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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(2): 270-280, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859774

RESUMO

A major feature of neurodegeneration is disruption of central nervous system homeostasis, during which microglia play diverse roles. In the central nervous system, microglia serve as the first line of immune defense and function in synapse pruning, injury repair, homeostasis maintenance, and regulation of brain development through scavenging and phagocytosis. Under pathological conditions or various stimulations, microglia proliferate, aggregate, and undergo a variety of changes in cell morphology, immunophenotype, and function. This review presents the features of microglia, especially their diversity and ability to change dynamically, and reinterprets their role as sensors for multiple stimulations and as effectors for brain aging and neurodegeneration. This review also summarizes some therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases that target microglia.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113096, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693116

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. RESULTS: The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15-6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07-9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. CONCLUSION: Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt B): 2314-2325, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132124

RESUMO

Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) lyases play important roles in structural and functional studies of CS/DS. In this study, a novel CS/DS lyase (enCSase) was identified from the genome of the marine bacterium Photobacterium sp. QA16. This enzyme is easily heterologously expressed and purified as highly active form against various CS, DS and hyaluronic acid (HA). Under the optimal conditions, the specific activities of this enzyme towards CSA, CSC, CSD, CSE, DS and HA were 373, 474, 171, 172, 141 and 97 U/mg of proteins, respectively. As an endolytic enzyme, enCSase degrades HA to unsaturated hexa- and tetrasaccharides but CS/DS to unsaturated tetra- and disaccharides as the final products. Sequencing analysis showed that the structures of tetrasaccharides in the final products of CS variants were not unique but were highly variable, indicating the randomness of substrate degradation by this enzyme. Further studies showed that the smallest substrate of enCSase was octasaccharide for HA but hexasaccharide for CS/DS, which could explain why this enzyme cannot degrade HA hexa- and tetrasaccharides and CS/DS tetrasaccharides further. It is believed that enCSase may be a very useful tool for structural and functional studies and related applications of CS/DS and HA.

4.
Plant J ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217069

RESUMO

Plants experiencing abiotic stress react by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), compounds that, if allowed to accumulate excessively, repress plant growth and development. Anthocyanins induced by abiotic stress are strong antioxidants that neutralise ROS, whereas their over-accumulation retards plant growth. Although the mechanism of anthocyanin synthesis has been revealed, how plants balance anthocyanin synthesis under abiotic stress to maintain ROS homeostasis is unknown. Here, ROS-related proteins, SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE), were analysed in maize, and all six SRO1 genes were inducible by a variety of abiotic stress agents. The constitutive expression of one of these genes ZmSRO1e, in maize as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana, increased the sensitivity of the plant to abiotic stress, while repressing anthocyanin biosynthesis and ROS scavenging activity. Loss-of-function mutation of ZmSRO1e enhanced ROS tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation. We showed that ZmSRO1e competed with ZmR1 (a core bHLH subunit of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcriptional activation complex) for binding with ZmPL1 (a core MYB subunit of the complex). Thus, during the constitutive expression of ZmSRO1e, formation of the complex was compromised, leading to the repression of genes, such as ZmA4 (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), associated with anthocyanin synthesis. Overall, the results have revealed a mechanism that allows the products of maize SRO1e to participate in the abiotic stress response.

5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(40): 6195-6206, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177793

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), which is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract, account for 1%-3% of gastrointestinal tumors. Primary stromal tumors outside the gastrointestinal tract are collectively referred to as extra GISTs, and stromal tumors in different regions often have different prognoses. A primary hepatic GIST is a rare tumor with an unknown origin, which may be related to interstitial Cajal-like cells. Although primary hepatic GIST has certain characteristics on imaging, it lacks specific symptoms and signs; thus, the final diagnosis depends on pathological and genetic evidence. This review summarizes all cases of primary hepatic GIST described in the literature and comprehensively analyzes the detailed clinical data of all patients. In terms of treatment, local resection alone or with adjuvant therapy was the prioritized choice to obtain better disease-free survival and longer survival time. For advanced unresectable cases, imatinib mesylate was applied as the first-line chemotherapy agent. Moreover, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave ablation were shown to improve overall survival for selected patients. Liver transplantation was a final treatment option after resistance to chemotherapy developed.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(40): 6295-6303, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by impaired mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Due to poor therapeutic effect of current conventional treatments, progressive psychomotor regression and neurological impairment usually contribute to early death in the first decade of life. Liver transplantation (LT) is emerging as a novel therapeutic option for EE; however, worldwide experience is still limited. CASE SUMMARY: An 18-mo-old patient with the diagnosis of EE received a living donor liver transplant in our institution, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in Asian-Pacific countries. During 20 mo of follow-up, the longitudinal metabolic evaluations revealed a wild fluctuation in urinary EMA levels, still far beyond the normal range. Urinary 2-methylsuccinic acid levels gradually restored to normal, whereas the concentrations of urinary isobutyrylglycine and plasma C4- and C5-acylcarnitines fluctuated markedly and still remained above the reference limits. Only mild amelioration of petechiae and ecchymosis was observed, and no dramatic reversion of chronic mucoid diarrhea and orthostatic acrocyanosis occurred. Although brain magnetic resonance imaging suggested a certain improvement in basal ganglia lesions, the patient still presented developmental delay and neurologic disability. CONCLUSION: LT may bring about a partial but not complete cure to EE. Given its definite role in defending against the devastating natural progression of EE, LT should still be considered for patients with EE in the absence of other superior therapeutic options. Early establishment of diagnosis and initiation of conventional treatment pre-transplant, timely LT, and continuous administration of metabolism-correcting medications post-transplant may be helpful in minimizing the neurologic impairment and maximizing the therapeutic value of LT in EE.

7.
Complement Ther Med ; 54: 102541, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence for the effect of remote ischemic postconditioning(RIpostC) on autonomic function in patients with acute ischemic stroke(AIS) is lacking and the neural mechanism underlying the protection of RIpostC remains speculative. This trial was aimed to evaluated the efficiency of RIpostC on autonomic function in AIS patients. DESIGN: One hundred and six AIS patients were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients in intervention group (n = 57) received 4 cycles of alternating inflation (cuff inflation to 200 mmHg) and deflation for 5 min on healthy upper arm once a day for 30 days. The control group underwent a sham inflation and deflation cycles. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV). RESULTS: All HRV parameters except for the ratio of low frequency to high frequency (P = 0.101) increased significantly with time (P < 0.001) in the two groups. The value of standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals(SDNN) and high frequency at day7 and day30 and the value of the percent of difference between adjacent normal R-R intervals (pNN50) at day 30 in RIpostC group was significantly higher than that of the sham-RIpostC group(P < 0.05). A significant time-by-group interaction was observed in SDNN、pNN50、and high frequency over time between two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 30-day RIpostC could improve autonomic function in AIS patients through the enhancement of the total autonomic nerve activity and vagus nerve activity. The mechanism of RIpostC mediating autonomic function needs to be further investigated.

8.
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184249

RESUMO

Herein, we found that serum concentration of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) was significantly reduced in children with mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) infection. To study the roles of SOD3 in inflammatory regulation of MP infection, human A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells were stimulated with 107 CCU/ml of MP to build MP infection in vitro. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the inflammatory response of A549 cells. Levofloxacin (LVFX) was used as an anti-inflammatory drug while recombinant TNF-α was used as an inflammatory promotor in MP-infected cells. Transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was assessed by detecting protein levels of nuclear NF-κB and cytoplasm NF-κB using Western blot analysis. Our data suggested that the expression of SOD3 mRNA and protein, as well as content of SOD3 in cultured supernatant, were time-dependently inhibited in MP-infected A549 cells. However, lentiviruses-mediated SOD3 overexpression alleviated inflammatory response of MP-infected A549 cells, and prevented the unclear translocation of NF-κB, as evidenced by obviously reducing the production of IL-8 and TNF-α in cell cultured supernatant, as well as decreasing nuclear NF-κB while increasing cytoplasm NF-κB. Inspiringly, SOD3 overexpression induced anti-inflammatory effect and the inactivation of NF-κB was similar to that of 2 lg/ml of LVFX, but reversed by additional TNF-α treatment. Therefore, we can conclude that transcriptional activity of NF-jB was the underlying mechanism, by which SOD3 regulated inflammatory response in MP infection in vitro.

9.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study differentiated various living arrangements (ie living with two biological parents, living with one biological parent, living with friends, living in a dorm, and other) and examined its relationship with health-related lifestyles as well as the moderating role of gender differences. Methods: This study used data from the Taiwan Youth Project, a large-scale, longitudinal survey of Taiwanese youths. The data of 2313 sophomore college students who provided full information were analyzed. Regressions were used to examine the association between living arrangements and cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and physical exercise. Results: Compared to students living with two parents, students living with one parent reported a higher frequency of current cigarette smoking and alcohol use, and students living with friends/alone reported a higher frequency of current alcohol use. The associations between living arrangements and health-related lifestyle, including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and exercise, varied by gender among college students. Conclusions: Both living in a dorm and living with two biological parents increase healthy lifestyles among Taiwanese college students.

11.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196963

RESUMO

Chemokines and receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. Here, we report that spinal nerve ligation (SNL) increased CXCR3 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and intra-DRG injection of Cxcr3 shRNA attenuated the SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. SNL also increased the mRNA levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, whereas only CXCL10 increased the number of action potentials (APs) in DRG neurons. Furthermore, in Cxcr3-/- mice, CXCL10 did not increase the number of APs, and the SNL-induced increase of the numbers of APs in DRG neurons was reduced. Finally, CXCL10 induced the activation of p38 and ERK in ND7-23 neuronal cells and DRG neurons. Pretreatment of DRG neurons with the P38 inhibitor SB203580 decreased the number of APs induced by CXCL10. Our data indicate that CXCR3, activated by CXCL10, mediates p38 and ERK activation in DRG neurons and enhances neuronal excitability, which contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the associations of sleep, physical activity and sedentary behaviour with positive mental health (PMH) in the multi-ethnic population of Singapore. METHODS: The Singapore Health 2 study is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey among residents aged 18-79 years. A PMH instrument was administered to 1925 participants to obtain total PMH and six sub-component scores. Self-rated sleep duration, sleep quality, sedentary behaviour and physical activity were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40.1 (SD 14.3) years. Sleep duration (≥8 h/night: ß = 0.17,95% CI: 0.02-0.32; 7-< 8 h/night: ß = 0.17,95% CI: 0.03-0.30 versus <6 h/night, p = 0.002), sleep quality (very good: ß = 0.45,95% CI: 0.29-0.60; fairly good: ß = 0.20,95% CI: 0.06-0.33 versus very/fairly bad; ptrend < 0.001) and physical activity (high: ß = 0.19,95% CI: 0.05-0.32; moderate: ß = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.27 versus low; ptrend < 0.001) were directly associated with total PMH. Sedentary behaviour was not significantly associated with PMH. Sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity were directly associated with the PMH sub-components 'emotional support' and 'personal growth and autonomy'. CONCLUSIONS: Duration and quality of sleep and physical activity were directly associated with PMH in an urban Asian population. These findings support incorporating sleep and physical activity interventions to improve population mental health.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1631, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have documented factors that are associated with substance use behaviors among college-aged individuals. However, relatively few studies have considered the heterogeneity of the college experience by field of study (i.e., college major) and how that educational context might affect students' health behaviors differently. Drawing from theories and prior research, this study investigates whether college majors are associated with different substance use behaviors, both during college and upon graduation. METHODS: The study analyzed longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (N = 1031), specifically data on individuals who obtained a bachelor's degree, to examine the associations between college fields of study and trajectories of three substance use behaviors: smoking, heavy alcohol use, and marijuana use. RESULTS: The results indicate that social science and business majors were associated with more substance use behaviors than arts and humanities and STEM majors. However, social science majors were associated with a faster decrease in substance use behaviors over time. Importantly, the differences we found in mean levels of substance use behaviors and trajectories were not explained by demographic characteristics, family SES background, childhood health conditions, and employment experience. Further analysis that examined college major and each substance use behavior individually suggests that the associations were stronger for heavy alcohol use and marijuana use. Moreover, we found the associations were more pronounced in men than women. CONCLUSIONS: The study finds that not all college majors show the same level of engagement in substance use behaviors over time, and that the associations also vary by (1) the specific substance use behavior examined and (2) by gender. These findings suggest it is important to consider that the different learning and educational contexts that college majors provide may also be more or less supportive of certain health behaviors, such as substance use. Practical implications are discussed.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 5133-5142, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124257

RESUMO

There are many sites contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or combined PAHs-heavy metal in China, which pose serious health-risks to local people and environments. Dissipative quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) was applied to investigate the adsorption of naphthalene to two organic-modified smectite clays (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide modified montmorillonite, CTAB-SMF, and 3-mercapto propyl trimethoxy silane modified montmorillonite, TMSP-SMF) and original SMF, together with batch adsorption experiments. The results, based on in-situ online QCM-D experiments, showed that the adsorption sites of CTAB-SMF on naphthalene were mainly CTAB grouped between the interlayers of clay particles, while TMSP-SMF's were TMSP grouped on the surfaces of clay particles. The isotherms of naphthalene adsorption to CTAB-SMF fitted well (R2>0.92) with the Freundlich model, while the adsorption isotherms to TMSP-SMF and SMF fitted well with the Langmuir model (R2>0.96). The parameters of CTAB-SMF (n>1) indicated that the adsorption sites of naphthalene to CTAB-SMF were heterogeneous and the adsorption increases at higher equilibrium concentration. The adsorption capacity qmax of TMSP-SMF is significantly greater than that of SMF (P<0.05). Based on the calculation, the value of ΔHobs for these three clays (CTAB-SMF, TMSP-SMF, and SMF) were within the range of -30 to -10 kJ·mol-1, which indicated that it was a spontaneous exothermic physical process. The solution ionic strength could decrease the adsorption of naphthalene to SMF, but had limited effects on naphthalene adsorption to the two organo-modified clay particles. The existence of Cu2+ in the solution could enhance naphthalene adsorption to the three particles, and naphthalene could improve Cu2+ adsorption to these two modified clays. The results of this study show that QCM-D is a useful technique to indicate the changes of clay film during the process of adsorption, and the two organo-modified clay particles have the potential to be remediation materials to remediate PAHs or PAHs-heavy metal-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adsorção , China , Humanos , Naftalenos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22186, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019393

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the relationship between the number of fusion level and the risk of screw loosening by using cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws in patients with lumbar degenerative disease.We retrospectively reviewed the serial plain radiograph images of lumbar degenerative disease patients who had undergone posterior fixation and fusion surgery with CBT from 2014. All included patients should have been followed-up with computed tomography scan or plain radiograph for at least 6 months after operation. We individually evaluated the prevalence of screw loosening according to each vertebral level. We also determined whether the number of screw fixation affected the prevalence of screw loosening and whether S1 fixation increased the risk of screw loosening.The screw-loosening rates were high at the S1 level. Moreover, although fixation involved to S1, the loosening rates evidently increased (Fisher exact test, P = .002). The screw-loosening rate was 6.56% in 2 level fusion. However, it increased with the number of fusion levels (3 level: 25.00%, 4 level: 51.16%, and 5 level: 62.50%). To investigate if the number of fusion level affected the S1 screw loosening, we classified the cohort of patients into either involving S1 (S1+ group) or not (S1- group) according to different fusion levels (). The screw loosening between 2 group in 2 (5.56% vs 6.98%) and 3 fusion level (26.32% vs 22.73%) did not exhibit any significant difference. Interestingly, significantly high screw loosening was found in 4 fusion level (60.00% vs 15.38%), indicating that the higher fusion level (4 level) can directly increase the risk of S1 screw loosening.Our data confirmed that the screw-loosening rate increases rate when long segment CBT fixation involves to S1. Therefore, in case of long-segment fixation by using CBT screw, surgeons should be aware of the fusion level of S1.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Falha de Equipamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091892

RESUMO

The conventional preparation of SnNb2O6 invariably involves complex and laborious steps, which unavoidably introduces defect into the host lattice and also increases the reaction period and costs, resulting in undesired recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. For the first time in this work, we manage to synthesize single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) SnNb2O6 nanosheets with ultrathin structure through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Comparative studies were explored to analyze the structure and phase evolution during the preparation course. The synthesized 2D structure demonstrated a narrower band gap of 2.09 eV and specific surface area of 76.1 m2 g-1, which exhibited significantly extended visible-light-responsive range and larger surface area by contrast with the state-of-the-art reports, resulting in excellent visible-light-driven photoactivity towards H2 production and water purification as well. Additionally, further enhanced photocatalytic performance was achieved by the incorporation of Pt as co-catalyst to indirectly indicate the advantage of the SnNb2O6 nanosheets in this method over other reported counterparts. It was found that, a very small amount of Pt loaded on the surface of SnNb2O6 nanosheets would contribute to remarkably higher activity than pure SnNb2O6 nanosheets and exhibit superior stability as well. Moreover, a deep insight into the underlying photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. This work sheds light on a new facile way to fabricate high-performance photocatalytic materials and provided new opportunities for solar-energy conversion.

17.
AMB Express ; 10(1): 189, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095335

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) is a soil-borne disease that seriously limits watermelon production. In the present study, Trichoderma asperellum (T. asperellum) M45a was shown to be an effective biocontrol agent against FW. In a pot experiment, the application of 105 cfu/g of T. asperellum M45a granules had an improved control effect on FW during the blooming period (up to 67.44%) in soils subjected to five years of continuous cropping with watermelon, while the average length of watermelon vines was also significantly improved (P < 0.05). Additionally, the acid phosphatase (ACP), cellulase (CL), catalase (CAT), and sucrase (SC) activities in the M45a-inoculation group were significantly higher than those in the control (CK) group, and transformation of the soil nutrients (total N, NO3-N, and available P) was significantly increased. Moreover, T. asperellum M45a inoculation reduced fungal diversity, increased bacterial diversity and especially enhanced the relative abundance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as Trichoderma, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Rhodanobacter. Through functional prediction, the relative abundance of ectomycorrhiza, endophytes, animal pathotrophs, and saprotrophs in the fungal community was determined to be significantly lower than that observed in the M45a-treated soil. Correlation analysis revealed that Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Trichoderma had the most differences in terms of microorganism abundance, and these differences were positively correlated with ACP, CL, CAT, and SC. These findings provide guidance for the use of fungicides to achieve microecological control of FW in continuously cropped watermelon plots.

18.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115829

RESUMO

We aim to understand, from acquired genetic alterations in tumors, why African American (AA) men are more likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer. By analyzing somatic mutations in 39 genes using deeper next-generation sequencing with an average depth of 2,522 reads for tumor DNA and genome-wide DNA copy-number alterations (CNA) in prostate cancer in a total of 171 AA/black men and comparing with those in 860 European American (EA)/white men, we here present several novel findings. First, >35% of AA men harbor damaging mutations in APC, ATM, BRCA2, KDM6A, KMT2C, KMT2D, MED12, ZFHX3, and ZMYM3, each with >1% of mutated copies. Second, among genes with >10% of mutated copies in tumor cells, ZMYM3 is the most frequently mutated gene in AA prostate cancer. In a patient's tumor with >96% frameshift mutations of ZMYM3, we find allelic imbalances in 10 chromosomes, including losses of five and gains of another four chromosomes, suggesting its role in maintaining genomic integrity. Third, when compared to prostate cancer in EA/white men, a higher frequency of CNAs of MYC, THADA, NEIL3, LRP1B, BUB1B, MAP3K7, BNIP3L and RB1, and a lower frequency of deletions of RYBP, TP53, and TMPRSS2-ERG are observed in AA/black men. Finally, for the above genes with higher frequency of CNAs in AA than in EA, deletion of MAP3K7, BNIP3L, NEIL3 or RB1, or gain of MYC significantly associates with both higher Gleason grade and advanced pathologic stage in AA/black men. Deletion of THADA associates with advanced pathologic stage only. IMPLICATIONS: A higher frequency of damaging mutation in ZMYM3 causing genomic instability along with higher frequency of altered genomic regions including deletions of MAP3K7, BNIP3L, RB1, and NEIL3, and gain of MYC appear to be distinct somatically acquired genetic alterations that may contribute to more aggressive prostate cancer in AA/black men.

19.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118393

RESUMO

Three undescribed prenylated benzoic acid derivatives berberisides A-C (1-3) and a new clerodane glycoside berberiside D (4) were isolated from Berberis tsarica Aherndt. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all isolates were studied against lung carcinoma A549, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Among them, compounds 1 and 4 exhibited anti-proliferative effects against three tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 28.97 ± 2.18 to 35.83 ± 0.72 µM.

20.
Cell Res ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106598

RESUMO

Defining the precise regionalization of specified definitive endoderm progenitors is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the generation and regeneration of respiratory and digestive organs, yet the patterning of endoderm progenitors remains unresolved, particularly in humans. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on endoderm cells during the early somitogenesis stages in mice and humans. We developed molecular criteria to define four major endoderm regions (foregut, lip of anterior intestinal portal, midgut, and hindgut) and their developmental pathways. We identified the cell subpopulations in each region and their spatial distributions and characterized key molecular features along the body axes. Dorsal and ventral pancreatic progenitors appear to originate from the midgut population and follow distinct pathways to develop into an identical cell type. Finally, we described the generally conserved endoderm patterning in humans and clear differences in dorsal cell distribution between species. Our study comprehensively defines single-cell endoderm patterning and provides novel insights into the spatiotemporal process that drives establishment of early endoderm domains.

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