, such as detection of serum-specific IgE, IgA, anti-IgA antibody, tryptase and histamine, mast cell degranulation test, basophil activation test, and so on. The basophil activation test can also be used for functional matching of plasma in vitro. Research of in vitro experiment of ATR is good for directing the precise infusion of plasma, reducing waste of resources, and avoiding the risk of blood transfusion. As a pre-transfusion laboratory test for clinical use, in vitro experiment of functional matching provides a new way to prevent ATR.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Reação Transfusional , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Plasma
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641378

RESUMO

Black net shade treatment attenuates flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plants, while the effect of light quality is still unclear. We investigated the flavonoid and transcriptome profiles of tea leaves under different light conditions, using black nets with different shade percentages, blue, yellow and red nets to alter the light intensity and light spectral composition in the fields. Flavonol glycosides are more sensitive to light intensity than catechins, with a reduction percentage of total flavonol glycosides up to 79.6% compared with 38.7% of total catechins under shade treatment. A total of 29,292 unigenes were identified, and the KEGG result indicated that flavonoid biosynthesis was regulated by both light intensity and light spectral composition while phytohormone signal transduction was modulated under blue net shade treatment. PAL, CHS, and F3H were transcriptionally downregulated with light intensity. Co-expression analysis showed the expressions of key transcription factors MYB12, MYB86, C1, MYB4, KTN80.4, and light signal perception and signaling genes (UVR8, HY5) had correlations with the contents of certain flavonoids (p < 0.05). The level of abscisic acid in tea leaves was elevated under shade treatment, with a negative correlation with TFG content (p < 0.05). This work provides a potential route of changing light intensity and spectral composition in the field to alter the compositions of flavor substances in tea leaves and regulate plant growth, which is instructive to the production of summer/autumn tea and matcha.

7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 395, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is a relatively uncommon condition, and vaccine-associated myelitis is even rarer. Concern regarding neurological complications following vaccination escalated following the report of TM during the safety and efficacy trials of the COVID-19 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of Longitudinal Extensive Transverse Myelitis (LETM) in Malaysia following administration of the chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine. A 25-year-old female presented with bilateral lower limb weakness and inability to walk with a sensory level up to T8 with absent visual symptoms. Urgent gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed long segment TM over the thoracic region. Cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies for anti-aquaporin-4 and anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte were negative. A diagnosis of LETM following vaccination was made, and the patient was started on a high dose of intravenous methylprednisolone. The patient eventually made a recovery following treatment. CONCLUSION: LETM is a rare but serious adverse reaction following vaccination. Previously reported cases showed an onset of symptoms between 10 to 14 days post-vaccination, suggesting a delayed immunogenic reaction. However, the incidence of myelitis in COVID-19 is much more common, far greater than the risk associated with vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mielite Transversa , Vacinas , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Mielite Transversa/induzido quimicamente , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20221, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642394

RESUMO

Previous study found that the solvent extraction efficiency of lipid in microalgae could be greatly improved by washing algae cells before the second time extraction. Based on the "organic solvents-water-organic solvents" method, this research further studied the effect of four solvent systems (acetone, chloroform/methanol, chloroform/methanol/water, dichloromethane/methanol), two types of water treatment (vortex and ultrasonic), three water treatment time gradient (0 s, 30 s, 120 s) on the lipid extraction at three different microalgae growth stages (3rd day, 5th day, 9th day). The results show that the combination of water treatment type, treatment time and solvent is very important to the efficiency of lipid extraction. The total lipid extracted was generally increased by 10-30% after water treatment. Especially under the condition of 120 s vortex water treatment with dichloromethane/methanol as extraction solvent, the total lipid extracted increased by 61.14%. In addition, microalgae cells at different culture stages had different sensitivity to water treatment. In this study, under the combination of chloroform/methanol/water as extraction solvent and vortex water treatment for 120 s, the highest lipid yield was obtained on the ninth day of cell culture, which accounts 47.88% of the cell dry weight (478 mg/g cell dry weight). The changes of cell morphology and structure after water treatment were studied by scanning electron microscope, and it was found that water treatment could seriously destroy the cell membrane damaged by solvent, thus promoting the release of lipids. This study further optimizes the "solvent-water-solvent" lipid extraction method, which neither produces impurities nor damages the lipid quality, and can reduce the amount of organic solvent applied in the classical lipid extraction method with the same lipid yield, so it has a broad application prospect.

9.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of critically ill neonates with poor outcomes can optimize therapeutic strategies. We aimed to examine whether machine learning (ML) methods can improve mortality prediction for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients on intubation for respiratory failure. METHODS: A total of 1734 neonates with respiratory failure were randomly divided into training (70%, n = 1214) and test (30%, n = 520) sets. The primary outcome was the probability of NICU mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of several ML algorithms were compared with those of the conventional neonatal illness severity scoring systems including the NTISS and SNAPPE-II. RESULTS: For NICU mortality, the random forest (RF) model showed the highest AUC (0.939 (0.921-0.958)) for the prediction of neonates with respiratory failure, and the bagged classification and regression tree model demonstrated the next best results (0.915 (0.891-0.939)). The AUCs of both models were significantly better than the traditional NTISS (0.836 (0.800-0.871)) and SNAPPE-II scores (0.805 (0.766-0.843)). The superior performances were confirmed by higher accuracy and F1 score and better calibration, and the superior and net benefit was confirmed by decision curve analysis. In addition, Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) values were utilized to explain the RF prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning algorithms increase the accuracy and predictive ability for mortality of neonates with respiratory failure compared with conventional neonatal illness severity scores. The RF model is suitable for clinical use in the NICU, and clinicians can gain insights and have better communication with families in advance.

10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680819

RESUMO

Dissemination of multidrug-resistant, particularly tigecycline-resistant, Acinetobacter baumannii is of critical importance, as tigecycline is considered a last-line antibiotic. Acquisition of tet(X), a tigecycline-inactivating enzyme mostly found in strains of animal origin, imparts tigecycline resistance to A. baumannii. Herein, we investigated the presence of tet(X) variants among 228 tigecycline-non-susceptible A. baumannii isolates from patients at a Taiwanese hospital via polymerase chain reaction using a newly designed universal primer pair. Seven strains (3%) carrying tet(X)-like genes were subjected to whole genome sequencing, revealing high DNA identity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the PFGE profile clustered the seven strains in a clade, which were thus considered outbreak strains. These strains, which were found to co-harbor the chromosome-encoded tet(X6) and the plasmid-encoded blaOXA-72 genes, showed a distinct genotype with an uncommon sequence type (Oxford ST793/Pasteur ST723) and a new capsular type (KL129). In conclusion, we identified an outbreak clone co-carrying tet(X6) and blaOXA-72 among a group of clinical A. baumannii isolates in Taiwan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of tet(X6) in humans and the first report of a tet(X)-like gene in Taiwan. These findings identify the risk for the spread of tet(X6)-carrying tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in human healthcare settings.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572978

RESUMO

In this study, the potential of Carissa carandas Linn. as a natural anti-aging, antioxidant, and skin whitening agent was studied. Various parts of C. carandas, including fruit, leaf, seed, and pulp were sequentially extracted by maceration using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography, Folin-Ciocalteu, and Dowd method were used to investigate their chemical compositions. The inhibitory activities of oxidation process, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), elastase, hyaluronidase, and tyrosinase were analyzed. Cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay in a human epidermal keratinocyte line (HaCaT). The results exhibited that ethyl acetate could extract the most ursolic acid from C. carandas, while ethanol could extract the most phenolics and flavonoids. The leaf extract had the highest content of ursolic acid, phenolics, and flavonoids. The leaf extracted with ethyl acetate (AL) had the highest ursolic acid content (411.8 mg/g extract) and inhibited MMP-1, NF-kappa B, and tyrosinase activity the most. Ursolic acid has been proposed as a key component in these biological activities. Although several C. carandas extracts are beneficial to human skin, AL has been proposed for use in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals due to its superior anti-wrinkle, anti-inflammation, and whitening properties.

12.
J Endourol ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the pre-operative risk factors for post-operative urosepsis following mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) in patients with large kidney stones. Methods:Records of 171 patients with large (≥30mm) kidney stones who underwent mPCNL from December 2013 to October 2019 were reviewed. Demographic data of patients, pre-operative urine analysis, urine culture, routine blood tests and abdominal computerized cosmography data were collected and analyzed. A predictive nomogram model was established based on the results of logistic regression. RESULTS: 29 patients (17%) developed post-operative urosepsis in this study. Univariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative urine leukocytes (P <0.001), urine nitrite (P <0.001), stones in adjacent calices on the coronal plane (P <0.001), the maximum cross-sectional area of stones (P <0.001), the diameter of hydronephrosis (P =0.010) and number of stones (P=0.044) were associated with post-operative urosepsis after mPCNL in patients with large kidney stones. And pre-operative urine leukocytes ≥450/ µl (P=0.002) was the only independent risk factor for post-operative urosepsis in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Based on the results of multivariate regression, a nomogram model was established for the prediction of post-operative urosepsis with ideal discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.867). CONCLUSION: Patients with certain pre-operative characteristics, including higher urine leukocytes, positive urine nitrite, stones in adjacent calices on the coronal plane, larger maximum cross-sectional area of stones, larger diameter of hydronephrosis and larger number of stones, who received mPCNL may have a higher risk of postoperative urosepsis. A predictive model can help urologists identify patients who may develop post-operative urosepsis with high probability.

13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 713227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552535

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and prosocial behavior (PSB) and constructed a model for their interaction by examining the mediating effect of social support (SS) and the moderating effect of self-esteem (SE) in this relationship. A total of 742 college students aged from 18 to 20 in Northeast China (M age =19.42 ± 0.53 years) completed a survey measuring the Emotional Intelligence Scale, Prosocial Tendencies Measurement Scale-Chinese Version, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale. The results showed that: (1) EI positively predicted PSB; (2) SS partially mediated the relationship between EI and PSB; and (3) SE moderated the direct effect of EI on PSB and the relationship between SS and PSB. That is, when the SE of college students was higher, the effect of SS in promoting PSB was enhanced. Therefore, our results suggested that under the influence of both internal and external factors, there is an indirect effect of EI on PSB. This finding may potentially provide a theoretical basis for designing college students' mental health courses and cultivating PSB in college.

17.
Cell Tissue Res ; 386(1): 191-203, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477967

RESUMO

The mechanism of acrosome formation in the crab sperm is a hot topic in crustacean reproduction research. Dynein is a motor protein that performs microtubule-dependent retrograde transport and plays an essential role in spermatogenesis. However, whether cytoplasmic dynein participates in acrosome formation in the crab sperm remains poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain gene (Pt-DIC) from Portunus trituberculatus testis. Pt-DIC is composed of a p150glued-binding domain, a dynein light chain (DLC)-binding domain, and a dynein heavy chain (DHC)-binding domain. The Pt-DIC gene is widely expressed in different tissues, showing the highest expression in the testis, and it is expressed in different stages of spermatid development, indicating important functions in spermatogenesis. We further observed the colocalization of Pt-DIC and Pt-DHC, Pt-DHC and tubulin, and Pt-DHC and GM130, and the results indicated that cytoplasmic dynein may participate in nuclear shaping and acrosome formation via vesicle transport. In addition, we examined the colocalization of Pt-DHC and a mitochondrion (MT) tracker and that of Pt-DHC and prohibitin (PHB). The results indicated that cytoplasmic dynein participated in mitochondrial transport and mitochondrial degradation. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that cytoplasmic dynein participates in acrosome formation, nuclear shaping, and mitochondrial transport during spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus. This study will provide valuable guidance for the artificial fertilization and reproduction of P. trituberculatus.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To test the advantages of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosing lymph nodes and staging nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to investigate its benefits for survival and treatment decisions. METHODS: The performance of PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis was compared based on 460 biopsied lymph nodes. Using the propensity matching method, survival differences of T3N1M0 patients with (n = 1093) and without (n = 1377) PET/CT were compared in diverse manners. A radiologic score model was developed and tested in a subset of T3N1M0 patients. RESULTS: PET/CT performed better than MRI with higher sensitivity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (96.7% vs. 88.5%, p < 0.001; 88.0% vs. 81.1%, p < 0.001; 0.863 vs. 0.796, p < 0.05) in diagnosing lymph nodes. Accordingly, MRI-staged T3N0-3M0 patients showed nondifferent survival rates, as they were the same T3N1M0 if staged by PET/CT. In addition, patients staged by PET/CT and MRI showed higher survival rates than those staged by MRI alone (p < 0.05), regardless of the Epstein-Barr virus DNA load. Interestingly, SUVmax-N, nodal necrosis, and extranodal extension were highly predictive of survival. The radiologic score model based on these factors performed well in risk stratification with a C-index of 0.72. Finally, induction chemotherapy showed an added benefit (p = 0.006) for the high-risk patients selected by the model but not for those without risk stratification (p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: PET/CT showed advantages in staging nasopharyngeal carcinoma due to a more accurate diagnosis of lymph nodes and this contributed to a survival benefit. PET/CT combined with MRI provided prognostic factors that could identify high-risk patients and guide individualized treatment.

19.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480529

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and immune dysregulation, which provide a reasonable basis for immunotherapy in patients. Megakaryocytes are crucial in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most clinically aggressive subtype of MPN. In this study, we aimed to explore PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression in megakaryocytes and its clinical implications in PMF. We analyzed PD-L1 expression on megakaryocytes in PMF patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated the results with clinicopathological features and molecular aberrations. We employed a two-tier grading system considering both the proportion of cells positively stained and the intensity of staining. Among the 85 PMF patients, 41 (48%) showed positive PD-L1 expression on megakaryocytes with the immune-reactive score ranging from 1 to 12. PD-L1 expression correlated closely with higher white blood cell count (p = 0.045), overt myelofibrosis (p = 0.010), JAK2V617F mutation (p = 0.011), and high-molecular risk mutations (p = 0.045), leading to less favorable overall survival in these patients (hazard ratio 0.341, 95% CI 0.135-0.863, p = 0.023). Our study provides unique insights into the interaction between immunologic and molecular phenotypes in PMF patients. Future work to explore the translational potential of PD-L1 in the clinical setting is needed.

20.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 99(5): 527-535, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424795

RESUMO

This study explored the molecular mechanism behind the protective effects from low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on an in-vitro model of spinal cord injury (SCI). For this, PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of LPS and the cell counting kit-8 assay was used to measure the toxicity of LPS to the cells. Next, we used immunofluorescence to measure nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were then treated with IGF-1 (PI3K agonist) and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor). An in-vitro model of SCI was then established via oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. Rates of apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry and the TUNEL assay. Low-dose LPS increased the expression levels of Nrf2, p-PI3K/PI3K, and p-AKT/AKT, and facilitated nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The activation of PI3K-AKT signaling by IGF-1 significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, whereas inhibition of PI3K-AKT signaling significantly decreased the expression of Nrf2. Low-dose LPS reduced the apoptotic ratio of PC12 cells, decreased the expression levels of caspase 3 and caspase 9, and increased the expression levels of HO-1, NQO1, and γ-GCS. Low-dose LPS also reduced the rate of apoptosis and oxidative stress by activating the PI3K-AKT-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Collectively, the results indicate that PI3K-AKT-Nrf2 signaling participates in the protective effects from low-dose LPS in an in-vitro PC12 cell model of SCI.

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