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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 731266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722572

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about the risk of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) among patients with sepsis. We aimed to characterize the incidence and outcome of IHCA among patients with sepsis in a national database. We then determined the major risk factors associated with IHCA among sepsis patients. Methods: We used data from a population-based cohort study based on the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan (NHRID) between 2000 and 2013. We used Martin's implementation that combined the explicit ICD-9 CM codes for sepsis and six major organ dysfunction categories. IHCA among sepsis patients was identified by the presence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures. The survival impact was analyzed with the Cox proportional-hazards model using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). The risk factors were identified by logistic regression models with 10-fold cross-validation, adjusting for competing risks. Results: We identified a total of 20,022 patients with sepsis, among whom 2,168 developed in-hospital cardiac arrest. Sepsis patients with a higher burden of comorbidities and organ dysfunction were more likely to develop in-hospital cardiac arrest. Acute respiratory failure, hematological dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and hepatic dysfunction were associated with increased risk of IHCA. Regarding the source of infection, patients with respiratory tract infections were at the highest risk, whereas patients with urinary tract infections and primary bacteremia were less likely to develop IHCA. The risk of IHCA correlated well with age and revised cardiac risk index (RCRI). The final competing risk model concluded that acute respiratory failure, male gender, and diabetes are the three strongest predictors for IHCA. The effect of IHCA on survival can last 1 year after hospital discharge, with an IPTW-weighted hazard ratio of 5.19 (95% CI: 5.06, 5.35) compared to patients who did not develop IHCA. Conclusion: IHCA in sepsis patients had a negative effect on both short- and long-term survival. The risk of IHCA among hospitalized sepsis patients was strongly correlated with age and cardiac risk index. The three identified risk factors can help clinicians to identify patients at higher risk for IHCA.

3.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266719

RESUMO

In this research, we have constructed and optimized the colloidal gold labeled lateral flow strip (LFS) for rapid detection of antigen of SARS-CoV-2 and rapid screening of COVID-19. Based on the constructed and optimized colloidal gold lateral flow strip, the parameters of the LFS have been well evaluated with the clinical samples in the professional labs. The screening performance have also been evaluated from the aspects including the CT values, age distribution and onset of symptoms. Finally, based on the detection results of 420 clinical samples, the LFS can achieve the screening of COVID-19 with the positive percentage agreement (PPA, sensitivity), negative percent agreement (NPA, specificity), the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.8%, 100%, 100% and 96.6%, respectively, indicating the powerful potential for practical screening applications in pandemic control. Of great significance, this developed SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection method has also been successfully utilized for screening of delta-variant of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266241

RESUMO

There is clinical need for a quantifiable point-of-care (PoC) SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (nAb) test that is adaptable with the pandemics changing landscape. Here, we present a rapid and semi-quantitative nAb test that uses finger stick or venous blood to assess the nAb response of vaccinated population against wild-type, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variant receptor binding domains. It captures a clinically relevant range of nAb levels, and effectively differentiates pre-vaccination, post 1st dose and post 2nd dose vaccination samples within 10 minutes. The data observed against alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants agrees with published results evaluated in established serology tests. Finally, our test revealed a substantial reduction in nAb level for beta, gamma, and delta variants between early BNT162b2 vaccination group (within 3 months) and later vaccination group (post 3 months). This test is highly suited for PoC settings and provides an insightful nAb response in a post-vaccinated population.

5.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100280, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734200

RESUMO

Background: Aortic dissection (AD) represents a significant mortality; however, there is rare epidemiologic information about the demography of AD in Chinese, especially its incidence rate. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was established using the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance claims data covering 346.7 million residents from 23 provinces in China, 2015-2016. AD cases were then linked to database of the Urban Employee Basic Endowment Insurance for death information. Incidence rate was age- and sex-standardized to the 2010 China census population. The associations between AD and related factors were evaluated with Poisson regression models. Moreover, mortality and sex- and age-adjusted survival rate was estimated by Cox models. Findings: 6084 adult AD cases were included in incidence analysis. Totally 4692(77.1%) were men and 5641(92.7%) were Han Chinese. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of AD was 2.78(95%CI:2.59-2.98) per 100,000 person-years. In terms of geographic disparities, the crude incidence rate was significantly higher in Northwest China than South China (4.96[95%CI:4.17-5.75] vs. 2.04[95%CI:0.38-3.71] per 100,000 person-years; risk ratio: 2.67[95%CI: 2.34-3.04]). Moreover, survival analysis of 4518 AD patients with 683 recorded deaths during follow-up (median 2.2 years) showed that overall 3-year survival was 83.7%(95%CI:82.4-84.8). Interpretation: This contemporary population-based cohort study provides a first comprehensive assessment of incidence of AD in urban Chinese adults. The distinct signatures of different incidence with respect to geographic variations may have important implications for clinical management of AD. Funding: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC2003503, 2016YFC0903000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91846112, 81973132, 81961128006).

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 448-454, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether a second ketamine infusion in the first week improves the antidepressant, antisuicidal, and anti-inflammatory effects of the first low-dose ketamine infusion remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 78 patients with medication-resistant depression were allocated to receive two ketamine infusions (n = 30; days 1 and 4), a single ketamine infusion (n = 24; only day 1), or normal saline placebo infusion (n = 24; only day 1). The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS) and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) were administered before and at 40 min, 240 min, day 2, day 4, day 5, and day 7 after infusion. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assessed. RESULTS: Two ketamine infusions improved the overall depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) and melancholic symptoms (p < 0.001) than a single ketamine or placebo infusion. The antisuicidal effect did not differ between the ketamine treatment groups. Two ketamine infusions increased TNF-α levels compared with a single ketamine or placebo infusion (p = 0.015). A single ketamine infusion improved the TNF-α-to-IL-2 ratio, an index of average anti-inflammatory effect, than two ketamine infusions or a single placebo infusion (p = 0.027). DISCUSSION: Repeated low-dose ketamine infusions improved the antidepressant effect, but not the antisuicidal effect, compared with a single infusion. However, repeated ketamine infusions may exert a lesser anti-inflammatory effect than a single infusion.

7.
Parasite ; 28: 77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762043

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living parasites that can cause severe infections such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a topical application for AK treatment. However, PHMB is not entirely effective against all Acanthamoeba strains or isolates. The mechanisms by which Acanthamoeba protects itself against extreme drug conditions without encystation are still unknown. According to a previous study, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450MO) plays an important role in the oxidative biotransformation of numerous drugs related to metabolism. In this study, a CYP450MO fragment was inserted into the pGAPDH-EGFP vector and transfected into Acanthamoeba castellanii. We found that CYP450MO-overexpressing Acanthamoeba had higher survival rates than those of the control cells after PHMB treatment. Moreover, we also found that encystation-related genes such as cellulose synthase I (CSI), encystation-mediating serine proteinase (EMSP), and autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8) expression levels were not significantly different between Acanthamoeba transfected by pGAPDH-EGFP or pGAPDH-EGFP-CYP450MO. We suggest that Acanthamoeba transfected by pGAPDH-EGFP-CYP450MO may not induce encystation-related genes to resist PHMB treatment. In conclusion, these findings indicate that CYP450MO may be an additional target when PHMB is used for treatment of amoebic keratitis.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amebíase , Acanthamoeba castellanii/genética , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Humanos
8.
AIMS Public Health ; 8(4): 682-690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786428

RESUMO

Background: Geriatrics as an educational topic has been a high priority in current health care. The innovative Age-Friendly health system with the 4Ms structure (what Matters most, Medication, Mentation, Mobility) needs to be integrated into oral health and dental services training. The purpose of this study is to respond to one question: are the graduating general dentists trained and prepared to treat medically vulnerable elderly in communities? Methods: All pre-doctorate dental students from first year to fourth year were invited to voluntarily respond to an online survey provided on Qualtrics. The survey provided examples of two broken molar teeth that need extraction. First, students were asked how comfortable they felt extracting the two molars based on the x-rays. Then, the question was repeated to evaluate if they felt comfortable with extracting the teeth in a patient with one chronic condition and related medication(s). Finally, the students were again questioned whether they feel comfortable to provide the same service to medically vulnerable patients with multiple health conditions and polypharmacy. Results: The majority of students who participated in this study said they were comfortable with extracting the teeth of patients without any chronic condition. However, many more chose to refer medically vulnerable patients with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy to a specialist. Conclusions: Dental education in many U.S. dental schools may provide adequate education and create competent general dentists. Yet, the competency and confidence required for dentists to be able to treat older adults with multiple health conditions and using prescribed or over-the-counter medication is insufficient.

9.
Glycobiology ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791227

RESUMO

Enhanced sebocyte proliferation is associated with the pathogenesis of human skin diseases related to sebaceous gland hyperfunction and androgens, which are known to induce sebocyte proliferation, are key mediators of this process. Galectin-12, a member of the ß-galactoside-binding lectin family that is preferentially expressed by adipocytes and functions as an intrinsic negative regulator of lipolysis, has been shown to be expressed by human sebocytes. In this study, we identified galectin-12 as an important intracellular regulator of sebocyte proliferation. Galectin-12 knockdown in the human SZ95 sebocyte line suppressed cell proliferation, and its overexpression promoted cell cycle progression. Inhibition of galectin-12 expression reduced the androgen-induced SZ95 sebocyte proliferation and growth of sebaceous glands in mice, respectively. The mRNA expression of the key cell cycle regulators cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2CDK2 was reduced in galectin-12 knockdown SZ95 sebocytes, suggesting a pathway of galectin-12 regulation of sebocyte proliferation. Further, galectin-12 enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression and transcriptional activity in SZ95 sebocytes, consistent with our previous studies in adipocytes. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, induced CCNA1 levels, suggesting that galectin-12 may upregulate CCNA1 expression via PPARγ. Our findings suggest the possibility of targeting galectin-12 to treat human sebaceous gland hyperfunction and androgen-associated skin diseases.

10.
Phys Rev E ; 104(4-1): 044611, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781493

RESUMO

We establish an explicit data-driven criterion for identifying the solid-liquid transition of two-dimensional self-propelled colloidal particles in the far from equilibrium parameter regime, where the transition points predicted by different conventional empirical criteria for melting and freezing diverge. This is achieved by applying a hybrid machine learning approach that combines unsupervised learning with supervised learning to analyze a huge amount of the system's configurations in the nonequilibrium parameter regime on an equal footing. Furthermore, we establish a generic data-driven evaluation function, according to which the performance of different empirical criteria can be systematically evaluated and improved. In particular, by applying this evaluation function, we identify a new nonequilibrium threshold value for the long-time diffusion coefficient, based on which the predictions of the corresponding empirical criterion are greatly improved in the far from equilibrium parameter regime. These data-driven approaches provide a generic tool for investigating phase transitions in complex systems where conventional empirical ones face difficulties.

11.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adiponectin has an important role in obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between serum adiponectin levels and endothelial function in kidney transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 70 kidney transplant patients. The vascular reactivity index was measured with a digital thermal monitoring test. Serum adiponectin levels were measured with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. A vascular reactivity index <1.0 was defined as poor, 1.0 or greater but less than 2.0 was intermediate, and 2.0 or greater was good. RESULTS: The results showed that 10 kidney transplant patients (13.3%) were categorized with a vascular reactivity index of poor, 25 (35.7%) were intermediate, and 35 (50%) were good. Increased waist circumference (P = .037), increased serum alkaline phosphatase (P = .026), and lower serum adiponectin (P = .001) were associated with poor vascular reactivity index. Advanced age (r = -0.300; P = .012), waist circumference (r = -0.372; P = .002), serum alkaline phosphatase (r = -0.323; P = .006), and logarithmically transformed serum triglycerides (r = -0.317; P = .007) were negatively correlated with the vascular reactivity index, whereas serum adiponectin (r = 0.332; P = .005) was positively correlated with the vascular reactivity index. Multi variable forward stepwise linear regression analysis showed that waist circumference, serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum adiponectin were significantly and independently associated with the vascular reactivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting serum adiponectin levels were positively associated with the vascular reactivity index and negatively associated with endothelial function in kidney transplant patients.

13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 738144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737955

RESUMO

Many studies reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) target autophagy-related genes to affect carcinogenesis, however, autophagy-deficiency-related miRNA dysfunction in cancer development remains poorly explored. During autophagic progression, we identified miR-449a as the most up-regulated miRNA. MiR-449a expression was low in the tumor parts of CRC patient specimens and inversely correlated with tumor stage and metastasis with the AUC (area under the curve) of 0.899 and 0.736 as well as poor overall survival rate, indicating that miR-449a has the potential to be a prognostic biomarker. In the same group of CRC specimens, low autophagic activity (low Beclin 1 expression and high p62 accumulation) was detected, which was significantly associated with miR-449a expression. Mechanistic studies disclosed that autophagy upregulates miR-449a expression through degradation of the coactivator p300 protein which acetylates the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1). Unacetylated FoxO1 translocated to the nucleus and bound to the miR-449a promoter to drive gene expression. Either activation of autophagy by the inducer or overexpression of exogenous miR-449a decreases the expression of target gene LEF-1 and cyclin D1, which lead to decreased proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells. Autophagy-miR-449a-tartet genes mediated suppression of tumor formation was further confirmed in the xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel mechanism wherein autophagy utilizes miR-449a-LEF1-cyclin D1 axis to suppress CRC tumorigenesis. Our findings open a new avenue toward prognosis and treatment of CRC patients by manipulating autophagy-miR-449a axis.

14.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756158

RESUMO

In this paper, a propensity score-integrated power prior approach is developed to augment the control arm of a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with subjects from multiple external data sources such as real-world data (RWD) and historical clinical studies containing subject-level outcomes and covariates. The propensity scores for the subjects in the external data sources versus the subjects in the RCT are first estimated, and then subjects are placed in different strata based on their estimated propensity scores. Within each propensity score stratum, a power prior is formulated with the information contributed by the external data sources, and Bayesian inference on the treatment effect is obtained. The proposed approach is implemented under the two-stage study design framework utilizing the outcome-free principle to ensure the integrity of a study. An illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed approach.

15.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 23: e16, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758892

RESUMO

Cancer remains the leading cause of death worldwide, and metastasis is still the major cause of treatment failure for cancer patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a critical role in the metastasis cascade of epithelium-derived carcinoma. Tumour microenvironment (TME) refers to the local tissue environment in which tumour cells produce and live, including not only tumour cells themselves, but also fibroblasts, immune and inflammatory cells, glial cells and other cells around them, as well as intercellular stroma, micro vessels and infiltrated biomolecules from the nearby areas, which has been proved to widely participate in the occurrence and progress of cancer. Emerging and accumulating studies indicate that, on one hand, mesenchymal cells in TME can establish 'crosstalk' with tumour cells to regulate their EMT programme; on the other, EMT-tumour cells can create a favourable environment for their own growth via educating stromal cells. Recently, our group has conducted a series of studies on the interaction between tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in TME, confirming that the interaction between TAMs and CRC cells mediated by cytokines or exosomes can jointly promote the metastasis of CRC by regulating the EMT process of tumour cells and the M2-type polarisation process of TAMs. Herein, we present an overview to describe the current knowledge about EMT in cancer, summarise the important role of TME in EMT, and provide an update on the mechanisms of TME-induced EMT in CRC, aiming to provide new ideas for understanding and resisting tumour metastasis.

16.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; : e2820, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether a single low-dose ketamine infusion may have rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in patients with treatment-resistant double depression remains unclear. METHODS: This study enrolled 35 patients with treatment-resistant double depression, 12 of whom received 0.5 mg/kg ketamine, 11 received 0.2 mg/kg ketamine, and 12 received normal saline as a placebo. The patients were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) prior to the initiation of infusions, at 40 and 240 min post-infusion, and sequentially on Days 2-7 and on Day 14 after ketamine or placebo infusions. RESULTS: A single 0.5 mg/kg ketamine infusion had rapid antidepressant (p = 0.031, measured by the HDRS) and antisuicidal (p = 0.033, measured by the HDRS item 3 scores) effects in patients with treatment-resistant double depression. However, 0.2 mg/kg ketamine was insufficient to exert rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in this patient population with severe and chronic illness. DISCUSSION: In this patient population, the commonly used dose of 0.5 mg/kg was sufficient. Additional studies are required to investigate whether repeated infusions of low-dose ketamine may also maintain antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in patients with treatment-resistant double depression.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27369, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596151

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation has become a routine operation in many transplantation centers worldwide. However, liver graft availability fails to meet patient demands. Split liver transplantation (SPLT), which divides a deceased donor liver into 2 partial liver grafts, is a promising strategy for increasing graft availability for transplantation and ameliorating organ shortage to a certain degree. However, the transplantation community has not yet reached a consensus on SPLT because of the variable results. Specifically, SPLT for 2 adult recipients using full right/left hemi-liver grafts is clinically more challenging in terms of surgical technique and potential postoperative complications. Therefore, this review summarizes the current status of SPLT, focusing on the transplantation of adult recipients. Furthermore, the initiation of the SPLT program, donor allocation, surgical aspects, recipient outcomes, and obstacles to developing this procedure will be thoroughly discussed. This information might help provide an optimal strategy for implementing SPLT for 2 adult recipients among current transplantation societies. Meanwhile, potential obstacles to SPLT might be overcome in the near future with growing knowledge, experience, and refinement of surgical techniques. Ultimately, the widespread diffusion of SPLT may increase graft availability and mitigate organ donation shortages.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1302, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630657

RESUMO

Although a number of anti-rheumatic drugs and biologics may be used to alleviate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), these compounds have been associated with bone loss and joint destruction; thus, alternative treatment approaches are required. In the present study, various plant extracts were evaluated for their capacity to inhibit joint destruction, and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Panax notoginseng, was identified as such a compound. Therefore, a rabbit antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model was generated by immunization with ovalbumin in Freund's complete adjuvant, followed by treatment with PNS for 3 months. The morphology of the quadriceps femoris muscle, cartilage chondrocytes and skeletal elements was histologically observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as micro-computed tomography. The results revealed that PNS significantly reduced the histopathological alterations associated with arthritic muscular atrophy and inflammation. In addition, TEM demonstrated that PNS protected chondrocytes from RA-associated damage. Furthermore, the bone density and microarchitecture in rabbits treated with PNS were markedly improved compared with those of the model group. Collectively, these data indicated that treatment with PNS may relieve osteoporosis and prevent joint and bone destruction in AIA.

19.
Small ; : e2103600, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643042

RESUMO

Functional nanomaterials such as iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively explored for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases. However, an insufficient understanding of the comprehensive nanomaterial-biological interactions in the brain hinders the nanomaterials from meeting the medical requirements for translational research. Here, FDA-approved ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle, is chosen as the model nanomaterial for a systematic study of the dynamic interactions between ferumoxytol and immune cells, including microglia and macrophages, in the brain tumors. Strikingly, up to 90% of intratumorally injected ferumoxytol nanoparticles are recognized and phagocytized by tumor-associated microglia and macrophages. The dynamic trafficking progress of ferumoxytol in microglia and macrophages, including scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis, lysosomal internalization, and extracellular vesicle-dominated excretion, is further studied. Importantly, the results demonstrate that extracellular vesicle-encapsulated nanoparticles could be gradually eliminated from the brain along with cerebrospinal fluid circulation over 21 days. Moreover, ferumoxytol exhibits no obvious long-term neurological toxicity after its injection. The study suggests that the dynamic biointeractions of nanoparticles with immune cells in the brain exert a key rate-limiting impact on the efficiency of targeting tumor cells and their in vivo fate and thus provide a deeper understanding of the nanomaterials in the brain for clinical applications.

20.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676439

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium bifidum is part of the core microbiota of healthy infant guts where it may form biofilms on epithelial cells, mucosa, and food particles in the gut lumen. Little is known about transcriptional changes in B. bifidum engaged in synergistic multispecies biofilms with ecologically relevant species of the human gut. Recently, we reported prevalence of synergism in mixed-species biofilms formed by the human gut microbiota. This study represents a comparative gene expression analysis of B. bifidum when grown in a single-species biofilm and in two multispecies biofilm consortia with Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides ovatus, and Parabacteroides distasonis in order to identify genes involved in this adaptive process in mixed biofilms and the influence on its metabolic and functional traits. Changes up to 58% and 43% in its genome were found when it grew in three- and four-species biofilm consortia, respectively. Upregulation of genes of B. bifidum involved in carbohydrate metabolism (particularly the galE gene), quorum sensing (luxS and pfs), and amino acid metabolism (especially branched chain amino acids) in both multispecies biofilms, compared to single-species biofilms, suggest that they may be contributing factors for the observed synergistic biofilm production when B. bifidum coexists with other species in a biofilm.

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