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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183249

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce a mechanistic model through which exercise may enhance episodic memory, specifically via attenuating proactive and retroactive memory interference. We discuss the various types of memory, different stages of memory function, review the mechanisms behind forgetting, and the mechanistic role of exercise in facilitating pattern separation (to attenuate memory interference).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of long-term Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on practitioners' brain functional specialization compare with the TCC novices. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A psychology Institute. PARTICIPANTS: TCC practitioners (N=22) (52.4±6.8y; 7 men; educated years: 12.18±3.03y) and 18 healthy adults (54.8±6.8y; 8 men; education years: 11.78±2.90y) matched by age, sex, and education were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive test to measure the differences in functional specialization and cognitive function. Functional specialization was evaluated by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method. RESULTS: Lower middle frontal gyrus VMHC in TCC practitioners compared to controls. For TCC practitioners, the longer they practice, the lower their VMHC in precentral and precuneus. TCC practitioners showed better cognition performance. CONCLUSIONS: Changed VMHC indicated that TCC practice could enhance functional specialization in the middle frontal cortex of practitioners, which may be associated with higher-order cognitive ability.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551753

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated whether acute exercise duration affects inhibition in late middle-aged adults. Methods: Over four separate days, 40 late middle-aged adults completed, in a counterbalanced order, three exercise sessions consisting of single bouts of moderate-to-vigorous intensity cycling, with the main acute exercise durations being 10, 20, and 45 min, and a control session consisting of 30 min of reading. Their inhibition performance was then evaluated by administration of the Stroop test following each session. Results: The participants had shorter mean response times for both the congruent and neutral conditions of the Stroop following the acute exercise lasting 20 min than they did after the control session. The acute exercise lasting 20 min also resulted in shorter response times for both conditions of the Stroop than the acute exercise lasting only 10 min. Meanwhile, the acute exercise lasting 45 min resulted in a shorter mean response time for the neutral Stroop condition than did the control session. Finally, the acute exercise lasting 20 min resulted in the shortest mean response time of all four sessions for the Stroop incongruent condition. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the moderate-to-vigorous intensity acute exercise lasting 20 min facilitated multiple cognitive function domains in general, whereas the exercise sessions of shorter and longer duration had negligible effects on executive function in the late middle-aged adults. These results highlight the need to consider the duration of any moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise when developing acute exercise programs to facilitate executive function in aged populations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438638

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a typical mind-body practice has been investigated for its preventive role on negative emotions and has demonstrated its efficacy in healthy populations. However, the results are not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis and systematically evaluated the effect of TCC on selected negative emotions (i.e., anxiety and depression). Fourteen experimental studies from three English-and two Chinese-language databases were evaluated. The results showed that the positive effects of TCC on negative emotions were moderately to largely significant. In addition, although TCC significantly improved negative emotions in both the young adults and the older adults, old adults benefited more from TCC than young adults. These findings suggest that TCC is a worthy complementary non-pharmacological resource towards depression and anxiety and, thus, has great implications for the public health domain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Tai Ji , Humanos
5.
Front Physiol ; 10: 902, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354533

RESUMO

Cognitive gains are reported to be induced by acute aerobic exercise, but the role of fitness in the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of fitness on acute exercise-induced changes in executive function from neural mechanism approach. Twenty-four female college students were assigned to high-fitness or low-fitness groups based on their cardiovascular fitness level, and then underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing N-back tasks before and after 30 min of acute exercise. The behavioral results revealed significant interaction effects of group by time in the 0-back and 1-back tasks, but not in the 2-back task. The accuracy was significantly higher in the high-fitness group than in the low-fitness group before exercise in the 1-back and 2-back tasks. At the neural level, significant interaction effects of group by time were observed in all tasks. The 0-back and 1-back tasks activated the right cerebellum while the 2-back task activated subcortical regions. Our findings suggest that fitness moderates the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function, and provide the first neural evidence to support the influence of fitness on exercise-induced cognitive performance.

6.
J Clin Med ; 7(11)2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) as an accurate, noninvasive measure of the Autonomous Nervous System (ANS) can reflect mental health (e.g., stress, depression, or anxiety). Tai Chi and Yoga (Tai Chi/Yoga), as the most widely practiced mind⁻body exercises, have shown positive outcomes of mental health. To date, no systematic review regarding the long-lasting effects of Tai Chi/Yoga on HRV parameters and perceived stress has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the existing literature on this topic. METHODS: Five electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, SportDiscus and Cochrane Library) were searched from the start of the research project to July 2018. Study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were independently carried out by two reviewers. The potentially identified randomized controlled trials (RCT) reported the useful quantitative data that were included only for meta-analysis. RESULTS: meta-analysis of 17 medium-to-high quality RCTs showed significantly beneficial effects on HRV parameters (normalized low-frequency, Hedge's g = -0.39, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 11.62%; normalized high-frequency, Hedge's g = 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to -0.52, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%; low-frequency to high-frequency ratio, Hedge's g = -0.58, 95% CI -0.81 to -0.35, p < 0.001, I2 = 53.78%) and stress level (Hedge's g = -0.80, 95% CI -1.17 to -0.44, p < 0.001, I2 = 68.54%). CONCLUSIONS: Stress reduction may be attributed to sympathetic-vagal balance modulated by mind⁻body exercises. Tai Chi/Yoga could be an alternative method for stress reduction for people who live under high stress or negative emotions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149535

RESUMO

Baduanjin exercise is a traditional Chinese health Qigong routine created by an ancient physician for health promotion. Its mild-to-moderate exercise intensity is suitable for individuals with medical conditions. Recently, a large number of trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of Baduanjin exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains to be determined whether Baduanjin exercise prescription is beneficial for the management of COPD patients. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to objectively evaluate the existing literature on this topic. We searched six databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang) from inception until early May 2018. The adapted Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used for study quality assessment of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Based on 95% confidence interval (CI), the pooled effect size (Hedge's g) of exercise capability (6-Minute Walking Test, 6-MWT), lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1; forced volume vital capacity, FVC; FEV1/FVC ratio), and quality of life were calculated based on the random-effects model. Twenty RCTs (n = 1975 COPD patients) were included in this review, with sum scores of the adapted PEDro scale between 5 and 9. Study results of the meta-analysis indicate that Baduanjin is effective in improving exercise capability (Hedge's g = 0.69, CI 0.44 to 0.94, p < 0.001, I² = 66%), FEV1 (Hedge's g = 0.47, CI 0.22 to 0.73, p < 0.001, I² = 68.01%), FEV1% (Hedge's g = 0.38, CI 0.21 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I² = 54.74%), FVC (Hedge's g = 0.39, CI 0.22 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I² = 14.57%), FEV1/FVC (Hedge's g = 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.68, p < 0.001, I² = 53.49%), and the quality of life of COPD patients (Hedge's g = -0.45, CI -0.77 to -0.12, p < 0.05, I² = 77.02%), as compared to control groups. Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive treatment may potentially improve exercise capability and pulmonary function of COPD patients as well as quality of life. Baduanjin exercise could be tentatively prescribed for COPD in combination with the conventional rehabilitation program to quicken the process of recovery. To confirm the positive effects of Baduanjin exercise for COPD patients, future researchers need to consider our suggestions mentioned in this article.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , China , Terapia por Exercício , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Clin Med ; 7(8)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tai Chi, Qigong, and Yoga are recognized as the most popular complementary approaches for alleviating musculoskeletal pain, improving sleep quality, and reducing blood pressure. The therapeutic effects of these meditative movements for treating major depressive disorder (MDD) is yet to be determined. Therefore, we examined whether meditative movements (Tai Chi, Qigong, and Yoga) are effective for treating MDD. Seven electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang) were used to search relevant articles. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) using Tai Chi, Qigong or Yoga as intervention for MDD were considered for the meta-analysis (standardized mean difference: SMD). RESULTS: Meta-analysis on 15 fair-to-high quality RCTs showed a significant benefit in favor of meditative movement on depression severity (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.37, p < 0.001, I² = 35.76%) and on anxiety severity (SMD = -0.46, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.21, p < 0.001, I² = 1.17%). Meditative movement interventions showed significantly improved treatment remission rate (OR = 6.7, 95% CI 2.38 to 18.86, p < 0.001) and response rate (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 1.73 to 15.59, p < 0.001) over passive controls. CONCLUSIONS: Emphasizing the therapeutic effects of meditative movements for treating MDD is critical because it may provide a useful alternative to existing mainstream treatments (drug therapy and psychotherapy) for MDD. Given the fact that meditative movements are safe and easily accessible, clinicians may consider recommending meditative movements for symptomatic management in this population.

9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1886, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118732
10.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1049, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736535

RESUMO

Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Previous studies have provided evidence about the changes in cognitive control induced by mind-body training. However, the neural correlates underlying the effect of extensive mind-body practice on cognitive control remain largely unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized dynamic fluctuations in large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks associated with mind-body practice, and examined their differences between healthy controls and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners. Compared with a control group, the TCC group revealed significantly decreased fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) in the bilateral frontoparietal network, default mode network and dorsal prefrontal-angular gyri network. Furthermore, we detected a significant association between mind-body practice experience and fALFF in the default mode network, as well as an association between cognitive control performance and fALFF of the frontoparietal network. This provides the first evidence of large-scale functional connectivity in brain networks associated with mind-body practice, shedding light on the neural network changes that accompany intensive mind-body training. It also highlights the functionally plastic role of the frontoparietal network in the context of the "immune system" of mental health recently developed in relation to flexible hub theory.

11.
Front Psychol ; 8: 874, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626434

RESUMO

A growing number of empirical studies have revealed that diaphragmatic breathing may trigger body relaxation responses and benefit both physical and mental health. However, the specific benefits of diaphragmatic breathing on mental health remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diaphragmatic breathing on cognition, affect, and cortisol responses to stress. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either a breathing intervention group (BIG) or a control group (CG). The BIG received intensive training for 20 sessions, implemented over 8 weeks, employing a real-time feedback device, and an average respiratory rate of 4 breaths/min, while the CG did not receive this treatment. All participants completed pre- and post-tests of sustained attention and affect. Additionally, pre-test and post-test salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in both groups. The findings suggested that the BIG showed a significant decrease in negative affect after intervention, compared to baseline. In the diaphragmatic breathing condition, there was a significant interaction effect of group by time on sustained attention, whereby the BIG showed significantly increased sustained attention after training, compared to baseline. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time in the diaphragmatic breathing condition on cortisol levels, whereby the BIG had a significantly lower cortisol level after training, while the CG showed no significant change in cortisol levels. In conclusion, diaphragmatic breathing could improve sustained attention, affect, and cortisol levels. This study provided evidence demonstrating the effect of diaphragmatic breathing, a mind-body practice, on mental function, from a health psychology approach, which has important implications for health promotion in healthy individuals.

12.
Psych J ; 5(1): 69-77, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26377754

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Tai Ji , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração
13.
Brain Struct Funct ; 220(5): 2485-507, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24903825

RESUMO

Local functional homogeneity of the human cortex indicates the boundaries between functionally heterogeneous regions and varies remarkably across the cortical mantle. It is unclear whether these variations have the neurobiological and structural basis. We employed structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 482 healthy subjects and computed the vertex-wise regional homogeneity of low-frequency fluctuations (2dReHo) and five measures of cortical morphology. We then used these metrics to examine regional variation, morphological association and functional covariance network of 2dReHo. Within the ventral visual stream, increases of 2dReHo reflect reduced complexity of information processing or functional hierarchies. Along the divisions of the prefrontal cortex and posteromedial cortex, the gradients of 2dReHo revealed the hierarchical organization within the two association areas, respectively. Individual differences in 2dReHo are associated with those of cortical morphology, and their whole-brain inter-regional covariation is organized into a functional covariance network, comprising five hierarchically organized modules with hubs of both primary sensory and high-order association areas. These highly reproducible observations suggest that local functional homogeneity has neurobiological relevance that is likely determined by anatomical, developmental and neurocognitive factors and should serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain function.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Neurobiologia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychophysiology ; 52(3): 342-51, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25308605

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Teste de Stroop
15.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99222, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24911975

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 6: 74, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860494

RESUMO

Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain's intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population.

17.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e61038, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23585869

RESUMO

Although research has provided abundant evidence for Taichi-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being, little is known about possible links to brain structure of Taichi practice. Using high-resolution MRI of 22 Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term Taichi practice at two different levels of regional specificity. For this purpose, parcel-wise and vertex-wise analyses were employed to quantify the difference between TCC practitioners and the controls based on cortical surface reconstruction. We also adopted the Attention Network Test (ANT) to explore the effect of TCC on executive control. TCC practitioners, compared with controls, showed significantly thicker cortex in precentral gyrus, insula sulcus and middle frontal sulcus in the right hemisphere and superior temporal gyrus and medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that thicker cortex in left medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus was associated with greater intensity of TCC practice. These findings indicate that long-term TCC practice could induce regional structural change and also suggest TCC might share similar patterns of neural correlates with meditation and aerobic exercise.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Tai Ji , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meditação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Psicológicos
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