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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). Data are limited on bone metastases and SREs in patients with mNSCLC treated using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and on the efficacy of bone-modifying agents (BMAs) in this setting. Here we report the incidence, impact on survival, risk factors for bone metastases and SREs, and impact of BMAs in patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs in a multi-institutional cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs at 2 tertiary care centers from 2014 through 2017. Overall survival (OS) was compared between patients with and without baseline bone metastases using a log-rank test. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between OS and the presence of bone metastases at ICI initiation, controlling for other confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 330 patients who had received ICIs for metastatic disease. Median patient age was 63 years, most patients were treated in the second line or beyond (n=259; 78%), and nivolumab was the most common ICI (n=211; 64%). Median OS was 10 months (95% CI, 8.4-12.0). In our cohort, 124 patients (38%) had baseline bone metastases, and 43 (13%) developed SREs during or after ICI treatment. Patients with bone metastases had a higher hazard of death after controlling for performance status, histology, line of therapy, and disease burden (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19-2.08; P=.001). Use of BMAs was not associated with OS or a decreased risk of SREs. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of bone metastases at baseline was associated with a worse prognosis for patients with mNSCLC treated with ICI after controlling for multiple clinical characteristics. Use of BMAs was not associated with reduced SREs or a difference in survival.

2.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synonymous mutations do not alter the amino acids and therefore are regarded as neutral for a long time. However, they do change the tRNA adaptation index (tAI) of a particular codon (independent of its context), affecting the tRNA availability during translation. They could also change the isoaccepting relationship with its neighboring synonymous codons in particular context, which again affects the local translation process. Evidence of selection pressure on synonymous mutations has emerged. RESULTS: The proposed selection patterns on synonymous mutations are never formally and systematically tested in plant species. We fully take advantage of the SNP data from 1,135 A. thaliana lines, and found that the synonymous mutations that increase tAI or the isoaccepting mutations in isoaccepting codon context tend to have higher derived allele frequencies (DAF) compared to other synonymous mutations of the opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS: Synonymous mutations are not strictly neutral. The synonymous mutations that increase tAI or the isoaccepting mutations in isoaccepting codon context are likely to be positively selected. We propose the concept of context-dependent and -independent selection on synonymous mutations. These concepts broaden our knowledge of the functional consequences of synonymous mutations, and should be appealing to phytologists and evolutionary biologists.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Constipation is commonly associated with diabetes. Serotonin (5-HT), produced predominantly by enterochromaffin (EC) cells via tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), is a key modulator of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. However, the role of serotonergic signaling in constipation associated with diabetes is unknown. METHODS: We generated EC cell reporter Tph1-tdTom, EC cell depleted Tph1-DTA, combined Tph1-tdTom-DTA, and interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC)-specific Kit-GCaMP6 mice. Male mice and surgically ovariectomized female mice were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet to induce diabetes. The effect of serotonergic signaling on GI motility was studied by examining 5-HT receptor expression in the colon and in vivo GI transit, colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), and calcium imaging in mice treated with either a 5-HT2B receptor (HTR2B) antagonist or agonist. RESULTS: Colonic transit was delayed in males with diabetes, although colonic Tph1+ cell density and 5-HT levels were increased. Colonic transit was not further reduced in diabetic mice by EC cell depletion. The HTR2B protein, predominantly expressed by colonic ICCs, was markedly decreased in the colonic muscles of males and ovariectomized females with diabetes. Ca2+ activity in colonic ICCs was decreased in diabetic males. Treatment with an HTR2B antagonist impaired CMMCs and colonic motility in healthy males, while treatment with an HTR2B agonist improved CMMCs and colonic motility in males with diabetes. Colonic transit in ovariectomized females with diabetes was also improved significantly by the HTR2B agonist. CONCLUSION: Impaired colonic motility in mice with diabetes was improved by enhancing HTR2B signaling. The HTR2B agonist may provide therapeutic benefits for constipation associated with diabetes.

4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(4): 93-104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822511

RESUMO

Ophiocordyceps sinensis appears as stroma emerging from underground sclerotium enclosed by the skeleton of Thitarodes moth larvae. However, the actual distribution of the fungus in soil still remains unclarified. In this study, 40 soil samples were used for detection of O. sinensis to confirm its distribution in native habitats using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR, and 454 pyrosequencing methods. The soil samples included six types: Os, where both stromata and host moth larvae were found; NL, representing no signs of stromata, but where moth larvae were found; NOs, where neither stroma nor moth larvae were found; BS, with bare soil without the presence of stroma of O. sinensis or moth larvae; AF, from soil surrounding the stroma; and MP, soil particles firmly wrapping the sclerotium of O. sinensis. Of 40 samples tested, 36 showed positive detection of O. sinensis by at least one of the three detection methods, with positive detection in all six sample types at all five sites. The results showed that traces of O. sinensis can be detected in locations with no macroscopically visible evidence of the fungus or its host and at least 100 m away from such locations.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667169

RESUMO

Due to the corruptions or noises that existed in real-world data sets, the affinity graphs constructed by the classical spectral clustering-based subspace clustering algorithms may not be able to reveal the intrinsic subspace structures of data sets faithfully. In this article, we reconsidered the data reconstruction problem in spectral clustering-based algorithms and proposed the idea of ``relation reconstruction.'' We pointed out that a data sample could be represented by the neighborhood relation computed between its neighbors and itself. The neighborhood relation could indicate the true membership of its corresponding original data sample to the subspaces of a data set. We also claimed that a data sample's neighborhood relation could be reconstructed by the neighborhood relations of other data samples; then, we suggested a much different way to define affinity graphs consequently. Based on these propositions, a sparse relation representation (SRR) method was proposed for solving subspace clustering problems. Moreover, by introducing the local structure information of original data sets into SRR, an extension of SRR, namely structured sparse relation representation (SSRR) was presented. We gave an optimization algorithm for solving SRR and SSRR problems and analyzed its computation burden and convergence. Finally, plentiful experiments conducted on different types of databases showed the superiorities of SRR and SSRR.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is regulated by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]), which is primarily produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the GI tract. However, the precise roles of EC cell-derived 5-HT in regulating gastric motility remain a major point of conjecture. Using a novel transgenic mouse line, we investigated the distribution of EC cells and the pathophysiologic roles of 5-HT deficiency in gastric motility in mice and humans. METHODS: We developed an inducible, EC cell-specific Tph1CreERT2/+ mouse, which was used to generate a reporter mouse line, Tph1-tdTom, and an EC cell-depleted line, Tph1-DTA. We examined EC cell distribution, morphology, and subpopulations in reporter mice. GI motility was measured in vivo and ex vivo in EC cell-depleted mice. Additionally, we evaluated 5-HT content in biopsy and plasma specimens from patients with idiopathic gastroparesis (IG). RESULTS: Tph1-tdTom mice showed EC cells that were heterogeneously distributed throughout the GI tract with the greatest abundance in the antrum and proximal colon. Two subpopulations of EC cells were identified in the gut: self-renewal cells located at the base of the crypt and mature cells observed in the villi. Tph1-DTA mice displayed delayed gastric emptying, total GI transit, and colonic transit. These gut motility alterations were reversed by exogenous provision of 5-HT. Patients with IG had a significant reduction of antral EC cell numbers and 5-HT content, which negatively correlated with gastric emptying rate. CONCLUSIONS: The Tph1CreERT2/+ mouse provides a powerful tool to study the functional roles of EC cells in the GI tract. Our findings suggest a new pathophysiologic mechanism of 5-HT deficiency in IG.

8.
Blood ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754642

RESUMO

Hairy cell leukemia is a rare B-cell malignancy where there is a need for novel treatments for patients who do not benefit from purine analogues. Ibrutinib, an oral agent targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase in the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, is highly effective in several malignancies. Its activity in HCL was unknown. Therefore, we conducted a multisite phase 2 study (NCT01841723) of oral ibrutinib in patients with either relapsed classic or variant hairy cell leukemia. The primary outcome measure was the overall response rate at 32 weeks with response at 48 weeks and best response during treatment also assessed. Key secondary objectives were characterization of toxicity and determination of progression-free and overall survival. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled (24 at 420mg, 13 at 840mg). The median duration of follow-up was 3.5 years (range 0-5.9). The overall response rate at 32 weeks was 24% which increased to 36% at 48 weeks. The best overall response rate was 54%. The estimated 36-month progression-free and overall survivals were 73% and 85%, respectively. The most frequent adverse events were diarrhea (59%), fatigue (54%), myalgia (54%), and nausea (51%). Hematologic adverse events were common with anemia (43%), thrombocytopenia (41%), and neutropenia (35%). Ibrutinib can be safely administered to hairy cell leukemia patients with objective responses and results in prolonged disease control. While the initial primary outcome objective of the study was not met, the observation of objective responses in heavily pretreated patients coupled with a favorable progression-free survival suggest that ibrutinib may be beneficial in these patients.

9.
Environ Int ; 149: 106396, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524669

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas, is emitted from landfill reservoirs, especially in the working face, where nitrification and denitrification occur under different O2 concentrations. In order to explore the effects of O2 concentration on N2O emissions and production pathways, the production of N2O from simulated fresh waste landfilling under 0%, 5%, 10%, and 21% (vol/vol) O2 concentrations were examined, and 15N isotopes were used as tracers to determine the contributions of nitrification (NF), heterotrophic denitrification (HD), and nitrification-coupled denitrification (NCD) to N2O production over a 72-h incubation period. Equal amounts of total nitrogen consumption occurred for all studied O2 concentration and the simulated waste tended to release more N2O under 0% and 21% O2. Heterotrophic denitrification was the main source of N2O release at the studied oxygen concentrations, contributing 90.51%, 69.04%, 80.75%, and 57.51% of N2O under O2 concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 21%, respectively. Only denitrification was observed in the simulated fresh waste when the oxygen concentration of the bulk atmosphere was 0%. The nitrate reductase (nirS)-encoding denitrifiers in the simulated landfill were also studied and significant differences were observed in the richness and diversity of the denitrifying community at different taxonomic levels. It was determined that optimising the O2 content is a crucial factor in N2O production that may allow greenhouse gas emissions and N turnover during landfill aeration to be minimised.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Óxido Nitroso , Oxigênio , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
10.
ChemSusChem ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539031

RESUMO

High-voltage LiNi0.8 Co0.1 Mn0.1 O2 (NCM811)-based Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with enhanced performance can be achieved by properly tailoring the electrolyte systems. Benzoic anhydride (BA) was proposed here as a promising bifunctional electrolyte additive that can not only construct a robust cathode-electrolyte interface (CEI) film on the electrode surface but also capture HF/H2 O in the electrolyte effectively. Compared to the cell without the BA additive, the capacity of Li/NCM811 half-cell with 1.0 wt % BA was increased from 128.5 to 149.6 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 C between 3.0 and 4.3 V. Even at a higher cut-off voltage of 4.5 V, the BA-containing Li/NCM811 half-cell delivered a capacity retention of 69 % after 200 cycles, much higher than that of the half-cell without the additive (56 %). Both theoretical calculation and experimental results verified that the BA additive could be preferentially oxidized to form a stable interface film with high conductivity that protected the NCM811 cathode and suppressed the decomposition of the electrolyte.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4696-4712, 2021 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to understand the genetic landscape and investigate the diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A cohort of 36 Chinese HCC samples with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Prognosis-related alterations were identified and further verified in the TCGA database and GSE65372 profiles in the GEO database. A Chinese replication cohort of 180 HCC samples with HBV infection was collected to evaluate the candidate genes by immunohistochemical analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis evaluated the prognostic power of candidate genes. Finally, EdU and transwell invasion assay were performed to detect the function of candidate genes. RESULTS: A total of 11 novel genes showed a significant association with HCC in the discovery cohort. The data were verified using the GEO and TCGA databases, and the expression of ARID1A, CSMD1, and SENP was evaluated in the replication cohort. Furthermore, ARID1A, CSMD1, and SENP3 are effective prognostic biomarkers for HCC patients in the replication population. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular heterogeneity was detected in HCC patients, and ARID1A, CSMD1, and SENP3 were identified as effective HCC prognosis biomarkers. CSMD1 prevents HCC by suppressing cell invasion.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009056, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626051

RESUMO

While many studies have focused on identifying the association between meteorological factors and the activity of COVID-19, we argue that the contribution of meteorological factors to a reduction of the risk of COVID-19 was minimal when the effects of control measures were taken into account. In this study, we assessed how much variability in COVID-19 activity is attributable to city-level socio-demographic characteristics, meteorological factors, and the control measures imposed. We obtained the daily incidence of COVID-19, city-level characteristics, and meteorological data from a total of 102 cities situated in 27 provinces/municipalities outside Hubei province in China from 1 January 2020 to 8 March 2020, which largely covers almost the first wave of the epidemic. Generalized linear mixed effect models were employed to examine the variance in the incidence of COVID-19 explained by different combinations of variables. According to the results, including the control measure effects in a model substantially raised the explained variance to 45%, which increased by >40% compared to the null model that did not include any covariates. On top of that, including temperature and relative humidity in the model could only result in < 1% increase in the explained variance even though the meteorological factors showed a statistically significant association with the incidence rate of COVID-19. In conclusion, we showed that very limited variability of the COVID-19 incidence was attributable to meteorological factors. Instead, the control measures could explain a larger proportion of variance.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
13.
J Med Chem ; 64(5): 2634-2647, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630609

RESUMO

A series of coumarin-like diacid derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel agonists of human G-protein-coupled receptor 35 (hGPR35). Active compounds were characterized to possess one acidic group on both sides of a fused tricyclic aromatic scaffold. Most of them functioned as full agonists selective to hGPR35 and exhibited excellent potency at low nanomolar concentrations. Substitution on the middle ring of the scaffold could effectively regulate compound potency. Structure-activity relationship studies and docking simulation indicated that compounds that carried two acidic groups with a proper special distance and attached to a rigid aromatic scaffold would most likely show a potent agonistic activity on hGPR35. Following this principle, we screened a list of known compounds and some were found to be potent GPR35 agonists, and compound 24 even had an EC50 of 8 nM. Particularly, a dietary supplement pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was identified as a potent agonist (EC50 = 71.4 nM). To some extent, this principle provides a general strategy to design and recognize GPR35 agonists.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(5): 404-415, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological changes after direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients has not been elucidated. Whether the predominantly progressive, indeterminate and predominately regressive (P-I-R) score, evaluating fibrosis activity in hepatitis B virus patients has predictive value in HCV patients has not been investigated. AIM: To identify histological changes after DAAs therapy and to evaluate the predictive value of the P-I-R score in HCV patients. METHODS: Chronic HCV patients with paired liver biopsy specimens before and after DAAs treatment were included. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as an undetectable serum HCV RNA level at 24 wk after treatment cessation. The Ishak system and P-I-R score were assessed. Inflammation improvement and fibrosis regression were defined as a ≥ 2-points decrease in the histology activity index (HAI) score and a ≥ 1-point decrease in the Ishak fibrosis score, respectively. Fibrosis progression was defined as a ≥ 1-point increase in the Ishak fibrosis score. Histologic improvement was defined as a ≥ 2-points decrease in the HAI score without worsening of the Ishak fibrosis score after DAAs therapy. The P-I-R score was also assessed. "absolutely reversing or advancing" was defined as the same directionality implied by both change in the Ishak score and posttreatment P-I-R score; and "probably reversing or advancing" was defined as only one parameter showing directionality. RESULTS: Thirty-eight chronic HCV patients with paired liver biopsy specimens before and after DAAs treatment were included. The mean age of these patients was 40.9 ± 14.6 years and there were 53% (20/38) males. Thirty-four percent (13/38) of patients were cirrhotic. Eighty-two percent (31/38) of patients achieved inflammation improvement. The median HAI score decreased significantly after SVR (pretreatment 7.0 vs posttreatment 2.0, Z = -5.146, P = 0.000). Thirty-seven percent (14/38) of patients achieved fibrosis improvement. The median Ishak score decreased significantly after SVR (pretreatment 4.0 vs posttreatment 3.0, Z = -2.354, P = 0.019). Eighty-two percent (31/38) of patients showed histological improvement. The P-I-R score was evaluated in 61% (23/38) of patients. The progressive group showed lower platelet (P = 0.024) and higher HAI scores (P = 0.070) before treatment. In patients with stable Ishak stage after treatment: Progressive injury was seen in 22% (4/18) of patients, 33% (6/18) were classified as indeterminate and regressive changes were seen in 44% (8/18) of patients who were judged as probably reversing by the Ishak and P-I-R systems. CONCLUSION: Significant improvement of necroinflammation and partial remission of fibrosis in HCV patients occurred shortly after DAAs therapy. The P-I-R score has potential in predicting fibrosis in HCV patients.

15.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite growing evidence that checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (IO) toxicity is associated with improved treatment response, the relationship between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and overall survival (OS) among older adults [age ≥ 70 years (y)] remains unknown. The study goal was to determine differences in OS based on age and ≥ grade 3 (G3) irAEs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 673 patients with advanced cancer. Patients who received ≥1 dose of IO at our institution from 2011 to 2018 were eligible. The primary outcome was OS from the start of first line of IO treatment, compared between four patient groups stratified by age and ≥ G3 irAEs with adjustment for patient characteristics using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Among all 673 patients, 35.4% were ≥ 70y, 39.8% had melanoma, and 45.6% received single-agent nivolumab. Incidence and types of ≥G3 irAEs did not differ by age. Median OS was significantly longer for all patients with ≥G3 irAEs (unadjusted 21.7 vs. 11.9 months, P = 0.007). There was no difference in OS among patients ≥70y with ≥G3 irAEs (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.61-1.47, P = 0.79) in the multivariable analysis. Patients <70y with ≥G3 irAEs had significantly increased OS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.52, P < 0.001). Younger patients, but not older adults, with high-grade irAEs experience strong survival benefit. This difference may be due to the toll of irAEs themselves or the effects of treatments for irAEs, such as corticosteroids. Factors impacting OS of older adults after irAEs must be determined and optimized.

16.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 121: 111749, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579437

RESUMO

Rapid and effective repair of epithelial tissue is desirable for improving the success rate of operation and reducing postoperative complications. Hydrogel is a widely studied wound repair material, especially as a wound dressing for damaged epithelial tissue. Based on the catalytic effect of thrombin on fibrinogen, in this study, a three-dimensional fibrin gel which of adequate epithelial cell compatibility was constructed by using thrombin and fibrinogen under the cross-linking action of calcium ion. Immunofluorescence staining and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) was embedded in fibrin gel. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was used to induce BMSC to differentiate into CD31+ and vWF+ endothelial cell (EC) in fibrin gel. The results showed that the fibrin gel surface may effectively promote the adhesion and proliferation of EC and smooth muscle cell (SMC). After 15 days of culture, it was found that the BMSC embedded in the hydrogel had differentiated into EC. The results of in vivo skin wound experiment in rats further proved that the fibrin gel containing BMSC could promote wound healing and repair, and showed the potential to promote neovascularization at the injured site. The construction method of hydrogel materials proposed in this study has potential application value in the field of regenerative medicine.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1662-1678.e18, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and pancreatic ß cells require receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) to develop and function properly. Degeneration of ICCs is linked to diabetic gastroparesis. The mechanisms linking diabetes and gastroparesis are unclear, but may involve microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing in KIT+ cells. METHODS: We performed miRNA-sequencing analysis from isolated ICCs in diabetic mice and plasma from patients with idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis. miR-10b-5p target genes were identified and validated in mouse and human cell lines. For loss-of-function studies, we used KIT+ cell-restricted mir-10b knockout mice and KIT+ cell depletion mice. For gain-of-function studies, a synthetic miR-10b-5p mimic was injected in multiple diabetic mouse models. We compared the efficacy of miR-10b-5p mimic treatment vs antidiabetic and prokinetic medicines. RESULTS: miR-10b-5p is highly expressed in ICCs from healthy mice, but drastically depleted in ICCs from diabetic mice. A conditional knockout of mir-10b in KIT+ cells or depletion of KIT+ cells in mice leads to degeneration of ß cells and ICCs, resulting in diabetes and gastroparesis. miR-10b-5p targets the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), which negatively regulates KIT expression. The miR-10b-5p mimic or Klf11 small interfering RNAs injected into mir-10b knockout mice, diet-induced diabetic mice, and TALLYHO polygenic diabetic mice rescue the diabetes and gastroparesis phenotype for an extended period of time. Furthermore, the miR-10b-5p mimic is more effective in improving glucose homoeostasis and gastrointestinal motility compared with common antidiabetic and prokinetic medications. CONCLUSIONS: miR-10b-5p is a key regulator in diabetes and gastrointestinal dysmotility via the KLF11-KIT pathway. Restoration of miR-10b-5p may provide therapeutic benefits for these disorders.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 744: 135599, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412237

RESUMO

Morphine addiction is categorized as a chronic recurrent brain disease which always results in mental disturbance, concomitant diseases and early death. Recent evidence suggested that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) played a crucial role in learning, memory and reward, nevertheless, its role in morphine addiction is still unclear. We explored whether SIRT1 in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) is associated with morphine addiction and its potential mechanism. We applied the morphine-induced behavioral sensitization paradigm to investigate whether microinjection of EX527, a SIRT1 inhibitor, into the VLO could affect the rat behaviors. Furthermore, we focused on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), potential downstream targets of SIRT1. Microinjecting EX527 into the VLO significantly suppressed morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. We found that the expression of SIRT1, phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) and BDNF in the VLO were markedly up-regulated by morphine administrations in expression phase. These positive changes were significantly inhibited by microinjecting EX527 into the VLO. These results suggest that SIRT1 in the VLO may mediate morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and the overexpression of SIRT1, p-ERK and BDNF could be the potential mechanism. Taken together, the results of our research provide evidence to support that SIRT1 play an important role in morphine vulnerability and microinjecting EX527 into the VLO could significantly suppress morphine addiction in rats.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/administração & dosagem , Dependência de Morfina/tratamento farmacológico , Dependência de Morfina/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Microinjeções/métodos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Oncol Rep ; 45(2): 427-438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416173

RESUMO

The versatility of IGFBP2, as a secreted protein in cancer cells or a cytoplasmic signaling effector, has been extensively investigated in many malignant cancers. Over the last few decades, IGFBP2, a key member of the IGFBP family, has been identified as an important oncogene in multiple human cancers. In addition, a growing number of studies have shown that IGFBP2 is greatly elevated in serum or tissue in patients with malignant tumors and plays an essential role in several key oncogenic processes, such as tumor cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, epithelial­to­mesenchymal transition, and immunoregulation, which are involved in a variety of signal pathways, usually via an IGF­independent means. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that aberrant overexpression of IGFBP2 may serve as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients, as well as act as a potential therapeutic target for the management of clinical treatment in patients with malignant disease. In the present review, we summarize the current points of view that IGFBP2 performs a role in the initiation and progression of various types of cancer by interacting with several key molecules involved in cancer signaling pathways. We also discuss its potential clinical application value as a diagnostic/prognostic biomarker for patients with malignant tumors.

20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393503

RESUMO

The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are promising therapeutic targets to treat refractory solid tumors; however, inherent resistance remains a major challenge in the clinic. Recently, the emerging role of the oncoprotein B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) in tumorigenesis and stress response has been unveiled. Here, we demonstrate that BCL6 was upregulated upon BET inhibition in KRAS-mutant cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We further found that BRD3, not BRD2 or BRD4, directly interacted with BCL6 and maintained the negative autoregulatory circuit of BCL6. Disrupting this negative autoregulation by BET inhibitors (BETi) resulted in a striking increase in BCL6 transcription, which further activated the mTOR signaling pathway through repression of the tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase 2. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of either BCL6 or mTOR improved the tumor response and enhanced the sensitivity of KRAS-mutant NSCLC to BETi in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Overall, our findings identify a mechanism of BRD3-mediated BCL6 autoregulation and further develop an effective combinatorial strategy to circumvent BETi resistance in KRAS-driven NSCLC.

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