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1.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544299

RESUMO

Several fish species are known to possess mechanisms that allow them to adapt to environments with different salinities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity on the expression of aquaporins (aqp1a, aqp3a, aqp8a, and aqp9a) in the gills and intestines of Chinese black sleeper. After 30 days of acclimation, the expression of aqp1a, aqp3a, and aqp9a in the gills was significantly higher in fish transferred to 5 ppt than in those transferred to 40 ppt seawater, whereas aqp8 expression was lower. In contrast, aqp1a, aqp3a, and aqp8a expression in the intestines was higher in fish acclimated in 40 ppt than in those acclimated in 5 ppt. During abrupt salinity acclimation, the levels of aqp1a and aqp9a in the gills varied over time in fish acclimated in 5 ppt, but not in 40 ppt. The aqp3a levels in gills were higher in the 5 ppt group after 24 h than in the 40 ppt. The expression level of aqp8a in gills was higher in 40 ppt than in 5 ppt, except for that at 12 h. In the intestines, expression level of aqp1a and aqp8a were significantly upregulated from 12 to 48 h following acclimation in 40 ppt and aqp3a was higher in 40 ppt group than in 5 ppt, while aqp9a expression exhibited an opposite trend. These findings suggest that aqp1a, aqp3a, aqp8a and aqp9a may play a major osmoregulatory role in water transport in the gills and intestines during acclimation to different salinity environment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529524

RESUMO

The formation mechanism of the partially crystallized ultrathin layer at the interface between GaN and SiNx grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition was analyzed based on the chemical components of reactants and products detected by high-resolution sputter depth profile analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A reasonable mass action equation for the formation of Si2N2O was proposed from the feasibility analysis of the Gibbs free energy changes of the reaction. The high-energy-activated Ga2O on the surface likely assists in the synthesis of the crystallized components. A well-defined 1ML θ-Ga2O3 transition interface was inserted into Si2N2O/GaN pure interface supercell slabs to edit the unsaturated state of the bonds. Low-density states can be achieved when the effective charges of the unsaturated atoms are adjusted to a certain interval.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1252, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623047

RESUMO

Upon starvation, cells rewire their metabolism, switching from glucose-based metabolism to mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids, which require the transfer of FAs from lipid droplets (LDs) to mitochondria at mitochondria-LD membrane contact sites (MCSs). However, factors responsible for FA transfer at these MCSs remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13D (VPS13D), loss-of-function mutations of which cause spastic ataxia, coordinates FA trafficking in conjunction with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) protein tumor susceptibility 101 (TSG101). The VPS13 adaptor-binding domain of VPS13D and TSG101 directly remodels LD membranes in a cooperative manner. The lipid transfer domain of human VPS13D binds glycerophospholipids and FAs in vitro. Depletion of VPS13D, TSG101, or ESCRT-III proteins inhibits FA trafficking from LDs to mitochondria. Our findings suggest that VPS13D mediates the ESCRT-dependent remodeling of LD membranes to facilitate FA transfer at mitochondria-LD contacts.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3986, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597614

RESUMO

One of the most frequently identified tumors and a contributing cause of death in women is breast cancer (BC). Many biomarkers associated with survival and prognosis were identified in previous studies through database mining. Nevertheless, the predictive capabilities of single-gene biomarkers are not accurate enough. Genetic signatures can be an enhanced prediction method. This research analyzed data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for the detection of a new genetic signature to predict BC prognosis. Profiling of mRNA expression was carried out in samples of patients with TCGA BC (n = 1222). Gene set enrichment research has been undertaken to classify gene sets that vary greatly between BC tissues and normal tissues. Cox models for additive hazards regression were used to classify genes that were strongly linked to overall survival. A subsequent Cox regression multivariate analysis was used to construct a predictive risk parameter model. Kaplan-Meier survival predictions and log-rank validation have been used to verify the value of risk prediction parameters. Seven genes (PGK1, CACNA1H, IL13RA1, SDC1, AK3, NUP43, SDC3) correlated with glycolysis were shown to be strongly linked to overall survival. Depending on the 7-gene-signature, 1222 BC patients were classified into subgroups of high/low-risk. Certain variables have not impaired the prognostic potential of the seven-gene signature. A seven-gene signature correlated with cellular glycolysis was developed to predict the survival of BC patients. The results include insight into cellular glycolysis mechanisms and the detection of patients with poor BC prognosis.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 5042-5047, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350281

RESUMO

Bletilla striata is a shallow-rooted herbaceous plant, which is highly dependent on the planting environment.In order to improve the quality of B.striata effectively and solve the contradiction between the production of traditional Chinese medicine and the ecological environment, a variety of simulated cultivation patterns have been explored in various producing areas. Through field investigation and literature collation, this paper sorted out 24 sets of simulated cultivation modes of B.striata, including 4 kinds of sub-forest imitative wild planting techniques, 10 kinds of B.striata-economic forest cooperative development mode, 14 kinds of intercropping techniques of B.striata and 1 kind of ecological rotation technique of B.striata-edible fungi under economic forest. Combining economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit, the advantages and disadvantages of these planting patterns were compared. The ecological principles of B.striata simulative cultivation are analyzed in detail, as follows:(1) the wild cultivation of B.striata simulative cultivation under forest is to utilize the complementary principle of land resources under forest and spatial light and heat resources, and carry out the compound cultivation of cultivating forest with medicine and growing with short growth;(2) the intercropping of B.striata makes full use of the difference in height and height of the two plants to meet their needs for light, humidity and ventilation, reduce the cost of shading and weeding, improve the risk-resistant ability of Chinese medicinal materials cultivation, and increase the utilization rate of land, and give consideration to the benefits of both length and length;(3) the ecological rotation technology of "B.striata-edible fungi" in economic forests is to realize the effective utilization of waste bacteria and residues according to the mutually beneficial relationship between B.striata and edible fungi. The promotion and optimization of B.striata imitated wild cultivation technology will further promote the sustainable development of B.striata industry.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Orchidaceae , Bactérias , Florestas
8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 570733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194664

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma accounts for half of all lung cancer cases in most countries. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs play important roles in cancer progression, and some of them can be identified as potential biomarkers. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-550a-5p, a lung adenocarcinoma-associated mature microRNA screened out from the TCGA database via R-studio and Perl, with abundant expression in samples and with 5-year survival prognosis difference, as well as having not been studied in lung cancer yet. Potential target genes were predicted by the online database. Gene ontology enrichment, pathway enrichment, protein-protein interaction network, and hub genes-microRNA network were constructed by FunRich, STRING database, and Cytoscape. Then, LIMD1, a known tumor suppressor gene reported by multiple articles, was found to have a negative correlation with miR-550a-5p. The expression of miR-550a-5p was up-regulated in tumor samples and tumor-associated cell lines. Its high expression was also correlated with tumor size. Cell line A549 treated with miR-550a-5p overexpression promoted tumor proliferation, while H1299 treated with miR-550a-5p knockdown showed the opposite result. Mechanically, miR-550a-5p negatively regulated LIMD1 by directly binding to its 3'-UTR validated by dual luciferase assay. In summary, a new potential prognostic and therapeutic biomarker, miR-550a-5p, has been identified by bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation in vitro and in vivo, which promotes lung adenocarcinoma by silencing a known suppressor oncogene LIMD1.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20221, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214632

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of treatment for talar posterior process fractures using open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through posteromedial approach and percutaneous screw fixation. From January 2014 to December 2018, 12 cases with displaced fracture of talar posterior process were treated in our department. The clinical and radiological results were assessed after 4 and 12 months of operation with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores. ORIF was performed in four of the cases and percutaneous screw fixation was performed in eight of the cases. The average follow-up period was 13 months. Complications such as wound infection, nerve injury, screw loosening, malunion or nonunion of fracture were absent. For clinical assessment, considerable mprovements were observed for the AOFAS and VAS scores at 4 and 12 months postoperatively for both techniques. There was no significant difference for AOFAS scores and VAS scores between the two techniques (p > 0.05). Both techniques showed good functional outcome and were performed for posterior talar process fracture following the fracture displacement guidelines. Percutaneous screw fixation treatment with computer-assisted three-dimensional evaluation shortened the operation time and reduced incidences of surgical complications.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53475-53483, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180451

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures based on in-plane isotropic/anisotropic 2D-layered semiconducting materials have recently received wide attention because of their unique interlayer coupling properties and hold a bright future as building blocks for advanced photodetectors. However, a fundamental understanding of charge behavior inside this kind of heterostructure in the photoexcited state remains elusive. In this work, we carry out a systematic investigation into the photoinduced interfacial charge behavior in type-II WS2/ReS2 vertical heterostructures via polarization-dependent pump-probe microscopy. Benefiting from the distinctive (ultrafast and anisotropic) charge-transfer mechanisms, the photodetector based on the WS2/ReS2 heterojunction displays more superior optoelectronic properties compared to its constituents with diverse functionalities including moderate photoresponsivity, polarization sensitivity, and fast photoresponse speed. Additionally, this device can function as a self-driven photodetector without the external bias. These results of our work tangibly corroborate the intriguing interlayer interaction in in-plane isotropic/anisotropic heterostructures and are expected to shed light on designing balanced-performance multifunctional optoelectrical devices.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 4179-4190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192080

RESUMO

Introduction: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress seems to mediate the obesity-induced susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI). The present study was designed to evaluate the role of ER stress in adiponectin (APN)-induced lung protection in an obese rat model treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: lean rats, diet-induced obesity rats, lean rats with ALI, obese rats with ALI, obese rats pretreated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) before ALI or obese rats pretreated with APN before ALI. At 24 h after instillation of LPS into the lungs, cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. Lung tissues were separated to assess the degree of inflammation, pulmonary oedema, epithelial apoptosis and the expression of ER stress marker proteins. Results: The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression in the lung tissues of obese rats was upregulated before ALI, as well as the elevated apoptosis in epithelial cells. During ALI, the expression of ER stress marker proteins was similarly increased in both lean and obese rats, while significant downregulation of Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) was detected in obese epithelial cells. The lung tissues of obese rats showed higher concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10, enhanced neutrophil counts and elevated wet/dry weight ratios. APN and 4-PBA decreased the degree of ER stress and suppressed LPS-induced lung inflammation, pulmonary oedema and epithelial apoptosis. Conclusion: APN may exert protective effects against the exacerbated lung injuries in obese rats by attenuating ER stress, which operates as a key molecular pathway in the progression of ALI.

12.
J Neuroimaging ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cirrhosis is associated with diffuse brain manganese deposition, which results in increased signal intensity (SI) in the brain on T1-weighted images, most often visualized in the globus pallidus. The purpose of this study was to determine if automated image intensity measurements can detect SI differences in the basal ganglia and other regions reported to have manganese deposition in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls. METHODS: T1 FSPGR images were acquired on 28 patients with cirrhosis and 28 age-sex-matched controls. FreeSurfer T1 SI values were obtained for the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebral white matter, cerebral cortex, and brainstem. SI ratios were computed for globus pallidus normalized to white matter and brainstem. SI values and SI ratios were compared between groups using t-tests. RESULTS: Among people with cirrhosis, T1 SI was significantly increased in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebral white matter, cerebral cortex, and brainstem (P< .001), and the globus pallidus to brainstem ratio was significantly increased (P< .001). No significant difference was seen for globus pallidus to cerebral white matter T1 SI ratio (P = .38). CONCLUSIONS: Automatic assessment of T1 SI allows for rapid, objective identification of widespread T1 shortening associated with manganese deposition in cirrhosis, consistent with the global deposition of neurotoxic manganese seen in pathology studies. This automated T1 assessment may have broader utility for other conditions beyond cirrhosis impacting T1 SI.

13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 306-318, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiple malignancies, whether tumor mutation burden (TMB) correlated with increased survival or promotion of immunotherapy remained a debate. Our aim was to analyze the prognosis of TMB and the possible connection with immune infiltration of the skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM). METHODS: We gathered somatic mutation data from the 472 SKCM patients using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and analyzed the mutation profiles using ""maftools" package. TMB was determined and samples were divided into high and low TMB groups. We undertook differential analysis to determine the profiles of expression between two groups using the "limma" package and established the 10 Hub TMB signature from a batch survival study. Gene ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed in order to test considerably enriched pathways between the two groups. The connections of 10 TMB-related signature mutants with immune infiltration in SKCM were further assessed based on the TIMER database. We used the CIBERSORT package to measure the amount of 22 immune fractions between low and high TMB groups, and Wilcoxon's rank-sum amounts estimated the significant difference. In addition, the Cox regression model and survival analysis were used to determine the prognostic importance of immune cells. Finally, we estabilished a multivaried Cox results Tumor Mutation Burden Prognostic Index (TMBPI) and built a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to check the predictive accuracy. RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was more frequent than insertion or deletion and C > T was SKCM's most frequently single nucleotide variants (SNV). Higher TMB levels provided poor survival outcomes, associated with tumor stage, age, and gender. In addition, 224 differentially expressed genes were obtained and Venn diagram established the top 25 immune-related genes. GSEA observed that patients in high TMB groups associated with nucleotide excision repair, pyrimidine metabolism, basal transcription factors, spliceosome, RNA polymerase, and RNA degradation in cancers. 10 hub TMB-related immune genes were also established and 10 signature mutants were correlated with lower immune infiltrates. In addition, the infiltration levels of macrophages M1 and macrophages M2 in the low-TMB group were lower. Eventually, the TMBPI was developed and the AUC of ROC curve was 0.604. CONCLUSIONS: High TMB contributed to low survival outcomes and may prevent SKCM immune infiltration. The 10 hub immune signature TMB-related mutants conferred lower immune cell infiltration that required further confirmation.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22508, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031289

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) is a rare form of rickets, which is an autosomal recessive disease caused by 1α-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. However, long-term dental management and microscopic morphology of teeth remain largely unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 10-year-old Chinese boy complaining of yellowish-brown teeth with extensive caries. DIAGNOSES: Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed, and VDDR-I was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed amelogenesis imperfecta. INTERVENTIONS: The patient had been taking drugs intervention for VDDR-I from the age of 3 years. The decayed teeth were treated, and metal-preformed crowns were placed to prevent further impairment. Sequence tooth extraction and remineralization therapy were also performed. OUTCOMES: After 3 years of follow-up, the patient exhibited normal tooth replacement and an acceptable oral hygiene status. However, the new erupted teeth had amelogenesis imperfecta. LESSONS: This case is the first to confirm amelogenesis imperfecta in a patient with VDDR-I that was not prevented by drug intervention. Importantly, it provides evidence that long-term dental intervention in patients with VDDR-I can result in an acceptable oral hygiene status. Therefore, early and long-term dental intervention is necessary in VDDR-I patients.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/terapia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/complicações , Amelogênese Imperfeita/etiologia , Criança , Coroas , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Extração Seriada
15.
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(33): 4996-5007, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased cholesterol synthesis and hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which may be related to the development of cholelithiasis. AIM: To investigate whether liver fat accumulation measured by high-speed T2-corrected multi-echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a risk factor for cholelithiasis. METHODS: Forty patients with cholelithiasis and thirty-one healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled. The participants underwent high-speed T2-corrected multi-echo single-voxel MRS of the liver at a 3T MR scanner. The proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2 value were calculated. Serum parameters and waist circumference (WC) were recorded. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between PDFF, R2, and WC values. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the significant predictors of the risk of cholelithiasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the discriminative performance of significant predictors. RESULTS: Patients with cholelithiasis had higher PDFF, R2, and WC values compared with healthy controls (5.8% ± 4.2% vs 3.3% ± 2.4%, P = 0.001; 50.4 ± 24.8/s vs 38.3 ± 8.8/s, P = 0.034; 85.3 ± 9.0 cm vs 81.0 ± 6.9 cm, P = 0.030; respectively). Liver iron concentration extrapolated from R2 values was significantly higher in the cholelithiasis group (2.21 ± 2.17 mg/g dry tissue vs 1.22 ± 0.49 mg/g dry tissue, P = 0.034) than in the healthy group. PDFF was positively correlated with WC (r = 0.502, P < 0.001) and R2 (r = 0.425, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only PDFF was an independent risk factor for cholelithiasis (odds ratio = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.22-2.62, P = 0.003). ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve of PDFF was 0.723 for discriminating cholelithiasis from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 55.0% and specificity of 83.9% when the cut-off value of PDFF was 4.4%. CONCLUSION: PDFF derived from high speed T2-corrected multi-echo MRS can predict the risk of cholelithiasis.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3876, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747777

RESUMO

Electron-phonon scattering is the key process limiting the efficiency of modern nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, in which most of the incident energy is converted to lattice heat and finally dissipates into the environment. Here, we report an acoustic phonon recycling process in graphene-WS2 heterostructures, which couples the heat generated in graphene back into the carrier distribution in WS2. This recycling process is experimentally recorded by spectrally resolved transient absorption microscopy under a wide range of pumping energies from 1.77 to 0.48 eV and is also theoretically described using an interfacial thermal transport model. The acoustic phonon recycling process has a relatively slow characteristic time (>100 ps), which is beneficial for carrier extraction and distinct from the commonly found ultrafast hot carrier transfer (~1 ps) in graphene-WS2 heterostructures. The combination of phonon recycling and carrier transfer makes graphene-based heterostructures highly attractive for broadband high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications.

18.
Front Chem ; 8: 647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850662

RESUMO

The past few decades have seen great progress in the exploration of nanoparticles (NPs) as novel tools for cancer treatments and diagnosis. Practical and reliable application of nanoparticle-based technology in clinical transformation remains nevertheless an ongoing challenge. The design, preparation, and evaluation of various smart NPs with specific physicochemical responses in tumor-related physiological conditions have been of great interests in both academic and clinical research. Of particular, smart enzyme-responsive nanoparticles can predictively and selectively react with specific enzymes expressed in tumor tissues, leading to targeted delivery of anti-tumor drugs, reduced systemic toxicity, and improved therapeutic effect. In addition, NPs interact with internal enzymes usually under mild conditions (low temperature, aqueous media, neutral or close to neutral pH) with high efficiency. In this review, recent advances in the past 5 years in enzyme-responsive nanoparticles for anti-tumor drug delivery are summarized and discussed. The following contents are divided based on the different action sites of enzymes toward NPs, notably hydrophobic core, cleavable/uncleavable linker, hydrophilic crown, and targeting ligand. Enzyme-engaged destruction of any component of these delicate nanoparticle structures could result in either targeting drug delivery or controlled drug release.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8031497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626764

RESUMO

Background: This research is aimed at establishing and internally validating the risk nomogram of insulin resistance (IR) in a Chinese population of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: We developed a predictive model based on a training dataset of 145 PCOS patients, and data were collected between March 2018 and May 2019. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model was used to optimize function selection for the insulin resistance risk model. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to construct a prediction model integrating the function selected in the regression model of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. The predicting model's characteristics of prejudice, disease, and lifestyle were analyzed using the C-index, the calibration diagram, and the study of the decision curve. External validity was assessed using the validation of bootstrapping. Results: Predictors contained in the prediction nomogram included occupation, disease durations (years), BMI, current use of metformin, and activities. With a C-index of 0.739 (95 percent confidence interval: 0.644-0.830), the model showed good differentiation and proper calibration. In the interval validation, a high C-index value of 0.681 could still be achieved. Examination of the decision curve found that the IR nomogram was clinically useful when the intervention was determined at the 11 percent IR potential threshold. Conclusion: This novel IR nomogram incorporates occupation, disease durations (years), BMI, current use of metformin, and activities. This nomogram could be used to promote the estimation of individual IR risk in patients with PCOS.

20.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(5): 697-703, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In hepatic encephalopathy (HE), osmotic stressors promoting brain edema result in a compensatory drop in the astrocyte metabolite myo-inositol (mI). Identifying differences between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with and without HE and healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and evaluating hypoalbuminemia and hyperammonemia as osmotic stressors that predict the reduction of mI allow further understanding of mechanisms that promote brain edema in HE. The aim of this study was to assess brain edema in HE using characteristic MRS markers and serum albumin. METHODS: We evaluated between group differences among 19 NASH cirrhosis without HE (Crhs-HE) (age = 63 ± 8.7), 9 NASH cirrhosis with HE (Crhs+HE) (age = 63 ± 9.2), and 16 controls (age = 57.8 ± 11.7) using 1 H MRS. Glutamine (Gln/tCr) and serum albumin were evaluated as predictors of myo-inositol (mI/tCr) using linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < .05 with adjustment for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Brain mI/tCr was decreased, and Gln/tCr increased in Crhs+HE compared to Crhs-HE and controls in both brain regions (P < .001 for all). Evaluated together as joint predictors, serum albumin but not Gln/tCr significantly predicted mI/tCr in GM (P = .02 and P = .2, respectively) and PWM (P = .01 and P = .1, respectively). CONCLUSION: Low mI/tCr and increased Gln/tCr were characteristics of Crhs+HE. Low serum albumin was the strongest predictor of brain osmotic stress indicated by reduced mI/tCr, with no residual independent association seen for brain Gln/tCr concentration. This suggests that hypoalbuminemia in chronic liver disease may promote brain edema in HE.

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