Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 988
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 237: 114415, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490589

RESUMO

To overcome the resistance of tumour cells to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, DDP), we designed and synthesised platinum(II) complexes with copper coordination active sites using vitamin B6 and benzohydrazide derivatives as raw materials.The 3D structures of the complexes were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The results of the biological activity assay showed that the Pt(II) complexes (VB6-Pt1 and VB6-Pt2) have higher anti-tumour activity on detected typical lung cancer cells than DDP. Among them, VB6-Pt1 (IC50 = 0.78 µM) efficiently reversed DDP resistance in A549/DDP cell line and increased selectivity index (26) against mortal MRC-5 fibroblasts. The study showed that VB6-Pt1 overcomes tumor drug resistance by significantly increasing the level of reactive oxyge species and inducing lysosomal membrane permeability, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of VB6-Pt1 on A549 xenograft tumours was 81.5%, which was much higher than that of cisplatin (50.0%), without significantly increasing p-glycoprotein (P-gp) protein expression. The copper-coordinated active site in Pt(II) complexes may be a key factor in their ability to overcome DDP-resistant cancer cells.

2.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of the ocular surface microbiome in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the associations between the microbial dysbiosis and chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Ocular surface samples from 48 healthy subjects and 76 patients after allo-HSCT, including 50 patients with chronic oGVHD and 26 patients without oGVHD were collected. Species-level composition of the ocular surface microbiome was surveyed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. OGVHD was diagnosed and graded according to the International Chronic Ocular GVHD (ICO) Consensus Group criteria. RESULTS: The α-diversity of the microbiota was significantly decreased in patients after allo-HSCT. Nevertheless, we detected more types of viral species in the allo-HSCT group than the healthy group, especially anelloviruses. The mismatch of donor-recipient sex was only negatively associated with the α-diversity in male but not female recipients. Moreover, the microbiome of oGVHD patients was distinct from non-oGVHD patients. Gordonia bronchialis and Pseudomonas parafulva were enriched in oGVHD patients and positively associated with ICO score. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the ocular surface microbiome after allo-HSCT is characterized by a loss of diversity. Furthermore, the microbial dysbiosis at the ocular surface is associated with the status and severity of chronic oGVHD. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations of the potential microbial mechanism for oGVHD.

3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(5): 6, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506935

RESUMO

Purpose: Inflammation contributes to the development of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) under specific disease conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a proinflammatory cytokine response and lipogenesis in human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs) and whether melatonin (MLT), a powerful anti-inflammatory regent in the eyes, could protect against LPS-induced disorders. Methods: Human meibomian gland (MG) tissues and immortalized HMGECs were stained to identify Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and MLT receptors (MT1 and MT2). HMGECs were pretreated with or without MLT and then stimulated with LPS. Then, TLR4 activation, cytokine levels, lipid synthesis, apoptosis, autophagy, and MAPK/NF-κB factor phosphorylation in HMGECs were analyzed. Results: TLR4, MT1, and MT2 were expressed in human MG acini and HMGECs. Pretreatment with MLT inhibited the TLR4/MyD88 signaling and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine response and lipogenesis in LPS-stimulated HMGECs, which manifested as decreased production of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α), reduced lipid droplet formation, and downregulated expression of meibum lipogenic proteins (ADFP, ELOVL4, and SREBP-1). Phospho-histone H2A.X foci, lysosome accumulation, and cytoplasmic cleaved caspase 3/LC3B-II staining were increased in LPS-stimulated HMGECs, indicating enhanced cell death mediated by apoptosis and autophagy during LPS-induced lipogenesis. MLT downregulated cleaved caspase 3 levels and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio to alleviate apoptosis and ameliorated the expression of Beclin 1 and LC3B-II to inhibit autophagy. The protective mechanisms of MLT include the inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation. Conclusions: MLT attenuated lipogenesis, apoptosis, and autophagy in HMGECs induced by proinflammatory stimuli, indicating the protective potential of MLT in MGD.


Assuntos
Melatonina , NF-kappa B , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipogênese , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Glândulas Tarsais/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
4.
J Appl Genet ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507138
5.
Hepatol Commun ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560825

RESUMO

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a series of liver diseases based on liver steatosis and metabolic disorders. Steatosis, as the core factor in MAFLD diagnosis, and fibrosis, as the major determinant of adverse outcomes of MAFLD, need to be assessed simply and accurately. In this study, we explored the significance of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in evaluating liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with MAFLD. We included 2397 cases with MAFLD from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) database. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by vibration controlled transient elastography. Anthropometric parameters and demographic and serological data were obtained from the NHANES database. The association between MUAC and liver steatosis and fibrosis were evaluated by a multivariable linear regression model, a weighted generalized additive model, and smooth curve fitting using R. MUAC was positively associated with liver steatosis in every multivariate linear regression model (model 1: ß = 3.3513; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7722-3.9304; model 2: ß = 3.8492; 95% CI, 3.2441-4.4542; model 3: ß = 2.4987; 95% CI, 1.8371-3.1604), and this positive association was consistent in both men and women and among different race groups (Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic White, Black, Asian, and other race). On the other hand, MUAC was positively associated with liver fibrosis in every multivariate linear regression model, and this positive association also was consistent in both men and women and among non-Hispanic White and Black populations. Increased MUAC was positively associated with liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with MAFLD. This was particularly true for MUAC ≥ 42.0 cm. MUAC might be a simple and convenient evaluation tool for MAFLD.

6.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545662

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly associated with obesity. However, the factors that drive the transition from excessive weight gain to glucose metabolism disruption are still uncertain and seem to revolve around systemic immune disorder. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which are innate-like T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, have been reported to be altered in obese people and to lead to metabolic dysfunction during obesity. By studying the immunophenotypes of blood MAIT cells from a cross-sectional cohort of obese participants with/without T2D, we found an elevation in CD27-negative (CD27-) MAIT cells producing a high level of IL-17 under T2D obese conditions, which could be positively correlated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese people. We further explored microbial translocation caused by gut barrier dysfunction in obese people as a triggering factor of MAIT cell abnormalities. Specifically, accumulation of the bacterial strain Bacteroides ovatus in the peripheral blood drove IL-17-producing CD27- MAIT cell expansion and could be associated with T2D risk in obese individuals. Overall, these results suggest that an aberrant gut microbiota-immune axis in obese people may drive or exacerbate T2D. Importantly, CD27- MAIT cell subsets and Bacteroides ovatus could represent targets for novel interventional strategies. Our findings extend current knowledge regarding the clinical relevance of body mass index (BMI)-associated variation in circulating MAIT cells to reveal the role of these cells in obesity-related T2D progression and the underlying cellular mechanisms.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) expression has been explored in plenty of studies in human cancers. Because of the controversial results, the meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the relevance of IGFBP2 expression with the prognosis in various tumors. METHODS: The data searched from four databases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library, and Web of science) was used to calculate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) in this meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were stratified by ethnicity, cancer type, publication year, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score, treatments, and populations. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies containing 5560 patients finally met inclusion criteria. IGFBP2 expression was associated with lower overall survival (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.31-1.88) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.04-1.34) in cancer patients, but not with disease-free survival (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.91-2.46) or recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.93-2.40). The subgroup analyses indicated IGFBP2 overexpression was significantly correlated with overall survival in Asian patients (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.18-1.72), Caucasian patients (HR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.31-3.70), glioma (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.03-1.79), and colorectal cancer (HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.43-4.44) and surgery subgroups (HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.50-2.58). CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed that IGFBP2 expression was associated with worse prognosis in several tumors, and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in cancer patients.

8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 858426, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574379

RESUMO

T-Cell malignancies are a group of heterogeneous disorders composed of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and T-cell leukemias, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL). Cases of patients with combined T-cell malignancies and plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) are reported in the literature, but these are mostly limited to case reports or small case series with <10 patients. Here, we described the clinical course of 26 patients and report baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rates (ORRs) in this unique population. There was no survival difference in patients with CTCL or T-LGLL and concomitant PCD when treated with standard therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy when compared to historical controls. However, patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD had significantly inferior outcomes with rapid progression and worse OS and PFS at 1.7 years (p=0.006) and 4.8 months (p=0.08), respectively, when compared to historical controls for patients with PTCL, although the limited number of patients included in this analysis precludes drawing definitive conclusions. Treatment directed at the T-cell malignancy resulted in the eradication of the PCD clone in multiple patients (15.4%) including one with multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced a complete response after starting therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy. For patients with T-cell malignancies and concomitant PCD, treatment with standard T-cell-directed therapies is recommended based on this analysis with continued follow-up and monitoring of the concomitant PCD. Further studies are needed to definitively elucidate the increased risk of relapse in patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD, and larger, multi-center cohorts are needed to validate these findings across T-cell malignancies and PCDs.

9.
Chem Phys Lett ; 800: 139663, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529782

RESUMO

In order to control COVID-19, rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an urgent task. The target spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected experimentally via Raman spectroscopy. However, there lacks high-accuracy theoretical Raman spectra of the spike proteins to as a standard reference for the clinic diagnostic purpose. In this paper, we propose a large fragment method to construct the high-precision Raman spectra for the spike proteins. The large fragment method not only reduces the calculation error but also improves the accuracy of the protein Raman spectra by completely calculating the interactions within the large fragment. The Pearson correlation coefficient of theoretical Raman spectra is greater than 0.929 or more. Compared with the experimental spectra, the characteristic patterns are easily visible. This work provides a detection standard for the spike proteins which shall bring a step closer to the fast recognition of SARS-CoV-2 via Raman spectroscopy method.

10.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(2): 219-225, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are common operative neurocognitive disorders, which places a heavy burden on patients, families and society. Therefore, it is very important to search for preventive drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a decrease the incidence of POD and POCD. But the specific effect of dexmedetomidine on elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and its potential mechanism are not clear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on preventing POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and the influence on the balance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation. METHODS: This trial was designed as a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. One hundred and twenty hospitalized patients from January 2019 to December 2020, aged 60-80 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III and scheduled for hepatic lobectomy, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=40) using a random number table: A C group, a Dex1 group, and a Dex2 group. After anesthesia induction, saline in the C group, dexmedetomidine [0.3 µg/(kg·h)] in the Dex1 group, and dexmedetomidine [0.6 µg/(kg·h)] in the Dex2 group were infused until the end of operation. The incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were compared among the 3 groups. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for assessing POD and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating POCD were recorded and venous blood samples were obtained for the determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE), TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10 at the different time below: the time before anesthesia (T0), and the first day (T1), the third day (T2), the fifth day (T3), and the seventh day (T4) after operation. RESULTS: Compared with the C group, the incidences of bradycardia in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group increased (both P<0.05) and there was no difference in hypotension in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group (both P>0.05). The incidences of POD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 22.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. The incidences of POD in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). However, there is no difference in the incidence of POD between the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). The incidences of POCD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 30.0%, 12.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. The incidences of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). And no obvious difference was seen in the incidence of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of TNF-α and IL-1ß decreased and the level of IL-10 increased at each time points (from T1 to T4) in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Dex1 group, the level of IL-1ß at T2 and IL-10 from T1 to T3 elevated in the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the T0, the concentrations of NSE in C group at each time points (from T1 to T4) and in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group from T1 to T3 increased (all P<0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of NSE decreased from T1 to T4 in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion can reduce the incidence of POCD and POD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy, and the protective mechanism appears to involve the down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1ß and upregulation of IL-10 expression, which lead to rebalance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Delírio , Dexmedetomidina , Hipotensão , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bradicardia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipotensão/complicações , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-10 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
11.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0261743, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560163

RESUMO

Subepithelial platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells found in the colonic mucosal tissue come in close contact with epithelial cells, immune cells, neurons, capillaries, and lymphatic networks. Mucosal subepithelial PDGFRα+ cells (MuPαC) are important regulators in various intestinal diseases including fibrosis and inflammation. However, the transcriptome of MuPαC has not yet been elucidated. Using Pdgfra-eGFP mice and flow cytometry, we isolated colonic MuPαC and obtained their transcriptome data. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified three novel, and selectively expressed, markers (Adamdec1, Fin1, and Col6a4) found in MuPαC. In addition, we identified a unique set of MuPαC-enriched genetic signatures including groups of growth factors, transcription factors, gap junction proteins, extracellular proteins, receptors, cytokines, protein kinases, phosphatases, and peptidases. These selective groups of genetic signatures are linked to the unique cellular identity and function of MuPαC. Furthermore, we have added this MuPαC transcriptome data to our Smooth Muscle Genome Browser that contains the transcriptome data of jejunal and colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle resident PDGFRα+ cells: (https://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome). This online resource provides a comprehensive reference of all currently known genetic transcripts expressed in primary MuPαC in the colon along with smooth muscle resident PDGFRα cells, SMC, and ICC in the murine colon and jejunum.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563399

RESUMO

Metalloendopeptidase ADAM-Like Decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1) is an anti-inflammatory peptidase that is almost exclusively expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We have recently found abundant and selective expression of Adamdec1 in colonic mucosal PDGFRα+ cells. However, the cellular origin for this gene expression is controversial as it is also known to be expressed in intestinal macrophages. We found that Adamdec1 mRNAs were selectively expressed in colonic mucosal subepithelial PDGFRα+ cells. ADAMDEC1 protein was mainly released from PDGFRα+ cells and accumulated in the mucosal layer lamina propria space near the epithelial basement membrane. PDGFRα+ cells significantly overexpressed Adamdec1 mRNAs and protein in DSS-induced colitis mice. Adamdec1 was predominantly expressed in CD45- PDGFRα+ cells in DSS-induced colitis mice, with only minimal expression in CD45+ CD64+ macrophages. Additionally, overexpression of both ADAMDEC1 mRNA and protein was consistently observed in PDGFRα+ cells, but not in CD64+ macrophages found in human colonic mucosal tissue affected by Crohn's disease. In summary, PDGFRα+ cells selectively express ADAMDEC1, which is localized to the colon mucosa layer. ADAMDEC1 expression significantly increases in DSS-induced colitis affected mice and Crohn's disease affected human tissue, suggesting that this gene can serve as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for intestinal inflammation and Crohn's disease.

13.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary malignant melanoma of the ureter is extremely rare. Genetic variants to the increased risk of developing the disease have not yet been investigated. METHODS: Tumour mutation profiling for primary malignant melanoma of the ureter was performed by whole-exome sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify histopathological features and the variants of predisposing genes and driver mutation genes. Furthermore, we conducted a literature review and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-based study by searching public databases. RESULTS: We identified 38 somatic single nucleotide variants and 9 somatic insertions and deletions (INDELs) in tumour specimens. After filtering with the Cancer Gene Census database, seven predisposing genes and two driver mutation genes were identified. Moreover, the immunohistochemical profile showed that tumour cells were positive for Melan-A, melanoma gp100 human melanoma black 45 (HMB45), S100 beta and P53. The expression levels of two driver mutation genes (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and desmoyokin (AHNAK) and five predisposing genes (AT-rich interaction domain 1B (ARID1B), catalase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 3 (EIF4G3), ANK3 and collagen type I) were significantly downregulated in tumour tissues compared to paracancerous tissues. In the literature review and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-based study, patients with primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract had worse clinical outcomes than patients with primary urothelial carcinoma after 1:2 propensity score matching (P = 0.010). Additionally, Cox multivariate analysis for patients with primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract indicated that distant metastasis (hazard ratio = 1.185; P = 0.044) was an independent predictor for overall survival, and tumour focality (hazard ratio = 0.602; P = 0.017) and non-surgery (hazard ratio = 0.434; P = 0.003) were independent factors for tumour progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of primary malignant melanoma of the ureter may be due to different genetic variations. The prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract was poorer than that of primary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract.

14.
J Biomech Eng ; 144(10)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420119

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive strategy for the treatment of aortic stenosis. The complex postoperative complications of TAVR were related to the type of implanted prosthetic valve, and the deep mechanism of this relationship may guide the clinical pre-operative planning. This technical brief developed a numerical method of TAVR to compare the outcome difference between balloon-expandable valve and self-expandable valve and predict the postoperative results. A complete patient-specific aortic model was reconstructed. Two prosthetic valves (balloon-expandable valve and self-expandable valve) were introduced to simulate the implantation procedure, and postprocedural function was studied with fluid-structure interaction method, respectively. Results showed similar stress distribution for two valves, but higher peak stress for balloon-expandable valve model. The balloon-expandable valve was associated with a better circular cross section and smaller paravalvular gaps area. Hemodynamic parameters like cardiac output, mean transvalvular pressure difference, and effective orifice area (EOA) of the balloon-expandable valve model were better than those of the self-expandable valve model. Significant outcome difference was found for two prosthetic valves. Balloon-expandable valve may effectively decrease the risk and degree of postoperative paravalvular leak, while self-expandable valve was conducive to lower stroke risk due to lower aortic stress. The numerical TAVR simulation process may become an assistant tool for prosthesis selection in pre-operative planning and postoperative prediction.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409568

RESUMO

As a promising approach to stop the escalation of the pandemic, COVID-19 vaccine promotion is becoming a challenging task for authorities worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effective sources for disseminating information on the COVID-19 vaccine to promote individuals' behavioral intention to take the vaccine. Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), this study illustrated the mechanism of how COVID-19 information acquisition from different sources was transformed into vaccination intentions via health beliefs. Using an online survey in China, the structural equation model results revealed that perceived benefits and cues to action were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions, and perceived barriers were negatively related to the intentions. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity had no significant relationships with the intentions. Moreover, the findings unveiled differences in the effects of acquiring information via multiple sources among traditional media, new media, and interpersonal interactions. Notably, new media and interpersonal interactions were more salient in promoting vaccination intention via health beliefs, compared with traditional media. The findings from this study will benefit health officials in terms of utilizing different information sources in vaccine programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Intenção , Vacinação
16.
Opt Express ; 30(8): 13447-13458, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472956

RESUMO

We propose the use of optical films to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and wide-angle emission of traditional packaged deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). Total internal reflection occurs easily in DUV-LEDs because they contain sapphire, which has a high refractive index. DUV-LEDs also contain an aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic substrate, which has high light absorption in the ultraviolet band. Photons are absorbed by the sapphire and AlN ceramic substrate, which reduces the LEE of DUV-LEDs. By adding a brightness enhancement film (BEF) on the sapphire surface and a high-reflection film (HRF) on the surface of the AlN ceramic substrate, the LEE of DUV-LEDs can be increased. Moreover, we designed a single-layer metal reflective film (SMRF) on the upper surface of the quartz glass in order to achieve wide-angle emission. Experimental results indicated that compared with traditional packaged DUV-LEDs, the light output power and external quantum efficiency of DUV-LEDs with a plated BEF, HRF, and SMRF increased by 18.3% and 18.2%, respectively. Moreover, an emission angle of 160° was achieved. In a reliability test, DUV-LEDs maintained more than 95% of the initial forward voltage and light output power after 1000 h of operation at 25°C, which indicated that the addition of an optical film can improve the light efficiency and long-term reliability of DUV-LEDs.

17.
Radiother Oncol ; 170: 21-26, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trametinib is a MEK inhibitor with intracranial activity indicated for BRAF-mutant metastatic malignancies. Yet, the safety of trametinib concurrent with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is unknown. We performed a single-institution, prospective, 3 + 3, phase I clinical trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of trametinib with WBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with brain metastases (BM) received daily trametinib for 28 days, starting 7 days prior to and continuing through WBRT (37.5 Gy/15 fractions). Dose levels (DL)1-3 were 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg. The MTD of trametinib plus WBRT, the max dose where ≤1 of 6 patients experienced a dose limiting toxicity (DLT), was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: 10 patients were enrolled (median age-59 [47-64], BM-5 [1-10], 50% melanoma). Three and 7 patients were assigned to DL1 and 2. One DL2 patient withdrew. 89% of remaining patients completed therapy per protocol, but 1 DL2 patient with systemic progression discontinued therapy at 30 Gy. Thirteen grade (G)3-4 toxicities were observed, of which 12 occurred at DL2 (4/6 of patients). DLT was reached at DL2 (G4 thrombocytopenia and G3 diarrhea, 1 each). There were no G5 toxicities. Median overall survival was 2.2 months. During the study period, changing practice patterns favored utilization of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Thus, the trial closed early prior to completion. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient population representative of modern candidates for WBRT, trametinib plus WBRT is highly toxic with a MTD <1.5 mg. The safety of trametinib with SRS remains an important question for future study.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 819274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360026

RESUMO

Background: Dyslipidemia and hypertension are two important independent risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS); however, their combined effect on IS remains uncertain. Objectives: This present study aimed to evaluate the interaction effect of hypertension and abnormal lipid indices on IS in a 10-year prospective cohort in Chinese adults. Methods: The cohort study of 4,128 participants was conducted in May 2009 and was followed up to July 2020. All qualified participants received a questionnaire survey, physical examination, and blood sample detection. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of dyslipidemia and hypertension with IS, and calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) and the HR (95%CI) of interaction terms were used to examine additive and multiplicative interactions. Results: In the hypertensive population, Non-HDL-C ≥190 mg/dl, LDL-C/HDL-C ≥2 and HDL-C ≥60 mg/dl were statistically associated with IS, and after adjusting for covariates, HRs (95%CIs) were 1.565 (1.007-2.429), 1.414 (1.034-1.933) and 0.665 (0.450-0.983), respectively. While in the non-hypertension population, no significant association of Non-HDL-C ≥190 mg/dl, LDL-C/HDL-C ≥2, and HDL-C ≥60 was detected with IS (P > 0.05). There was a significant association between TC/HDL-C ≥ 3.6 and the decreased risk of IS in the non-hypertension population, and the HR (95%CI) was 0.479 (0.307-0.750). Whereas, a similar association was not observed in the hypertensive population. HDL-C ≥ 60 mg/dl, Non-HDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dl, TC/HDL-C ≥ 3.6, and TG/HDL-C ≥ 1 have additive and multiplicative interactions with hypertension (P < 0.05). The RERIs (95% CIs) of the additive interaction are -0.93 (-1.882-0.044), 1.394 (0.38-2.407), 0.752 (0.354-1.151) and 0.575 (0.086-1.065), respectively. The HRs (95% CIs) of the multiplicative interaction terms were 0.498 (0.272-0.911), 4.218 (1.230-14.464), 2.423 (1.437-4.086) and 1.701 (1.016-2.848), respectively. Conclusion: High concentration of HDL-C reduces the impact of hypertension on IS, while the high concentration of Non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C positively interact with hypertension affecting the incidence of IS. This study provides useful evidence for the combined effects of dyslipidemia and hypertension in predicting IS.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 766244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360742

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) gives patients a bad experience and negates their good recovery from surgery. Objective: This trial aims to assess the preventive effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the incidence of PONV in high-risk surgical patients. Design: The large sample size, multicenter, evaluator-blinded, and randomized controlled study was conducted between September 3, 2019 to February 6, 2021. Setting: The 12 hospitals were from different Chinese provinces. Participants: After obtaining ethics approval and written informed consent, 1,655 patients with Apfel score ≥ 3 points were enrolled for selective laparoscopic non-gastrointestinal surgery under general anesthesia. Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated into the TEAS and Sham group with a 1:1 ratio. The TEAS group was stimulated on bilateral Neiguan and Zusanli acupoints after recovery from anesthesia on the surgical day and the next morning for 30 min, while the Sham group received an identical setting as TEAS but without currents delivered. Electronic patient self-reported scale was used to evaluate and record the occurrence of PONV. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary clinical end point is the incidence of PONV which was defined as at least one incidence of nausea, retching, or vomiting after operation within postoperative 24 h. Results: Compared with the Sham treatment, the TEAS lowered the PONV incidence by 4.8% (29.4 vs. 34.2%, P = 0.036) and vomiting incidence by 7.4% (10.4 vs. 17.8%, P < 0.001). TEAS also lowered persistent nausea incidence and PONV scores and decreased PONV related complications and Quality of Recovery-40 scores (P < 0.05). TEAS lowered the 24 h PONV risk by 20% (OR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65 -0.98; P = 0.032), and lowered hazard ratio by 17% (HR, 0.83, 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P = 0.035). Both TEAS and palonosetron were the independent PONV risk protective factors for 24 h PONV incidence and cumulative PONV incidence. The combination of TEAS and palonosetron was the most effective strategy to reduce the PONV incidence (P < 0.001). Conclusions and Relevance: TEAS attenuated the PONV incidence and severity in high-risk surgical patients and may be applied clinically as a complement therapy to prevent PONV. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04043247, identifier: NCT04043247.

20.
Liver Int ; 2022 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373500

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two major causes of chronic liver disease (CLD) that can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is a trend to superimpose NAFLD on chronic HBV infection in Asia. This review presents the epidemiology of concurrent NAFLD in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and focuses on the impact of concurrent NAFLD on the outcome of CHB patients in Asia. Although CHB patients tend to have lower prevalence and incidence of NAFLD than the general population, concurrent NAFLD among CHB patients is still common and has an upward trend over time. Concurrent NAFLD can promote hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance, might inhibit HBV replication but exacerbate liver fibrosis. The impacts of concurrent NAFLD on HCC risk, all-cause mortality, and antiviral treatment response in CHB patients remain controversial.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...