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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(2): 333-340, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serum protein concentrations are diagnostically and prognostically valuable in cancer and other diseases, but their measurement via blood test is uncomfortable, inconvenient, and costly. This study investigates the possibility of predicting albumin, globulin, and albumin-globulin ratio from easily accessible physical characteristics (height, weight, Body Mass Index, age, gender) and vital signs (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, pulse) using advanced machine learning techniques. METHODS: We obtained albumin concentration, globulin concentration, albumin-globulin ratio and predictor information (physical characteristics, vital signs) from physical exam records of 46,951 healthy adult participants in Hangzhou, China. We trained a computational model to predict each serum protein concentration from the predictors and then evaluated the predictive accuracy of each model on an independent portion of the dataset that was not used in model training. We also determined the relative importance of each feature within the model. RESULTS: Prediction accuracies were r=0.540 (95% CI: 0.539-0.540; Pearson r) for albumin, r=0.250 (95% CI: 0.249-0.251) for globulin, and r=0.373 (95% CI: 0.372-0.374) for albumin-globulin ratio. The most important predictive features were age (100% ± 0.0%; mean ± 95% CI of normalized importance), gender (34.4% ± 0.7%), pulse (25.6% ± 1.3%) and Body Mass Index (24.4% ± 2.3%) for albumin, pulse (83.7% ± 3.8%) for globulin, and age (99.2% ± 1.0%), gender (59.2% ± 1.7%), Body Mass Index (46.1% ± 4.2%) and height (40.0% ± 3.8%) for albumin-globulin ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our models predicted serum protein concentrations with appreciable accuracy showing the promise of this approach. Such models could serve to augment existing tools for identifying "at-risk" individuals for follow-up with a blood test.

2.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 179: 107397, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524570

RESUMO

Human genetic studies established MET gene as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. We have previously shown that signaling mediated by MET receptor tyrosine kinase, expressed in early postnatal developing forebrain circuits, controls glutamatergic neuron morphological development, synapse maturation, and cortical critical period plasticity. Here we investigated how MET signaling affects synaptic plasticity, learning and memory behavior, and whether these effects are age-dependent. We found that in young adult (postnatal 2-3 months) Met conditional knockout (Metfx/fx:emx1cre, cKO) mice, the hippocampus exhibits elevated plasticity, measured by increased magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) in hippocampal slices. Surprisingly, in older adult cKO mice (10-12 months), LTP and LTD magnitudes were diminished. We further conducted a battery of behavioral tests to assess learning and memory function in cKO mice and littermate controls. Consistent with age-dependent LTP/LTD findings, we observed enhanced spatial memory learning in 2-3 months old young adult mice, assessed by hippocampus-dependent Morris water maze test, but impaired spatial learning in 10-12 months mice. Contextual and cued learning were further assessed using a Pavlovian fear conditioning test, which also revealed enhanced associative fear acquisition and extinction in young adult mice, but impaired fear learning in older adult mice. Lastly, young cKO mice also exhibited enhanced motor learning. Our results suggest that a shift in the window of synaptic plasticity and an age-dependent early cognitive decline may be novel circuit pathophysiology for a well-established autism genetic risk factor.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 55, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several brain networks play important roles in cervical dystonia (CD) patients, regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in CD patients have not been clarified. We investigated to explore ReHo in CD patients at rest and analyzed its correlations with symptom severity as measured by Tsui scale. METHODS: A total of 19 CD patients and 21 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent fMRI scans at rest state. Data were analyzed by ReHo method. RESULTS: Patients showed increased ReHo in the right cerebellum crus I and decreased ReHo in the right superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Moreover, the right precentral gyrus, right insula, and bilateral middle cingulate gyrus also showed increased ReHo values. A significantly positive correlation was observed between ReHo value in the right cerebellum crus I and symptom severity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggested abnormal ReHo existed in brain regions of the "pain matrix" and salience network (the right insula and bilateral middle cingulate gyrus), the motor network (the right precentral gyrus), the cerebellum and MPFC and further highlighted the significance of these networks in the pathology of CD.

4.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SC) and bipolar disorder (BP) share elements of symptoms and the underlying neural mechanisms for both remain unclear. Recently, the complexity of spontaneous functional MRI (fMRI) signals in brain activity has been investigated in SC and BP using multiscale sample entropy (MSE) with inconsistent results. PURPOSE: To perform MSE analysis across five time scales to assess differences in resting-state fMRI signal complexity in SC, BP, and normal controls (NC). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Fifty SC, 49 BP, and 49 NC. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3 T, T2* weighted echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. ASSESSMENT: The mean MSEs of all gray matter (GM) and of 12 regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted using masks across the five scales. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in these ROIs were also determined and the relationship between the three measures was investigated. The correlations between cognitive assessment scores and MSE values were also explored. STATISTICAL TESTS: Bonferroni correction, One-way ANOVA, Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r), Gaussian random field (GRF) correction. RESULTS: There were decreased GM MSE values in the patient groups (F = 9.629, P < 0.05). SC and BP patients demonstrated lower complexity than NCs in the calcarine fissure, precuneus, inferior occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus and cerebellum, and higher complexity in the median cingulate, thalamus, hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. There were significant differences between SC and BP patients in the precuneus (F = 4.890, P < 0.05) and inferior occipital gyrus (F = 5.820, P < 0.05). Calcarine fissure, cingulate, temporal gyrus, occipital gyrus, hippocampus, precuneus, frontal gyrus, and lingual gyrus MSE values were significantly correlated with both ReHo (r > 0.282, P < 0.05) and ALFF (r > 0.278, P < 0.05). Furthermore, median temporal MSE (r = -0.321, P < 0.05) on scale 3 and (r = -0.307, P < 0.05) on scale 4 and median cingulate MSE (r = -0.337, P < 0.05) on scale 5 was significantly negatively correlated with cognitive assessment scores. DATA CONCLUSION: These data highlight different patterns of brain signal intensity complexity in SC and BP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 50(6): 2018-2022, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554978

RESUMO

Unlike [Ru2(µ-O2CCH3)4], the structurally analogous water-soluble RuII,III2 diphosphonato complex K3[Ru2(hedp)2(H2O)2] (K3·1) is only involved in stoichiometric water oxidation with a maximum 67% O2 yield under CAN/HNO3 solution (pH 1.0) for 2.5 h. The water oxidation mechanism and intermediate products were ascertained by UV-vis, ESI-MS and DFT calculation.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145509, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smaller sizes of ambient particulate matter (PM) can be more toxic and can be breathed into lower lobes of a lung. Children are particularly vulnerable to PM air pollution because of their adverse effects on both lung functions and lung development. However, it remains unknown whether a smaller PM has a greater short-term impact on childhood pneumonia. AIMS: We compared the short-term effects on childhood pneumonia from PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), respectively. METHODS: Daily time-series data (2016-2018) on pneumonia hospitalizations in children aged 0-17 years, records of air pollution (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and gaseous pollutants), and weather conditions were obtained for Hefei, China. Effects of different PM were quantified using a quasi-Poisson generalized additive model after controlling for day of the week, holiday, seasonality and long-term time trend, and weather variables. Stratified analyses (gender, age, and season) were also performed. RESULTS: For each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations over the past three days (lag 0-2), the risk of pneumonia hospitalizations increased by 10.28% (95%CI: 5.88%-14.87%), 1.21% (95%CI: 0.34%-2.09%), and 1.10% (95%CI: 0.44%-1.76%), respectively. Additionally, both boys and girls were at risk of PM1 effects, while PM2.5 and PM10 effects were only seen in boys. Children aged ≤12 months and 1-4 years were affected by PM1, but PM2.5 and PM10 were only associated with children aged 1-4 years. Furthermore, PM1 effects were greater in autumn and winter, while greater PM2.5 and PM10 effects were evident only in autumn. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a greater short-term impact on childhood pneumonia from PM1 in comparison to PM2.5 and PM10. Given the serious PM pollution in China and other rapid developing countries due to various combustions and emissions, more investigations are needed to determine the impact of different PM on childhood respiratory health.

7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537999

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The benefits and risks of restarting antiplatelet therapy (APT) for patients with spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) remain controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to explore the efficacy and safety of restarting APT for these patients. METHODS: We followed the recommended PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. Studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and the Cochrane Library were systematically retrieved from the inception of each database to 31 July 2020. We also manually retrieved studies of reference. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this study, seven cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) with subjects were included. APT resumption after spontaneous ICH did not significantly increase the risk of major haemorrhagic events (HR 1.15; 95% CI: 0.70-1.89; p = .59). However, it did not significantly reduce the risk of a composite endpoint concerning occlusive/thromboembolic events (HR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81-1.19; p = .83) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.80-1.08; p = .35). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Restarting APT for patients with spontaneous ICH is generally safe. However, the benefits of reducing the risk of ischaemic vascular events and all-cause mortality were not apparent. More RCTs are required.

8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be associated with diabetic microvascular complications, but previous studies have only focused on the relationship between vitamin D and specific complications. Therefore, we aimed to explore the relationship between vitamin D level and diabetic microvascular complications in general, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 815 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical information and laboratory results were collected from the medical records. The relationship between vitamin D and the three diabetic microvascular complications was investigated. RESULTS: The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) level of patients with DPN and/or DN was significantly lower than that of T2DM patients without any microvascular complications (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis showed that the 25 (OH) D level was related to DPN and DN, but not DR. After adjustment, the 25 (OH) D level was confirmed to be an independent protective factor for DPN (odds ratio [OR]: 0.968, P = 0.004]) and DN (OR: 0.962, P = 0.006). The prevalence of DPN and DN increased significantly as the serum 25 (OH) D levels decreased. Furthermore, patients with both DPN and DN had the lowest concentration of serum 25 (OH) D (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of macroalbuminuria increased more abruptly than that of microalbuminuria across the 25 (OH) D tertiles. Among the patients with vitamin D insufficiency, those with DPN presented more comorbid macroalbuminuria than those without DPN (15.32% vs. 4.91%; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with higher risk of DPN and DN, but not DR, in T2DM patients. Further, it may be a potential predictor for both the occurrence and severity of DPN and DN.

9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 23, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398049

RESUMO

Autotrophic nitrogen removal by anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is an energy-efficient nitrogen removal process in wastewater treatment. However, full-scale deployment under mainstream conditions remains challenging for practitioners due to the high stress susceptibility of anammox bacteria towards fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature. Here, we investigated the response of microbial biofilms with verified anammox activity to DO shocks under 20 °C and 14 °C. While pulse disturbances of 0.3 mg L-1 DO prompted only moderate declines in the NH4+ removal rates, 1.0 mg L-1 DO led to complete but reversible inhibition of the NH4+ removal activity in all reactors. Genome-centric metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were used to investigate the stress response on various biological levels. We show that temperature regime and strength of DO perturbations induced divergent responses from the process level down to the transcriptional profile of individual taxa. Community-wide gene expression differed significantly depending on the temperature regime in all reactors, and we found a noticeable impact of DO disturbances on genes involved in transcription, translation, replication and posttranslational modification at 20 °C but not 14 °C. Genome-centric analysis revealed that different anammox species and other key biofilm taxa differed in their transcriptional responses to distinct temperature regimes and DO disturbances.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 3, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on social comparison theory, two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of depression and social comparison on adolescents, using the ultimatum game (UG). METHODS: Before the formal experiment began, a preliminary experiment tested the effectiveness of social comparison settings. This study used the UG paradigm to explore adolescents' social decision-making in the context of gain and loss through two experiments. These experiments were designed as a 2 (group: depressive mood group, normal mood group) × 2 (social comparison: upward, downward) × 3 (fairness level: fair 5:5, unfair 3:7, extremely unfair 1:9) three-factor hybrid study. RESULTS: (1) The fairer the proposal was, the higher the sense of fairness participants felt, and the higher their acceptance rate. (2) The acceptance rate of the participants for downward social comparison was significantly higher than that for upward social comparison, but there was no difference in fairness perception between the two social comparisons. (3) Under the context of gain, the acceptance rate of the depressive mood group was higher than that of the normal mood group, but there was no difference in the acceptance rate between the depressive mood group and the normal mood group under the loss context. Depressive mood participants had more feelings of unfairness in the contexts of both gain and loss. (4) The effects of depressive mood, social comparison and the fairness level of distribution on social decision-making interact. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of social comparison, depressive mood and proposal type demonstrates that besides one's emotion, cognitive biases and social factors can also have an effect on social decision-making. These findings indicate that behavioral decision boosting may provide an avenue for appropriate interventions in helping to guide adolescents to make social decisions.

11.
Oncogene ; 40(7): 1362-1374, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420365

RESUMO

Perineural invasion (PNI), a pathologic feature defined as cancer cell invasion in, around, and through nerves, is an indicator of poor prognosis and survival in prostate cancer (PC). Despite widespread recognition of the clinical significance of PNI, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a clinically and functionally important mediator of PNI in PC. MAOA promotes PNI of PC cells in vitro and tumor innervation in an orthotopic xenograft model. Mechanistically, MAOA activates SEMA3C in a Twist1-dependent transcriptional manner, which in turn stimulates cMET to facilitate PNI via autocrine or paracrine interaction with coactivated PlexinA2 and NRP1. Furthermore, MAOA inhibitor treatment effectively reduces PNI of PC cells in vitro and tumor-infiltrating nerve fiber density along with suppressed xenograft tumor growth and progression in mice. Collectively, these findings characterize the contribution of MAOA to the pathogenesis of PNI and provide a rationale for using MAOA inhibitors as a targeted treatment for PNI in PC.

12.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 831-840, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486631

RESUMO

Ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (OPA) is caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and is a chronic, progressive, and infectious neoplastic lung disease in sheep, which causes significant economic losses to the sheep industry. Neither a vaccine nor serological diagnostic methods to detect OPA are available. We performed a JSRV infection survey in sheep using blood samples (n = 1,372) collected in the three northeastern provinces of China (i.e., Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Jilin) to determine JSRV infection status in sheep herds using a real-time PCR assay targeting the gag gene of JSRV. The ovine endogenous retrovirus sequence was successfully amplified in all sheep samples tested (296 from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, 255 from Jilin province, and 821 from Heilongjiang province). Subsequently, we attempted to distinguish exogenous JSRV (exJSRV) and endogenous JSRV (enJSRV) infections in these JSRV-positive samples using a combination assay that identifies a ScaI restriction site in an amplified 229-bp fragment of the gag gene of JSRV and a "LHMKYXXM" motif in the cytoplasmic tail region of the JSRV envelope protein. The ScaI restriction site is present in all known oncogenic JSRVs but absent in ovine endogenous retroviruses, while the "LHMKYXXM" motif is in all known exJSRVs but not in enJSRVs. Interestingly, one JSRV strain (HH13) from Heilongjiang province contained the "LHMKYXXM" motif but not the ScaI enzyme site. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain HH13 was closely related to strain enJSRV-21 reported in the USA, indicating that HH13 could be an exogenous virus. Our results provide valuable information for further research on the genetic evolution and pathogenesis of JSRV.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Produtos do Gene env/genética , Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos/genética , Adenomatose Pulmonar Ovina/epidemiologia , Adenomatose Pulmonar Ovina/patologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/análise , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos/classificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Mapeamento por Restrição , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Ovinos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482354

RESUMO

REC8 (meiotic recombination protein 8) is an essential component of meiotic cohesion complexes. Interestingly, two paralogous rec8 genes happen to exist in the stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8)-absent fishes but not in stra8-existing fishes. Stra8 is usually considered as the prerequirement during RA (retinoic acid)-mediated meiosis initiation in mammals. However, how RA triggers meiosis in the stra8-absent fishes just like Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) remains elusive. Here we characterized the two paralogous rec8 genes in Nile tilapia (Onrec8a and Onrec8b), and investigated their expression patterns and responsiveness to RA signaling by treatment of ex vivo testicular culture and promoter luciferase reporter assay. OnRec8a and OnRec8b share 36% identity to each other and are true orthologs of REC8. Their expression was predominantly restricted to meiotic germline cells with differential spatiotemporal patterns. During spermatogenesis, OnRec8b predominantly exhibited nuclear expression in spermatocytes from 60 dah (days after hatching), while OnRec8a exhibited cytoplasmic expression from 90 dah. During oogenesis, OnRec8a was expressed from 30 dah, while OnRec8b from 90 dah. Further study shows that RA signaling could upregulate the expression of both Onrec8a and Onrec8b. Collectively, our data implies that OnRec8a and OnRec8b might have differential function during meiosis and be involved in RA-mediated meiosis program.

14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 111: 83-93, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513437

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) associated death domain protein (TRADD) is a pivotal adaptor in TNF signaling pathway and up-regulates MAVS/IFN signaling pathway in human and mammal. However, the role of TRADD in teleost fish remains obscure. To reveal the function of teleost TRADD in the innate immune response, the TRADD homologue (bcTRADD) of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and the function of bcTRADD is investigated in this study, which shares similar functional domain to its mammalian counterpart. bcTRADD mRNA expression level increased in response to different stimuli, including LPS, poly (I:C) and virus infection in host cells. bcTRADD activated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB promoter in the reporter assay; however, showed hardly any effect on the transcriptional activity of IFN promoter. It was interesting that black carp mitochondria antiviral signaling protein (bcMAVS)-activated IFN promoter transcription were dramatically depressed by bcTRADD and the C-terminal death domain of bcTRADD was indispensable for its regulation of bcMAVS. Accordingly, the plaque assay result showed that EPC cells co-expressing bcMAVS and bcTRADD presented much attenuated antiviral activity than EPC cells expressing bcMAVS alone. Knockdown of bcTRADD slightly promoted the antiviral ability of the host cells against SVCV. The current data support the conclusion that bcTRADD suppresses MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling, which is different to its mammalian counterpart.

15.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 119: 104020, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476669

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MKK4), a member of the MAP kinase family, play important roles in response to many environmental and cellular stresses in mammals. In this study, three MKK4 subtypes, EcMKK4-1, EcMKK4-2 and EcMKK4-3, were obtained from grouper Epinephelus coioides. The open reading frame (ORF) of EcMKK4s are obtained and the EcMKK4s proteins contain highly conserved domains: a S_TKc domain, a canonical diphosphorylation group and two conserved MKKK ATP binding motifs, Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) and Ala-Pro-Glu (APE). EcMKK4s could be found both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear. The EcMKK4s mRNA were detected in all E. coioides tissues examined with the different expression levels, and the expression were up-regulated during SGIV (Singapore grouper iridescent virus) or Vibrio alginolyticus infection. EcMKK4 could significantly reduce the activation of AP-1 reporter gene. The results suggested that EcMKK4s might play important roles in pathogen-caused inflammation.

16.
Environ Int ; 146: 106290, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395937

RESUMO

Respirable particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 µm (PM10) have important impacts on the atmospheric environment and human health. Available PM10 datasets have coarse spatial resolutions, limiting their applications, especially at the city level. A tree-based ensemble learning model, which accounts for spatiotemporal information (i.e., space-time extremely randomized trees, denoted as the STET model), is designed to estimate near-surface PM10 concentrations. The 1-km resolution Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product and auxiliary factors, including meteorology, land-use cover, surface elevation, population distribution, and pollutant emissions, are used in the STET model to generate the high-resolution (1 km) and high-quality PM10 dataset for China (i.e., ChinaHighPM10) from 2015 to 2019. The product has an out-of-sample (out-of-station) cross-validation coefficient of determination (CV-R2) of 0.86 (0.82) and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 24.28 (27.07) µg/m3, outperforming most widely used models from previous related studies. High levels of PM10 concentration occurred in northwest China (e.g., the Tarim Basin) and the Northern China Plain. Overall, PM10 concentrations had a significant declining trend of 5.81 µg/m3 per year (p < 0.001) over the past five years in China, especially in three key urban agglomerations. The ChinaHighPM10 dataset is potentially useful for future small- and medium-scale air pollution studies by virtue of its higher spatial resolution and overall accuracy.

17.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405065

RESUMO

B cell activating factor (BAFF), belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF), is a critical cytokine for B cell survival and immunoglobulin secretion. Here, the BAFF gene of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) (MaBAFF) was cloned using RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) techniques. The open reading frame (ORF) of MaBAFF encodes a 272-amino acid protein containing a transmembrane domain, a TNF family signature, and a putative furin protease cleavage site as seen in BAFFs from other species. Tissue expression profiles of MaBAFF determined by absolute and relative quantification of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that MaBAFF is widely distributed in various tissues, with the highest expression in spleen. MaBAFF can be detected during fertilized egg period by RT-PCR. Upon induction by A. hydrophila, the expression of MaBAFF was up-regulated in spleen from 48 to 72 h, and the expression of BAFF and IgM all reached a peak at 48 h in head kidney. The soluble BAFF gene (MasBAFF) had been cloned into pET30a. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the His-MasBAFF was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Rosset (DE3). CCK-8 assay indicated that the MasBAFF recombinant protein (200 ng/ml) could prolong the survival of peripheral blood leukocytes. Based on ELISA screening and Western blotting, monoclonal antibody 1-F2A3 against recombinant MasBAFF was selected and used for immunohistochemistry, which showed that BAFF-positive cells were detected in spleen and head kidney. Our results raise the possibility that MaBAFF may be useful to enhance immune efficacy in Chinese sucker disease defense.

18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111888, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421719

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the toxicity of environmental residues of graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) to reproduction of Lepidopteron insects using both ovary cell line (BmN) and individual female Bombyx mori as the research subjects. The results showed that GONPs dose dependently affect BmN cells. At higher concentrations (>25 mg/L), GONPs led to oxidative stress, ROS accumulation and DNA damage in BmN cells and significantly reduced their survival rate (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, feeding female B. mori larvae with mulberry leaves treated with 25 mg/L GONPs significantly decreased their gonadosomatic index (GSI) by 40.84%, and increased oxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in silkworm ovary tissues. Pathological analysis found that exposure to GONPs decreased the numbers of both oogonia and oocytes in ovarian tissues, increased the formation of peroxisome and vacuoles in follicle cells, reduced the transcription of genes (Vg, Ovo, Sxl-s, Sxl-l, and Otu) related to ovarian development in B. mori by 0.61, 0.65, 0.75, 0.72, and 0.42-fold, respectively, and lowered the amount of spawning by 52.25%. Overall, these results revealed that GONPs exposure is toxic to the reproduction of B. mori. The underlying mechanism is that oxidative stress due to GONPs causes oxidative damage to DNA, damages ovarian tissues, as well as hinders B. mori development and spawning. Thus, this study provides important experimental data for safety evaluation of reproductive toxicity due to GONPs exposure.


Assuntos
Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Bombyx/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141491, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861946

RESUMO

Dissolved black carbon (DBC) is becoming increasingly concerned by researchers due to its unique environmental behavior. However, understanding of the influence mechanism of biopolymer compositions of cellulose (CEL), hemicellulose (HEM) and lignin (LIG) on the formation and physiochemical characteristics of DBC from lignocellulose-based biochar is limited. This study therefore examined the formation of DBCs derived from the biopolymer compositions, corn straw (CS), corncob (CC), bamboo sawdust (BS) and pinewood sawdust (PS) under the heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 300-500 °C. Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameters (Dh) of DBCs produced under 300 °C were further investigated. DBC formation may be closely associated with the HTT-dependent heterogeneities of biopolymer compositions, in which significant effects of CEL and HEM charring on physiochemical properties of DBCs were identified under the HTT of 300 and 400 °C, while the formation of DBCs was closely related to LIG and its proportions in biomass under high HTT (>500 °C). On the rise of the HTT, the carbonaceous structures of biopolymer compositions were reorganized and converted to graphitic structures in biochar accompanied by the large decomposition or carbonization of CEL and HEM, leading to the reduced carbon content, surface functional groups, aromaticity and molecular weight of DBCs, as well as the decrease of protein-like and relative increase of fulvic-like fluorescent substances in most DBCs. LIG in biomass may facilitate the migration of DBCs due to abundant surface negative charges and the formation of low Dh. This study offered new insights into our understanding of influencing mechanisms of biopolymer compositions on the characteristic of DBCs under different HTTs.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Lignina , Carbono
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142347, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 has been widely associated with human morbidity and mortality. However, most up-to-date research was conducted at a daily timescale, neglecting the intra-day variations in both exposure and outcome. As an important fraction in PM2.5, PM1 has not been investigated about the very acute effects within a few hours. METHODS: Hourly data for size-specific PMs (i.e., PM1, PM2.5, and PM10), all-cause emergency department (ED) visits and meteorological factors were collected from Guangzhou, China, 2015-2016. A time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the hourly association between size-specific PMs and ED visits, adjusting for hourly mean temperature and relative humidity. Subgroup analyses stratified by age, sex and season were conducted to identify potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: A total of 292,743 cases of ED visits were included. The effects of size-specific PMs exhibited highly similar lag patterns, wherein estimated odds ratio (OR) experienced a slight rise from lag 0-3 to 4-6 h and subsequently attenuated to null along with the extension of lag periods. In comparison with PM2.5 and PM10, PM1 induced slightly larger effects on ED visits. At lag 0-3 h, for instance, ED visits increased by 1.49% (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.79%), 1.39% (1.12-1.66%) and 1.18% (0.97-1.40%) associated with a 10-µg/m3 rise, respectively, in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. We have detected a significant effect modification by season, with larger PM1-associated OR during the cold months (1.017, 1.013 to 1.021) compared with the warm months (1.010, 1.005 to 1.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided brand-new evidence regarding the adverse impact of PM1 exposure on human health within several hours. PM-associated effects were significantly more potent during the cold months. These findings may aid health policy-makers in establishing hourly air quality standards and optimizing the allocation of emergency medical resources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
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