Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 722
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Toxicol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696622

RESUMO

Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) has been linked to endocrine disruption, hepatotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity. However, its immunotoxicity remains largely unknown. In the present study, RAW 264.7 cells, mouse macrophage cell line, were exposed to TBECH. MTT assays showed that TBECH significantly enhanced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The mRNA expression of some proapoptotic genes was upregulated by TBECH. Accordingly, TBECH elevated caspase-3 activity. In addition, TBECH upregualted the mRNA levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it downregulated LPS-stimulated mRNA expression of these cytokines. Moreover, TBECH downregulated the mRNA expression of selected antigen presenting-related genes. Furthermore, TBECH increased reactive oxygen species level, reduced glutathione content and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and upregulated the mRNA expression of selected oxidative stress-related genes. The obtained data demonstrated that TBECH exhibits immunotoxicity in macrophages, and will help to evaluate its health risks.

2.
Acta Biomater ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672583

RESUMO

Protein-templated gold nanoclusters have attracted attention in fluorescence imaging due to their simple synthesis and good biocompatibility. However, limitations still exist such as poor colloid stability and undesirable fluorescence intensity. Here we describe the self-assembly of keratin-templated gold nanoclusters via a simple and mild preparation process, including keratin-templated synthesis of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Keratin), silver ions modification of AuNCs@Keratin (AuNCs-Ag@Keratin), and gadolinium ions-induced aggregation of AuNCs-Ag@Keratin (AuNCs-Ag@Keratin-Gd). It was demonstrated that the AuNCs-Ag@Keratin-Gd obtained an enhanced fluorescence intensity (6.5 times that of AuNCs@Keratin), high colloid stability for more than 4 months, and good biocompatibility. Moreover, the AuNCs-Ag@Keratin-Gd holds promise in multifunctional applications such as near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and redox-responsive drug delivery, extending the applicability of fluorescent gold nanoclusters, especially in biomedical fields. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Assembly-induced fluorescence enhancement has been rarely reported on as it relates to the protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). In this work, self-assembly of protein-templated AuNCs was developed for enhanced fluorescence intensity and multifunctional applications, including bioimaging and responsive drug delivery. A cysteine-rich protein, keratin, was utilized as the template to synthesize AuNCs, which underwent silver ion modification and gadolinium ion-induced aggregation. The silver modification of the keratin-templated AuNCs facilitated the formation of a dense aggregate after gadolinium ion-induced assembly, thus generating an enhanced fluorescence intensity. Such a mechanism was confirmed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analysis. We believe that this work will extend the applicability of the fluorescent gold nanoclusters, especially in biomedical fields, and provided an effective approach for the mechanism analysis of the assembly-induced fluorescence enhancement via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

3.
Lab Invest ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745210

RESUMO

The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in macrophages plays a crucial role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression. However, there is a lack of evidence from large samples of patients to validate a deleterious role for STING in NAFLD. Moreover, sources of STING-expressing cells that are related to NAFLD remain to be definitively characterized. To investigate STING expression and explore its correlation with NAFLD progression in human subjects, our study involved liver samples from 98 NAFLD subjects and 8 controls. STING and p-TBK1 expression in nonparenchymal liver cells was analyzed and correlated with NAFLD pathological features. Numbers of STING+ cells were increased in livers from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients compared with controls, especially in the liver portal tract of NASH patients with fibrosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, numbers of STING+ cells in livers of NASH patients were increased with aggravation of inflammation grade and fibrosis stage (p < 0.05). STING was mainly expressed in macrophages, including monocyte-derived macrophages (CCR2+, S100A9+), Kupffer cells (CD68+) and CD163+ macrophages. Compared with controls, numbers of STING+/CCR2+ and STING+/S100A9+ cells were significantly increased in livers from NASH patients with fibrosis and positively correlated with liver inflammation grade and fibrosis stage (p < 0.05). However, numbers of STING+/CD68+ and STING+/CD163+ cells were significantly increased in livers from NASH patients with advanced fibrosis and correlated only with aggravation of fibrosis stage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared with controls, NASH patients exhibited significantly increased STING+/p-TBK1+ cell numbers. In a coculture system, the amount of p-TBK1 and the mRNAs of IL1ß and IL6 in THP1 macrophages, as well as the amount of α-SMA and the mRNAs of Col1a1, Fn and TGFß1 in LX2 cells were significantly increased upon STING activation in macrophages (p < 0.05). Therefore, increased STING expression in MoMFs appears to be indicative of NAFLD progression, and STING could be a new target for NAFLD therapy.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134727, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold and dry conditions were well-documented as a major determinant of influenza seasonality in temperate countries but the association may not be consistent when the climate in temperate areas is closer to that in sub-tropical areas. We hypothesized latitudes may mediate the association between influenza activity and meteorological factors in 45 Japanese prefectures. METHODS: We used the weekly incidence of influenza-like illness of 45 prefectures from 2000 to 2018 as a proxy for influenza activity in Japan, a temperate country lying off the east coast of Asia. A combination of generalized additive model and distributed lag nonlinear model was adopted to investigate the associations between meteorological factors (average temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, and actual vapour pressure, a proxy for absolute humidity) and the influenza incidence. Kendall's tau b (τ) and Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between latitude and the adjusted relative risk (ARR) of each meteorological factor were also assessed. RESULTS: A higher vapour pressure was significantly associated with a lower influenza risk but the ARR strongly weakened along with a lower latitude (τ = -0.23, p-value = 0.02; rs = -0.33, p-value = 0.03). Lower temperature and lower relatively humidity were significantly associated with higher influenza risks in over 65% and around 40% of the prefectures respectively but the strength and significance of the correlations between their ARRs and latitude were weaker than that from vapour pressure. CONCLUSION: Even though the range of latitudes in Japan is small (26°N-43°N), the relationships between meteorological factors and influenza activity were mediated by the latitude. Our study echoed absolute humidity played a more important role in relating influenza risk, but we on the other hand showed its effect on influenza activity could be hampered in a low-latitude temperate region, which have a warmer climate. These findings thus offer a high-resolution characterization of the role of meteorological factors on influenza seasonality.

5.
Cell Signal ; 66: 109462, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689506

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer affecting people all over the globe. Recent studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) possess the ability to regulate gene expression. Initially, we uncovered increased LINC00355 expressions in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Functionally, our findings demonstrated that LINC00355 silencing suppressed the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that LINC00355 negatively regulated miR-195 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Simultaneously, silencing LINC00355 by shRNA resulted in suppressed proliferation, colony formation and promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via miR-195. Moreover, silencing LINC00355 by shRNA inhibited the cyclin E1 (CCNE1) gene expression via miR-195 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates the novel lncRNA LINC00355 in regulatory network of CCNE1 via miR-195 in lung adenocarcinoma, highlighting LINC00355 as a new target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.

6.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600834

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical trials use the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) system for semiquantitative histological assessment of disease severity. Interobserver variability may hamper histological assessment, and diagnostic consensus is not always achieved. We evaluate a novel second harmonic generation/two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) imaging-based tool to provide an automated quantitative assessment of histological features pertinent to NASH. Images were acquired by SHG/TPEF from 219 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH liver biopsy samples from seven centers in Asia and Europe. These were used to develop and validate qFIBS, a computational algorithm that quantifies key histological features of NASH. qFIBS was developed based on in silico analysis of selected signature parameters for four cardinal histopathological features, that is, fibrosis (qFibrosis), inflammation (qInflammation), hepatocyte ballooning (qBallooning), and steatosis (qSteatosis), treating each as a continuous rather than categorical variable. Automated qFIBS analysis outputs showed strong correlation with each respective component of the NASH CRN scoring (P < 0.001) (qFibrosis [r = 0.776], qInflammation [r = 0.557], qBallooning [r = 0.533], and qSteatosis [r = 0.802]) and high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values (qFibrosis [0.870-0.951; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787-1.000; P < 0.001], qInflammation [0.820-0.838; 95% CI, 0.726-0.933; P < 0.001 ), qBallooning [0.813-0.844; 95% CI, 0.708-0.957; P < 0.001], and qSteatosis [0.939-0.986; 95% CI, 0.867-1.000; P < 0.001]) and was able to distinguish differing grades/stages of histological disease. Performance of qFIBS was best when assessing degree of steatosis and fibrosis but performed less well when distinguishing severe inflammation and higher ballooning grades. Conclusion: qFIBS is an automated tool that accurately quantifies the critical components of NASH histological assessment. It offers a tool that could potentially aid reproducibility and standardization of liver biopsy assessments required for NASH therapeutic clinical trials.

7.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax1608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633019

RESUMO

IL-6/STAT3 signaling is known to initiate the TH17 differentiation program, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms remain minimally explored. Here, we show that Cxxc finger protein 1 (Cxxc1) promoted the generation of TH17 cells as an epigenetic regulator and prevented their differentiation into Treg cells. Mice with a T cell-specific deletion of Cxxc1 were protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and were more susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium infection. Cxxc1 deficiency decreased IL-6Rα expression and impeded IL-6/STAT3 signaling, whereas the overexpression of IL-6Rα could partially reverse the defects in Cxxc1-deficient TH17 cells in vitro and in vivo. Genome-wide occupancy analysis revealed that Cxxc1 bound to Il6rα gene loci by maintaining the appropriate H3K4me3 modification of its promoter. Therefore, these data highlight that Cxxc1 as a key regulator governs the balance between TH17 and Treg cells by controlling the expression of IL-6Rα, which affects IL-6/STAT3 signaling and has an impact on TH17-related autoimmune diseases.

8.
Antivir Ther ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This 5-year follow-up of the CCgenos cross-sectional study aimed to observe real-life outcomes in a cohort of 997 Han Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection and to explore the impacts of HCV genotype, patient characteristics, and treatment status. METHODS: Clinical information and centralized HCV RNA measures were collected every 6/3 months for untreated/treated patients. Overall-disease-progression was defined as ≥1 of: de novo development of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score increased by ≥2 points (if cirrhosis at baseline), progression to decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver transplant, or death. Cox regression assessed risk factors for the time from estimated infection to cirrhosis or HCC. Logistic regression assessed risk factors for incidence rates of cirrhosis and overall-disease-progression. RESULTS: 281 of 514 patients enrolled across China completed 5 years of follow-up. Overall-disease-progression occurred in 36/364 (9.9%) treated patients and 35/148 (23.6%) untreated patients (odds ratio = 0.35; 95% CI 0.21, 0.59; P < 0.0001). Overall-disease-progression occurred in 6/231 (2.6%) patients achieving SVR24 versus 11/82 (13.4%) who did not (P = 0.0002). Cirrhosis development was significantly associated with abnormal AST, age ≥40 years, BMI ≥28 kg/m2, HCV GT1, platelet count <100 × 109/L, and APRI ≥2 (multivariate Cox regression, P < 0.05). HCC was significantly associated with HCV GT1 and platelet count <100 × 109/L (multivariate Cox regression, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Achieving SVR24 significantly reduced the probability of overall-disease-progression but no significant difference was seen for both cirrhosis and HCC during 5 years of follow-up.

9.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626280

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Microbiome analyses of clinical samples with low microbial biomass are challenging because of the very small quantities of microbial DNA relative to the human host, ubiquitous contaminating DNA in sequencing experiments, and the large and rapidly growing microbial reference databases. RESULTS: We present CSMD, a bioinformatics pipeline specifically developed to generate accurate species-level microbiome profiles for clinical samples with low microbial loads. CSMD applies strategies for the maximal elimination of host sequences with minimal loss of microbial signal and effectively detects microorganisms present in the sample with minimal false positives using a stepwise convergent solution. CSMD was benchmarked in a comparative evaluation with other classic tools on previously published well-characterized datasets. It showed higher sensitivity and specificity in host sequence removal and higher specificity in microbial identification, which led to more accurate abundance estimation. All these features are integrated into a free and easy-to-use tool. Additionally, CSMD applied to cell-free plasma DNA showed that microbial diversity within these samples is substantially broader than previously believed. AVAILABILITY: CSMD is freely available at https://github.com/liuyu8721/csmd. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 422, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synonymous mutations do not change amino acids but do sometimes change the tRNAs (anticodons) that decode a particular codon. An isoaccepting codon is a synonymous codon that shares the same tRNA. If a mutated codon could base pair with the same anticodon as the original, the mutation is termed an isoaccepting mutation. An interesting but less-studied type of codon bias is codon co-occurrence bias. There is a trend to cluster the isoaccepting codons in the genome. The proposed advantage of codon co-occurrence bias is that the tRNA released from the ribosome E site could be quickly recharged and subsequently decode the following isoaccepting codons. This advantage would enhance translation efficiency. In plant species, whether there are signals of positive selection on isoaccepting mutations in the codon co-occurred regions has not been studied. RESULTS: We termed polymorphic mutations in coding regions using publicly available RNA-seq data in maize (Zea mays). Next, we classified all synonymous mutations into three categories according to the context, i.e., the relationship between the focal codon and the previous codon, as follows: isoaccepting, nonisoaccepting and nonsynonymous. We observed higher fractions of isoaccepting mutations in the isoaccepting context. If we looked at the minor allele frequency (MAF) spectrum, the isoaccepting mutations have a higher MAF in the isoaccepting context than that in other regions, and accordingly, the nonisoaccepting mutations have a higher MAF in the nonisoaccepting context. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that in regions with codon co-occurrence bias, natural selection maintains this pattern by suppressing the nonisoaccepting mutations. However, if the consecutive codons are nonisoaccepting, mutations tend to switch these codons to become isoaccepting. Our study demonstrates that the codon co-occurrence bias in the maize genome is selectively maintained by natural selection and that the advantage of this trend could potentially be the rapid recharging and reuse of tRNAs to increase translation efficiency.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4681, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615983

RESUMO

Sorafenib is the standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the development of drug resistance is common. By using genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 library screening, we identify phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), the first committed enzyme in the serine synthesis pathway (SSP), as a critical driver for Sorafenib resistance. Sorafenib treatment activates SSP by inducing PHGDH expression. With RNAi knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout models, we show that inactivation of PHGDH paralyzes the SSP and reduce the production of αKG, serine, and NADPH. Concomitantly, inactivation of PHGDH elevates ROS level and induces HCC apoptosis upon Sorafenib treatment. More strikingly, treatment of PHGDH inhibitor NCT-503 works synergistically with Sorafenib to abolish HCC growth in vivo. Similar findings are also obtained in other FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including Regorafenib or Lenvatinib. In summary, our results demonstrate that targeting PHGDH is an effective approach to overcome TKI drug resistance in HCC.

12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5403-5422, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576089

RESUMO

The Chinese Society of Hepatology developed the current guidelines on the management of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis based on the published evidence and the panelists' consensus. The guidelines provided recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) including minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and overt hepatic encephalopathy, emphasizing the importance on screening MHE in patients with end-stage liver diseases. The guidelines emphasized that early identification and timely treatment are the key to improve the prognosis of HE. The principles of treatment include prompt removal of the cause, recovery of acute neuropsychiatric abnormalities to baseline status, primary prevention, and secondary prevention as soon as possible.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626080

RESUMO

Motion-induced artifacts have been a major drawback in bladder cancer imaging. This study is to evaluate the clinical utility of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) acquisition in improving motion-induced artifacts in T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bladder cancer at 3T.Sixteen patient MRI exams were included. Using a Likert scale, 2 radiologists independently scored T2W data without and with PROPELLER in terms of artifact severity and tumor visualization. Statistical analysis was done to assess the image quality improvement by PROPELLER and inter-observer variability.Without PROPELLER, the median scores of artifact severity and tumor visualization were 1.5 and 1.5 for reviewer 1, and 2.0 and 2.0 for reviewer 2. With PROPELLER, the scores increased to 3 and 3.5 for reviewer 1, and 3.5 and 3.5 for reviewer 2. Despite the inter-observer variability (κ scores < 0.2), both reviewers found significant improvement in artifacts and visualization (all P < .001).PROPELLER acquisition significantly improved the image quality of T2W-MRI. These initial findings indicate that this technique should be utilized in clinical MRI of the bladder.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Movimento (Física) , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-time usage of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) limited knowledge regarding histological outcomes and predictive values of noninvasive measurements in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) after sustained virologic response (SVR) with DAA. AIMS: This study aimed to indicate histological changes and assess predictive value of noninvasive measurements for fibrosis in these patients. METHODS: HCV patients who achieved SVR by DAA were identified. Pre- and post-SVR clinical and histological data were collected. RESULTS: Of patients, 83% (33/40), 38% (15/40) and 83% (33/40) achieved inflammation improvement, fibrosis regression and histological improvement, respectively. Liver stiffness measurements (LSM), APRI, and FIB-4 could predict post-SVR fibrosis well without significant differences. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 were 0.78, 0.81, and 0.87 for post-SVR advanced fibrosis (≥ F4) and 0.86, 0.86, and 0.85 for post-SVR cirrhosis (≥ F5), respectively. Pre-SVR LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 values were significantly lower in patients with fibrosis regression (P = 0.003-0.012), while FIB-4 was significantly lower in patients with histological improvement (P = 0.012-0.033). Patients with higher pre-SVR Ishak scores tended to have bigger decline in APRI (P = 0.025) and FIB-4 (P = 0.024) after SVR. CONCLUSIONS: DAA could improve liver inflammation and fibrosis of HCV patients in a short time after SVR. LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 predict fibrosis well even after SVR by DAA. Most of the cutoff values for advanced fibrosis (≥ F4) and cirrhosis (≥ F5) of these noninvasive measurements decreased significantly after SVR, maybe because of the inflammation improvement.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912676, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584686

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is increasing, and liver transplant (LT) provides a potential cure for pediatric patients with unresectable hepatoblastoma; however, the use of LT for hepatoblastoma has not been examined in a modern cohort. Moreover, data are lacking on the association between the type of surgical management received and overall risk of death among pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. Objectives: To examine the receipt of LT among pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma and to assess overall survival of pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma who were treated with chemotherapy after LT or liver resection (LR) using data from a national cancer registry. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data for 443 pediatric patients with histologically confirmed hepatoblastoma who received chemotherapy and surgical therapies, as documented in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute, from 2004 to 2016, with follow-up through December 31, 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with the use of LT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess factors associated with overall survival. Data analysis was performed from April 18, 2019, to July 25, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival. Results: Among 443 patients receiving chemotherapy (mean [SD] age, 1.8 [2.6] years; 167 [37.7%] female), 350 (79%) underwent LR and 93 (21%) underwent LT. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with multiple lesions were more likely to undergo LT than LR (31% vs 13%; P < .001) and that patients with higher stage tumors were more likely to undergo LT than LR (local disease, 20% vs 58%; regional disease, 58% vs 24%; distant disease, 22% vs 18%; P < .001). There was a statistically significant 19% increase in the receipt of LT from 8% in 1998 to 27% 2016 (trend test, P = .02). Overall survival at 10 years was not significantly different for the 2 surgical management strategies (87.2% [95% CI, 78.3%-97.1%] for patients undergoing LT vs 87.8% [95% CI, 83.5%-92.4%] for those undergoing LR; P = .92). The overall risk of death was not significantly different for LT compared with LR (hazard ratio, 0.716; 95% CI, 0.309-1.657; P = .44). Conclusions and Relevance: The use of LT for the management of hepatoblastoma has increased significantly over time. Among pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma receiving chemotherapy, LT was not associated with improved overall survival compared with LR. There was no significant different between treatments with regard to the outcome variable, but this finding cannot be interpreted as indicating equivalence or lack of superiority.

16.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 17(10): 763-773, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578079

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health concern on the rise, prompting unprecedented efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate this epidemic by 2030. Being the country with the largest HCV-infected population in the world, China has been faced with a general lack of awareness for HCV, low treatment uptake and subpar collaborations among healthcare providers and stakeholders. Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiological situations of HCV infection and the challenges in HCV management in China. This review also explores micro-elimination strategies in China, identifying potential sub-populations for concerted efforts in eliminating HCV. As DAAs are increasingly recognized as a more effective alternative to traditional regimens, the cost-effectiveness and budget impacts of bringing more DAAs into the reimbursement lists are also addressed. Several small-scale targeted literature searches were conducted in PubMed for various topics covered in the article, and hand searching was performed to fill any data gaps. More recent data were used wherever possible. Expert opinion: Considering the unique socioeconomical landscape of China, micro-elimination strategies might be more effective and should be targeted at high-risk populations. Varying regional needs in HCV care across the country necessitate decentralized approaches in research and policy-making.

17.
Clin Exp Med ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664538

RESUMO

Value of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (cAg) test has been controversy in patients with low HCV loads for its lower sensitivity. We assessed correlation between HCV-cAg and HCV RNA in serum samples with low viral loads and analyzed the performance of HCV-cAg assay in determining diagnosis and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C patients. Both HCV RNA and HCV-cAg were detected for 2298 serum samples. Correlation analysis was performed between the two tests. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to assess value of HCV-cAg test in determining diagnosis and response outcomes at the different HCV RNA thresholds. The two tests were correlated very well, and moreover, correlation in the low viral load group was higher than that in the high viral load group (r value: 0.901 and 0.517). Positive agreement of HCV-cAg ≥ 3 fmol/L was as high as 97.0% for HCV RNA ≥ 1000 IU/mL, and its negative agreement for HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL was up to 98.9% in all samples. Area under ROCs ranged from 0.939 to 0.992, regardless of HCV RNA thresholds. When lower limit of detection of HCV RNA was 15, 100 or 1000 IU/mL, positive predictive value of HCV-cAg was 96.8%, 98.8% or 92.4%, and its negative predictive value was 87.0%, 89.9% or 98.3%, respectively, on the basis of different cutoff values. High-sensitivity HCV-cAg detection may likely replace HCV RNA to confirm the existence of HCV and to guide the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

18.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545206

RESUMO

TBBPA is one of the main brominated flame retardants and is ubiquitous in the environment. TBBPA can directly encounter immune cells via the bloodstream, posing potential immunotoxicity. To understand the immunomodulating effect of TBBPA on macrophages, the murine macrophages, RAW 264.7, were exposed to TBBPA at environmentally relevant concentrations (1-100 nM). The results showed that TBBPA at the selected concentrations did not alter cell viability of RAW 264.7 cells with or without LPS stimulation. TBBPA upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, whereas it attenuated the LPS-stimulated expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. In addition, TBBPA reduced the mRNA levels of antigen-presenting-related genes, including H2-K2, H2-Aa, Cd80, and Cd86. Moreover, TBBPA impaired the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Furthermore, exposure to TBBPA significantly elevated the protein levels of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65), while it reduced LPS-stimulated p-p65 protein levels. DCFH-DA staining assays showed that TBBPA caused a slight but significant elevation in reactive oxygen species levels. The data obtained in the present study demonstrated that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBBPA posed immunotoxicity in macrophages and unveiled a potential health risk of TBBPA.

19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1950, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475011

RESUMO

CD4+ T cell mediated uveitis is conventionally treated with systemic immunosuppressive agents, including corticosteroids and biologics targeting key inflammatory cytokines. However, their long-term utility is limited due to various side effects. Here, we investigated whether DNA methylation inhibitor zebularine can target CD4+ T cells and control intraocular inflammation. Our results showed that zebularine restrained the expression of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 in both human and murine CD4+ T cells in vitro. Importantly, it also significantly alleviated intraocular inflammation and retinal tissue damage in the murine experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model in vivo, suggesting that the DNA methylation inhibitor zebularine is a candidate new therapeutic agent for uveitis.

20.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520460

RESUMO

A simple, pangenotypic and effective treatment regimen for patients with a broad range of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remains an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase 2, randomized, open study involving untreated patients with chronic HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections. Patients without cirrhosis were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive capsules of the NS5A inhibitor coblopasvir at a dose of 30 or 60 mg plus tablets of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (400 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients with cirrhosis received 60 mg coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). Of the 110 patients who were enrolled in the study, 59 were male, 62.7% had HCV genotype 1, 24.5% had genotype 2, 6.4% had genotype 3, and 6.4% had genotype 6. The average age was 45.5 years. A total of 10.9% of patients had compensated cirrhosis. The rate of SVR12 was 98.2% in the intention-to-treat (ITT). One genotype 6 patient with cirrhosis experienced virologic relapse. One genotype 2 patient without cirrhosis failed to complete the follow-up and quit the study. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 2 patients and were not related to coblopasvir and sofosbuvir. Most adverse events (AEs) did not require treatment. Coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir taken once daily for 12 weeks provided high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and had a good safety profile among patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections, including those with compensated cirrhosis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA