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1.
Org Lett ; 24(18): 3358-3362, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503733

RESUMO

We report a safe and convenient open-flask copper-catalyzed selective oxidation/functionalization methodology for tetrahydrocarbolines and tetrahydro-ß-carbolines that employs atmospheric O2 as the terminal oxidant. The system is applicable to oxidative rearrangement of tetrahydro-ß-carbolines, tetrahydrocarboline oxidation to α-alkoxy carbazoles and spirooxindoles, and Witkop oxidation. Mechanistic experiments indicated that a single-electron oxidation process is responsible for the tunable selectivity control. This copper-catalysis protocol represents a significant advance in the field of indole oxidation.

2.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-10, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543186

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT)-assessed body composition is considered a novel prognostic factor for cancer patients. Owing to the need for new prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing radiotherapy, we investigated the impact of body composition on outcomes in this patient population. We retrospectively evaluated 109 HCC patients receiving radiotherapy. The skeletal muscle index, subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI), and visceral adipose tissue index within 1 mo, before radiotherapy were assessed based on a single CT image slice at the level of the third lumbar (L3) vertebra. The impact of body composition parameters on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. Overall, 62 (56.9%) patients died, and 47 (43.1%) patients experienced recurrence during a median follow-up period of 20.5 mo. Multivariate analysis revealed that SATI was an independent prognostic factor for both PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.542, P = 0.025) and OS (HR 0.385, P = 0.005). Patients with high SATI (n = 43) had significantly better PFS (P = 0.0093) and OS (P = 0.032) than those with low SATI (n = 66). CT-assessed SATI is an independent prognostic factor in HCC patients receiving radiotherapy. Further validation is warranted to determine whether this finding can be translated into other study populations.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575206

RESUMO

A stereospecific total synthesis of DL-hexahydroapoerysopine, an intriguing and historically important Apo rearrangement product of the aromatic Erythrina alkaloids bearing the all-cis ring fusion stereochemistry, was achieved via an efficient acid-mediated stereospecific skeletal rearrangement.

4.
JMIR Serious Games ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 has spread worldwide and generated tremendous stress on human beings. Unfortunately, it is often hard for distressed individuals to access mental health services under conditions of restricted movement or even lockdown. In this research, we developed an online coloring game and tested its effectiveness as an accessible and engaging instrument for maintaining subjective well-being (SWB) as well as for reducing anxiety during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The study first aims to develop an online digital intervention package on a commercial released coloring game. The second aim is to test the effectiveness of difference interventions package for players to maintain SWB and reduce anxiety during the pandemic. METHODS: An evidence-based coloring intervention package was developed and uploaded to an online coloring game covering almost 1.5 million players worldwide in January 2021. Global players participated to color either four rounds of images characterized by awe, pink, nature, and blue or four rounds of irrelevant images. Participants' subjective well-being (SWB), anxiety, and perceived effectiveness of the game in reducing anxiety (subjective effectiveness, SE) were assessed one week before the intervention (T1), after completing pictures in each round (T2-T5), and after the intervention (T6). Independent t-tests were used to examine the general intervention effect and the intervention effect of each round. One-way ANOVA was used to examine whether these outcome variables were influenced by the number of rounds completed. RESULTS: In total, 1390 global players responded and completed at least one assessment. Overall, the general intervention group showed a statistical significantly greater increase in SWB than the general control group (N=164, t=3.59, Cohen's d 0.58[95% CI 0.36 to -1.24], P<0.001). Compared to the control group, the best effectiveness of intervention group showed in the Awe round, in which the increasing of SWB is significant (N=171, t=2.51, Cohen's d 0.39[95% CI 0.10 to -0.82], P=0.013), and players who colored all four pictures had nearly significant improvement in SWB (N=171, F(4,170)=2.34, ŋ2=0.053, P=0.058) and a significant decrease in anxiety(N=171, F(4,170)=3·39, ŋ2=0·075, P=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the effectiveness of online psychological interventions, such as coloring game, for mental health in the special period. It shows the feasibility of applying existing commercial games embedded scientific psychological interventions that can fill the gap of mental crises and services for a wider group of people during the pandemic. The result would inspire the innovations of against the psychological problems caused by public emergencies, and encourages more games, especially most popular ones, to take more positive action for the common crisis of mankind.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 155847, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550889

RESUMO

The Bohai Sea, adjacent to the Northwest Pacific, is a semi-enclosed shallow-water marginal sea that was considered on a critical path of eutrophication and environmental degradation. To better understand the Bohai Sea metabolism-induced summertime dissolved oxygen (DO) decline, five field surveys were conducted between July 2019 and July 2021 to investigate the seasonal/interannual and spatial variations in DO, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and stable isotopic composition of DIC (δ13CDIC). Although the water-mixing scheme was subject to spatial variation, a uniform apparent ratio of δ13CDIC versus apparent oxygen utilization was estimated at -0.0122‰ per µmol O2 kg-1 in the Bohai Sea in summer. Based on a three-endmember water-mixing model and the mass balance of DIC and its stable isotopic composition, the assumed uniform δ13C values of oxygen-consuming organic matter in the Bohai Sea DO-deficient areas was estimated to be -19.47 ±â€¯1.85‰ in 2020 and between -20.6‰ and - 18.1‰ in 2021. This isotopic composition is very similar to the δ13C value of organic matter from marine diatoms, but different to that of terrestrial organic matter sources surrounding the Bohai Sea. Our results indicate that nearly all the organic matter consumed by community respiration in the Bohai Sea is produced in situ by marine plankton. To mitigate the seasonal DO shortage in the Bohai Sea, reduction of allochthonous nutrients is crucial.

6.
Trials ; 23(1): 436, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal preoperative preparation for elective colorectal cancer surgery has been debated in academic circles for decades. Previously, several expert teams have conducted studies on whether preoperative mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics can effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative complications, such as surgical site infections and anastomotic leakage. Most of the results of these studies have suggested that preoperative mechanical bowel preparation for elective colon surgery has no significant effect on the occurrence of surgical site infections and anastomotic leakage. METHODS/DESIGN: This study will examine whether oral antibiotic bowel preparation (OABP) influences the incidence of anastomotic leakage after surgery in a prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial that will enrol 1500 patients who require colon surgery. The primary endpoint, incidence of anastomotic leakage, is based on 2.3% in the OABP ± mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) group in the study by Morris et al. Patients will be randomized (1:1) into two groups: the test group will be given antibiotics (both neomycin 1 g and metronidazole 0.9 g) the day before surgery, and the control group will not receive any special intestinal preparation before surgery, including oral antibiotics or mechanical intestinal preparation. All study-related clinical data, such as general patient information, past medical history, laboratory examination, imaging results, and surgery details, will be recorded before surgery and during the time of hospitalization. The occurrence of postoperative fistulas, including anastomotic leakage, will be recorded as the main severe postoperative adverse event and will represent the primary endpoint. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Chinese Ethics Committee of Registering Clinical Trials (ChiECRCT20200173). The results of this study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. Protocol was revised on November 22, 2021, version 4.0. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000035550 . Registered on 13 Aug 2020.

7.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 5027-5042, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607361

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the biological roles of fibronectin 1 (FN1) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and its effects on macrophage M2 polarization. Methods: We analyzed FN1 expression pattern and examined its clinical relevance in HNSCC progression by bioinformatic analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was utilized to silence FN1 in HNSCC cells. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay and wound healing assay were performed to reveal the effect of FN1 on malignant behaviors of HNSCC cells. Moreover, a co-culture model of macrophages and HNSCC cells was established to investigate whether FN1 induce macrophage M2 polarization. Finally, we used bioinformatic methods to explore the possible FN1-related pathways in HNSCC. Results: FN1 is significantly overexpressed in HNSCC patients and has been obviously correlated with higher pathological stage and poor prognosis. Downregulation of FN1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, and inhibited macrophage M2 polarization in vitro. In addition, "PI3K-Akt" and "MAPK" signaling pathways may be involved in the malignant process of FN1 in HNSCC. Conclusion: The overexpression of FN1 promotes HNSCC progression and induces macrophages M2 polarization. FN1 may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in HNSCC.

8.
Nanoscale ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506878

RESUMO

The performance of FAPbI3-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been drastically improved with a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.7%, showing attractive application potential. To achieve higher efficiency and longer-term stability of PSCs, a large number of passivation methods are used to inhibit Pb and I defects of FAPbI3 films. In this study, we developed a facile method to suppress the residual PbI2 of perovskite films and the related defects efficiently by a two-step spin-coating process, which prominently improves the carrier lifetime of α-FAPbI3 films (from 459 ns to 1346 ns). In addition, the morphology and crystallization characteristics of the films were also significantly improved, and the grains grew up to 1 µm. The efficiency of FAPbI3-based PSCs fabricated by this method reached 22.64%.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(40): 6028-6031, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502757

RESUMO

Polyhedral metallocalixarene nanocage clusters based on pure Ti(IV) ions are to our knowledge unknown hitherto. Herein we report the first Ti(IV)-based metallocalixarene nanocage cluster by assembling a [Ti13O14] cage with six t-butylcalix[4]arene molecules. Notably, the cluster exhibits extraordinary stability in high-concentration acid/alkali solutions and can act as a stable photocatalyst to catalyze the oxidation of ammonia to imines.

10.
Genomics ; 114(3): 110379, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526740

RESUMO

Advanced maternal aging has become a worldwide public health issue contributing to female fertility decline. To provide a complete landscape of transcriptome and epigenetic changes during oocyte aging and maturation, we applied a parallel bimodal genomics approach to parallel transcriptome and methylome profiles of mouse oocytes at single-cell and single-base resolution. Age-associated gene expression changes were associated with defective spindle assembly and mitochondrial dysfunction. Parallel sequencing data suggested aged-related defects in mRNA degradation and methylome remodelling during oocyte maturation. Differentially methylated region in aged mature oocyte was associated with trimethylation of Histone H3 at Lysine 4. More importantly, RNA expression-based prediction model for assessing maturation and oocytes age. Taken together, our work provides a better understanding of molecular mechanisms during mouse oocyte aging, points a new direction of oocyte quality assessment and paves the way for developing novel treatments to improve oocyte quality.

11.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500195

RESUMO

Genome mutagenesis drives the evolution of organisms. Here, we developed a CRISPR-Cas assisted random mutation (CARM) technique for whole-genome mutagenesis. The method leverages an entirely random gRNA library and SpCas9-NG to randomly damage genomes in a controllable shotgunlike manner that then triggers diverse and abundant mutations via low-fidelity repair. As a proof of principle, CARM was applied to evolve the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 to produce ß-carotene. After seven rounds of iterative evolution over two months, a ß-carotene hyperproducing strain, C7-143, was isolated with a 10.5-fold increase in ß-carotene production and 857 diverse genomic mutations that comprised indels, duplications, inversions, and chromosomal rearrangements. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of 2541 genes of strain C7-143 was significantly altered, suggesting that the metabolic landscape of the strain was deeply reconstructed. In addition, CARM was applied to evolve industrially relevant S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1C for S-adenosyl-L-methionine production, which was increased 2.28 times after just one round. Thus, CARM can contribute to increasing genetic diversity to identify new phenotypes that could further be investigated by reverse engineering.

12.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 7(4): 348-362, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35540099

RESUMO

Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase 1 (ECHS1) deficiency plays a role in cardiomyopathy. Whether ECHS1 deficiency causes or is only associated with cardiomyopathy remains unclear. By using Echs1 heterogeneous knockout (Echs1 +/-) mice, we found that ECHS1 deficiency caused cardiac dysfunction, as evidenced by diffuse myocardial fibrosis and upregulated fibrosis-related genes. Mechanistically, ECHS1 interacts with the p300 nuclear localization sequence, preventing its nuclear translocation in fibroblasts. ECHS1 deficiency promotes p300 nuclear translocation, leading to increased H3K9 acetylation, a known risk factor for cardiomyopathy. Nicotinamide mononucleotide-mediated acetylation targeting suppressed ECHS1 deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy phenotypes in Echs1 +/- mice. Thus, enhancing p300-mediated H3K9ac is a potential interventional approach for preventing ECHS1 deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 874915, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518933

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the diverse cell populations of human corpus cavernosum in patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED) at the single-cell level. Methods: Penile tissues collected from three patients were subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing using the BD Rhapsody™ platform. Common bioinformatics tools were used to analyze cellular heterogeneity and gene expression profiles from generated raw data, including the packages Seurat, Monocle, and CellPhoneDB. Results: Disease-related heterogeneity of cell types was determined in the cavernous tissue such as endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. Reclustering analysis of ECs identified an arteriole ECs subcluster and another one with gene signatures of fibroblasts. The proportion of fibroblasts was higher than the other cell populations and had the most significant cellular heterogeneity, in which a distinct subcluster co-expressed endothelial markers. The transition trajectory of differentiation from smooth muscle cells into fibroblasts was depicted using the pseudotime analysis, suggesting that the expansion of corpus cavernosum is possibly compromised as a result of fibrosis. Cell-cell communications among ECs, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages were robust, which indicated that inflammation may also have a crucial role in the development of ED. Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated a comprehensive single-cell atlas of cellular components in human corpus cavernosum of ED, providing in-depth insights into the pathogenesis. Future research is warranted to explore disease-specific alterations for individualized treatment of ED.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Células Endoteliais , Disfunção Erétil/genética , Disfunção Erétil/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Pênis/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Asian J Androl ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532557

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the age-stratified normal levels and age-related changes in the risk predictors of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. A total of 4706 male participants aged 40 years or older in Zhengzhou (China) were enrolled. The values of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume (PV), and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) significantly increased with age. Nonlinear relationships between age and IPSS scores ≥8 (P for nonlinearity = 0.046), PSA level ≥1.6 ng ml-1, PV ≥31 ml, or PVR ≥39 ml (all P for nonlinearity <0.001) were observed. After the age of 61 years, the risk indicators related to BPH progression were positively correlated with age (odds ratio [OR] >1), regardless of the predictors of the IPSS score, PSA level, PV, or PVR; and the OR values increased gradually. Therefore, after the age of 61 years, the risk predictors related to BPH progression were positively correlated with age.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523088

RESUMO

Hole transport layer (HTL) plays a critical role in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We focus on the improvement of PSCs performance with MoS2 nanosheets as the anode buffer layer in the inverted photovoltaic structure. PSC with single MoS2 buffer layer shows poor performance in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the long-term stability. By combination of MoS2and Poly[bis(4-phenyl) (2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) amine] (PTAA) as double-layer HTL, the PCE is improved to 18.47%, while the control device with PTAA alone shows a PCE of 14.48%. The same phenomenon is also found in 2D PSCs. For double-layer HTL devices, the PCE reaches 13.19%, and the corresponding PCE of the control group using PTAA alone is 10.13%. This significant improvement is attributed to the reduced interface resistance and improved hole extraction ability as shown by the electric impedance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the improved device exhibits better stability because the PCE still maintains 66% of the initial value after 500 hours of storage, which is higher than the 47% of the remaining PCE from device based on single PTAA or MoS2. Our results demonstrate the potential of polymer/inorganic nanomaterial as a double-layer buffer material for PSCs.

16.
Phytochemistry ; 200: 113186, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500784

RESUMO

Eleven undescribed limonoids, cipacinerasins A-K, involving of four diverse carbon skeletal types, along with fifteen known analogues, were isolated from the branches and leaves of Cipadessa baccifera. Within them, cipacinerasins A and B feature a rearranged tetrahydropyranyl ring B formed between C-8 and C-30, are unusual miscellaneous-type limonoids. Cipacinerasins E and F are rare trijugin-type limonoids, of which the D-ring δ-lactone is cleaved. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, NMR, UV and IR), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines (K562, HeLa, PC3, LN-Cap and Hell), and cipacinerasin E showed moderate antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 8.0 to 24.8 µM.

17.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105537, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504219

RESUMO

Recently a novel coactivator, Leupaxin (LPXN), has been reported to interact with Androgen receptor (AR) and play a significant role in the invasion and progression of prostate cancer. The interaction between AR and LPXN occurs in a ligand-dependent manner and has been reported that the LIM domain in the Leupaxin interacts with the LDB (ligand-binding domain) domain AR. However, no detailed study is available on how the LPXN interacts with AR and increases the (prostate cancer) PCa progression. Considering the importance of the novel co-activator, LPXN, the current study also uses state-of-the-art methods to provide atomic-level insights into the binding of AR and LPXN and the impact of the most frequent clinical mutations H874Y, T877A, and T877S on the binding and function of LPXN. Protein coupling analysis revealed that the three mutants favour the robust binding of LPXN than the wild type by altering the hydrogen bonding network. Further understanding of the binding variations was explored through dissociation constant prediction which demonstrated similar reports as the docking results. A molecular simulation approaches further revealed the dynamic features which reported variations in the dynamics stability, protein packing, hydrogen bonding network, and residues flexibility index. Furthermore, we also assessed the protein motion and free energy landscape which also demonstrated variations in the internal dynamics. The binding free energy calculation revealed -32.95 ± 0.17 kcal/mol for the wild type, for H874Y the total binding energy (BFE) was -36.69 ± 0.11 kcal/mol, for T877A the BFE was calculated to be -38.78 ± 0.17 kcal/mol while for T877S the BFE -41.16 ± 0.12 kcal/mol. This shows that the binding of LPXN is increased by these mutations which consequently increase the PCa invasion and motility. In conclusion, the current study helps in understanding the protein networks and particular the coupling of AR-LPXN in prostate cancer and is of great interest in deciphering the molecular mechanism of disease and therapeutics developments.

18.
Opt Lett ; 47(10): 2446-2449, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561372

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for molecular label-free fingerprinting, but it faces a formidable hurdle in enhancing the broadband spectral signals in trace-amount analysis. In this paper, we propose a sensing method based on the geometry scanning of metal metasurfaces with spoof surface polarization sharp resonances by numerical simulation. This scheme shows a significant absorption enhancement factor of about 200 times in an ultra-wide terahertz band to enable the explicit identification of various analytes, such as a trace-amount thin lactose film samples. The proposed method provides a new, to the best of our knowledge, choice for the enhancement of wide terahertz absorption spectra, and paves the way for the detection of trace-amount chemical, organic, or biomedical materials in the terahertz regime.

19.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105574, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533461

RESUMO

With the emergence of Delta and Omicron variants, many other important variants of SARS-CoV-2, which cause Coronavirus disease-2019, including A.30, are reported to increase the concern created by the global pandemic. The A.30 variant, reported in Tanzania and other countries, harbors spike gene mutations that help this strain to bind more robustly and to escape neutralizing antibodies. The present study uses molecular modelling and simulation-based approaches to investigate the key features of this strain that result in greater infectivity. The protein-protein docking results for the spike protein demonstrated that additional interactions, particularly two salt-bridges formed by the mutated residue Lys484, increase binding affinity, while the loss of key residues at the N terminal domain (NTD) result in a change to binding conformation with monoclonal antibodies, thus escaping their neutralizing effects. Moreover, we deeply studied the atomic features of these binding complexes through molecular simulation, which revealed differential dynamics when compared to wild type. Analysis of the binding free energy using MM/GBSA revealed that the total binding free energy (TBE) for the wild type receptor-binding domain (RBD) complex was -58.25 kcal/mol in contrast to the A.30 RBD complex, which reported -65.59 kcal/mol. The higher TBE for the A.30 RBD complex signifies a more robust interaction between A.30 variant RBD with ACE2 than the wild type, allowing the variant to bind and spread more promptly. The BFE for the wild type NTD complex was calculated to be -65.76 kcal/mol, while the A.30 NTD complex was estimated to be -49.35 kcal/mol. This shows the impact of the reported substitutions and deletions in the NTD of A.30 variant, which consequently reduce the binding of mAb, allowing it to evade the immune response of the host. The reported results will aid the development of cross-protective drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

20.
Fitoterapia ; 160: 105217, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561838

RESUMO

Two pairs of new enantiomeric flavonolignans, ±stachyols A and B (±1 and ± 2), along with two novel isoflavanelignans, stachyols C and D (3 and 4) were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes. Their chemical structures and absolute configurations were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance and comparison of experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, as well as quantum chemical calculations. Of those compounds, 1 and 2 represented the first examples of flavonolignans with 5-deoxyflavonoids adduct phenylpropanoids. Moreover, 3 and 4 possess an unprecedented skeleton with isoflavanes adduct phenylpropanoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated for all compounds in terms of ABTS+ and DPPH bioassays. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited significant radical-scavenging activity in the ABTS+ assay, with IC50 values of 15.15 and 5.83 µM, respectively.

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